|Preceded by||Parti Perikatan|
|Headquarters||Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia|
|Youth wing||Barisan Nasional Youth Movement|
|National affiliation||Barisan Nasional|
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Barisan Nasional (BN) (Malay; historically National Front) is a major political party in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance (Perikatan). Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence in 1957, and is considered the longest continuing ruling party in the democratic world. The coalition's headquarters is located in the nation's capital, Kuala Lumpur.
In the 2008 general elections, Barisan Nasional lost more than one-third of parliamentary seats to Pakatan Rakyat, a loose alliance of opposition parties. This marked Barisan's first failure to secure a two-thirds supermajority in Parliament since Independence. Five state governments, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang, Perak (which was later returned via court ruling following a constitutional crisis) and Selangor, fell to Pakatan Rakyat. In 2013, BN retained its simple majority and regained Kedah, but lost several more seats in Parliament along with the popular vote to Pakatan. Since 2008, the coalition has seen its non-Malay component parties virtually wiped out in the Peninsula. 
As of 2013, the vast majority of Barisan Nasional's seats are held by its two largest Bumiputera-based political parties—the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), and Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB). For most of its history, both the Malaysian Chinese Association and Malaysian Indian Congress have played major roles in Barisan Nasional, but their representation in Parliament and state legislatures has become much more diminished. Nevertheless, practically each component party purports to represent – and limit membership – to a certain race: UMNO for the Malays, MCA for the Chinese and so on. In the view of some scholars:
Since its inception the Alliance remained a coalition of communal parties. Each of the component parties operated to all intents and purposes, save that of elections, as a separate party. Their membership was communal, except perhaps Gerakan, and their success was measured in terms of their ability to achieve the essentially parochial demands of their constituents.
Although both the Alliance and BN registered themselves as political parties, membership is only possible indirectly through one of the constituent parties. In the Alliance, one could hold direct membership, but this was abolished with the formation of the Barisan Nasional. The BN defines itself as a "confederation of political parties which subscribe to the objects of the Barisan Nasional". Although in elections, all candidates stand under the BN symbol, and there is a BN manifesto, each individual constituent party also issues its own manifesto, and there is intra-coalition competition for seats prior to nomination day.
As of August 2009, Barisan Nasional's member parties include:
- United Malays National Organisation (UMNO)
- Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA)
- Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC)
- Malaysian People's Movement Party (GERAKAN)
- People's Progressive Party (PPP)
- Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB)
- Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP)
- Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS)
- Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)
- Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah (PBRS)
- United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO)
- Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party (SPDP)
- Sarawak People's Party (PRS)
Controlled states and chief ministers
- Negeri Sembilan
General election results
|Election||Total seats won||Total votes||Share of votes||Outcome of election||Election leader|
|1974||1,287,400||60.8%||135 seats; Governing coalition||Abdul Razak Hussein|
|1978||1,987,907||57.2%||4 seats; Governing coalition||Hussein Onn|
|1982||2,522,079||60.5%||1 seats; Governing coalition||Mahathir Mohamad|
|1986||2,649,263||57.3%||16 seats; Governing coalition||Mahathir Mohamad|
|1990||2,985,392||53.4%||21 seats; Governing coalition||Mahathir Mohamad|
|1995||3,881,214||65.2%||35 seats; Governing coalition||Mahathir Mohamad|
|1999||3,748,511||56.53%||15 seats; Governing coalition||Mahathir Mohamad|
|2004||4,420,452||63.9%||51 seats; Governing coalition||Abdullah Ahmad Badawi|
|2008||4,082,411||50.27%||58 seats; Governing coalition||Abdullah Ahmad Badawi|
|2013||5,237,699||47.38%||7 seats; Governing coalition||Najib Razak|
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