Bariatrics

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Bariatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the causes, prevention, and treatment of obesity.[citation needed] The term bariatrics was created around 1965,[1] from the Greek root bar- ("weight," as in barometer), suffix -iatr ("treatment," as in pediatrics), and suffix -ic ("pertaining to"). The field encompasses dieting, exercise and behavioral therapy approaches to weight loss, as well as pharmacotherapy and surgery. The term is also used in the medical field as somewhat of a euphemism to refer to people of larger sizes without regards to their participation in any treatment specific to weight loss, such as medical supply catalogs featuring larger hospital gowns and hospital beds referred to as "bariatric."

Overweight and obesity are rising medical problems.[2][3] There are many detrimental health effects of obesity:[4][5] Individuals with a BMI (Body Mass Index) exceeding a healthy range have a much greater risk of medical issues.[6] These include heart disease, diabetes mellitus, many types of cancer, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, and chronic musculoskeletal problems. There is also a focus on the correlation between obesity and mortality.[7]

Overweight and obese people, including children, may find it difficult to lose weight on their own.[8] It is common for dieters to have tried fad diets only to find that they gain weight, or return to their original weight, after ceasing the diet.[9]

Although diet, exercise, behavior therapy and anti-obesity drugs are first-line treatment,[10] medical therapy for severe obesity has limited short-term success and very poor long-term success.[11] Weight loss surgery generally results in greater weight loss than conventional treatment, and leads to improvements in quality of life and obesity related diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus.[12] The combination of approaches used may be tailored to each patient.[13] Bariatric treatments in youth must be considered with great caution and with other conditions that may not have to be considered in adults.

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Dictionary.com, based on Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Random House (2006): [1] Retrieved 15 April 2006
  2. ^ Reynolds K, He J. Epidemiology of the metabolic syndrome.Am J Med Sci 2005;330:273-9. PMID 16355011
  3. ^ Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, et al. 2004. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999–2002. JAMA ; 291: 2847–50. PMID 15199035
  4. ^ WHO factsheet on obesity
  5. ^ Bray, George A. (2004), "Medical Consequences of Obesity", Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 89 (6): 2583–2589, doi:10.1210/jc.2004-0535, PMID 15181027 
  6. ^ Gregg, Edward W.; Cheng, Yiling J.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Imperatore, Ciuseppina; Williams, Desmond E.; Flegal, Katherine M.; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Williamson, David F. (2005), "Secular Trends in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors According to Body Mass Index in U.S. Adults", Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey 60 (10): 660–661, doi:10.1097/01.ogx.0000180862.46088.0d 
  7. ^ Flegal KM, Graubard BI, Williamson DF, Gail MH. Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. JAMA 2005; 293: 1861-7.
  8. ^ Bagozzi, Richard P.; Moore, David J.; Leone, Luigi (2004), "Self-Control and the Self-Regulation of Dieting Decisions: the Role of Prefactual Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Resistance to Temptation", Basic and Applied Social Psychology 26 (2–3): 199–213, doi:10.1207/s15324834basp2602&3_7 
  9. ^ Ikeda, J.; Hayes, D; Satter, E; Parham, ES; Kratina, K; Woolsey, M; Lowey, M; Tribole, E (1999), "A Commentary on the New Obesity Guidelines from NIH", Journal of the American Dietetic Association 99 (8): 918, doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(99)00218-7, PMID 10450304 
  10. ^ Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults, The Evidence Report. NIH Publication NO. 98-4083, september 1998. NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in cooperation with The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney diseases.
  11. ^ Gastrointestinal surgery for severe obesity: National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55(S2):615S-619S. PMID 1733140
  12. ^ Colquitt J, Clegg A, Sidhu M, Royle P. Surgery for morbid obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 2: CD003641. PMID 12804481
  13. ^ Gerwecka, C.A.; Krenkela, J.; Molinia, M.; Frattingera, S.; Plodkowskia, R.; Jeora, S. St (2007), "Tailoring Information to the Needs of the Individual Patient Sustains Interest in the Weight Loss Program and Increases Compliance: A Pilot Project", Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107 (8): A83, doi:10.1016/j.jada.2007.05.212 

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