Barisan Mountains

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Geological map of Bukit Barisan.

The Bukit Barisan or the Barisan Mountains are a mountain range on the western side of Sumatra, Indonesia, covering nearly 1,700 km (1,050 mi) from the north to the south of the island. The Bukit Barisan range consists primarily of volcanoes shrouded in dense jungle cover, including Sumatran tropical pine forests on the higher slopes.[1] The highest peak of the range is Mount Kerinci at 3,800 metres (12,467 ft).[2] The Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park is situated towards the southern end of the range.

The name Bukit Barisan actually means "row of hills" or "hills that make a row" in Indonesian and Malay, for the range stretches end to end along the island of Sumatra.

There are 35 active volcanoes in Bukit Barisan. The largest volcano is the supervolcano Toba within the 100 km (62 miles) × 30 km (19 miles) Lake Toba, which was created after a caldera collapse (est. in 74,000 Before Present).[3] The eruption is estimated to have been at level eight on the VEI scale, the largest possible for a volcanic eruption. The highest peak of the mountain range is Mount Kerinci with an elevation of 3,800 m (12,467 ft).

List of volcanoes[edit]

The following list is sourced from the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program.[4]

Name Shape Elevation Last eruption (VEI) Geolocation
Weh stratovolcano 7002617000000000000617 metres (2,024 ft) Pleistocene 5°49′N 95°17′E / 5.82°N 95.28°E / 5.82; 95.28
Seulawah Agam stratovolcano 70031810000000000001,810 metres (5,940 ft) 1839 (2) 5°26′53″N 95°39′29″E / 5.448°N 95.658°E / 5.448; 95.658
Peuet Sague complex volcano 70032801000000000002,801 metres (9,190 ft) 25 December 2000 (2) 4°54′50″N 96°19′44″E / 4.914°N 96.329°E / 4.914; 96.329
Geureudong stratovolcano 70032885000000000002,885 metres (9,465 ft) 1937 4°48′47″N 96°49′12″E / 4.813°N 96.82°E / 4.813; 96.82
Kembar shield volcano 70032245000000000002,245 metres (7,365 ft) Pleistocene 3°51′00″N 97°39′50″E / 3.850°N 97.664°E / 3.850; 97.664
Sibayak stratovolcano 70032212000000000002,212 metres (7,257 ft) 1881 3°14′N 98°31′E / 3.23°N 98.52°E / 3.23; 98.52
Sinabung stratovolcano 70032460000000000002,460 metres (8,070 ft) 7 September 2010 3°10′12″N 98°23′31″E / 3.17°N 98.392°E / 3.17; 98.392
Toba supervolcano 70032157000000000002,157 metres (7,077 ft) unknown 2°35′N 98°50′E / 2.58°N 98.83°E / 2.58; 98.83
Helatoba-Tarutung fumarole field 70031100000000000001,100 metres (3,600 ft) Pleistocene 2°02′N 98°56′E / 2.03°N 98.93°E / 2.03; 98.93
Imun unknown 70031505000000000001,505 metres (4,938 ft) unknown 2°09′29″N 98°55′48″E / 2.158°N 98.93°E / 2.158; 98.93
Sibualbuali stratovolcano 70031819000000000001,819 metres (5,968 ft) unknown 1°33′22″N 99°15′18″E / 1.556°N 99.255°E / 1.556; 99.255
Lubukraya stratovolcano 70031862000000000001,862 metres (6,109 ft) unknown 1°28′41″N 99°12′32″E / 1.478°N 99.209°E / 1.478; 99.209
Sorikmarapi stratovolcano 70032145000000000002,145 metres (7,037 ft) 1986 (1) 0°41′10″N 99°32′20″E / 0.686°N 99.539°E / 0.686; 99.539
Talakmau complex volcano 70032919000000000002,919 metres (9,577 ft) unknown 0°04′44″N 99°58′48″E / 0.079°N 99.98°E / 0.079; 99.98
Sarik-Gajah volcanic cone unknown unknown 0°00′29″N 100°12′00″E / 0.008°N 100.20°E / 0.008; 100.20
Marapi complex volcano 70032891000000000002,891 metres (9,485 ft) 5 August 2004 (2) 0°22′52″S 100°28′23″E / 0.381°S 100.473°E / -0.381; 100.473
Tandikat stratovolcano 70032438000000000002,438 metres (7,999 ft) 1924 (1) 0°25′59″S 100°19′01″E / 0.433°S 100.317°E / -0.433; 100.317
Talang stratovolcano 70032597000000000002,597 metres (8,520 ft) 12 April 2005 (2) 0°58′41″S 100°40′44″E / 0.978°S 100.679°E / -0.978; 100.679
Kerinci stratovolcano 70033800000000000003,800 metres (12,500 ft) 22 June 2004 (2) 1°41′49″S 101°15′50″E / 1.697°S 101.264°E / -1.697; 101.264
Hutapanjang stratovolcano 70032021000000000002,021 metres (6,631 ft) unknown 2°20′S 101°36′E / 2.33°S 101.60°E / -2.33; 101.60
Sumbing stratovolcano 70032507000000000002,507 metres (8,225 ft) 23 May 1921 (2) 2°24′50″S 101°43′41″E / 2.414°S 101.728°E / -2.414; 101.728
Kunyit stratovolcano 70032151000000000002,151 metres (7,057 ft) unknown 2°35′31″S 101°37′48″E / 2.592°S 101.63°E / -2.592; 101.63
Pendan unknown unknown unknown 2°49′S 102°01′E / 2.82°S 102.02°E / -2.82; 102.02
Belirang-Beriti compound 70031958000000000001,958 metres (6,424 ft) unknown 2°49′S 102°11′E / 2.82°S 102.18°E / -2.82; 102.18
Bukit Daun stratovolcano 70032467000000000002,467 metres (8,094 ft) unknown 3°23′S 102°22′E / 3.38°S 102.37°E / -3.38; 102.37
Kaba stratovolcano 70031952000000000001,952 metres (6,404 ft) 22 August 2000 (1) 3°31′S 102°37′E / 3.52°S 102.62°E / -3.52; 102.62
Dempo stratovolcano 70033173000000000003,173 metres (10,410 ft) October 1994 (1) 4°02′S 103°08′E / 4.03°S 103.13°E / -4.03; 103.13
Patah unknown 70032817000000000002,817 metres (9,242 ft) unknown 4°16′S 103°18′E / 4.27°S 103.30°E / -4.27; 103.30
Bukit Lumut Balai stratovolcano 70032055000000000002,055 metres (6,742 ft) unknown 4°14′S 103°37′E / 4.23°S 103.62°E / -4.23; 103.62
Besar stratovolcano 70031899000000000001,899 metres (6,230 ft) April 1940 (1) 4°26′S 103°40′E / 4.43°S 103.67°E / -4.43; 103.67
Ranau caldera 70031881000000000001,881 metres (6,171 ft) unknown 4°50′S 103°55′E / 4.83°S 103.92°E / -4.83; 103.92
Sekincau Belirang caldera 70031719000000000001,719 metres (5,640 ft) unknown 5°07′S 104°19′E / 5.12°S 104.32°E / -5.12; 104.32
Suoh caldera 70031000000000000001,000 metres (3,300 ft) 10 July 1933 (4) 5°15′S 104°16′E / 5.25°S 104.27°E / -5.25; 104.27
Hulubelu caldera 70031040000000000001,040 metres (3,410 ft) 1836 5°21′S 104°36′E / 5.35°S 104.60°E / -5.35; 104.60
Rajabasa stratovolcano 70031281000000000001,281 metres (4,203 ft) 1798 5°46′48″S 105°37′30″E / 5.78°S 105.625°E / -5.78; 105.625
A photograph depicting a blue sky with white clouds at the top, a grey mountain range in the middle, and green foliage at the bottom.
An overhead view of a land formation that is brightly coloured with patches of pink, blue, green, white, and black in irregular configurations.
Landsat image of Lake Toba 
A photograph depicting a blue sky with white clouds at the top, a grey mountain range in the middle, and green foliage at the bottom.
A photograph depicting a blue sky with white clouds at the top, a grey mountain range in the middle, and green foliage at the bottom.
Mount Kerinci, the highest mountain on Sumatra 

Coordinates: 3°00′S 102°15′E / 3.000°S 102.250°E / -3.000; 102.250

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Travelling in Indonesia
  2. ^ "Kerinci". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0601-17%3D.
  3. ^ Oppenheimer, C. (2002). "Limited global change due to the largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba ≈74 kyr BP?". Quaternary Science Reviews 21 (14–15): 1593–1609. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00154-8. 
  4. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia - Sumatra". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on 30 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-17.