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|Politics of Singapore
Barisan Sosialis (Malay: Socialist Front; Chinese: 社会主义阵线) a now defunct Singapore political party, was formed on 29 July 1961 and officially registered on 13 August 1961 by left-wing members of the People's Action Party (PAP), who had been expelled from the PAP. The prominent founding members of the Barisan were Dr Lee Siew Choh and Lim Chin Siong. It became the biggest opposition party in Singapore during the period of the 1960s and the 1980s. The main objectives of the Barisan included eradicating colonialism and establishing a united independent and democratic Malayan nation comprising the Federation of Malaya and Singapore, and introducing an economic system to promote the prosperity and stability of the society. The party was dissolved and merged into Workers' Party of Singapore in 1988.
Since its formation, the PAP was divided into Lee Kuan Yew camp and left-wing camp led by Lim Chin Siong. The common ground of anti-colonialism and independence of Singapore was the basis for the cooperation between two camps. Difference in their mass bases also conditioned the cooperation between the two camps. During the early years, the left-wings mainly commanded supports from the mass of Chinese, rural people and trade unions, while the supports for Lee Kuan Yew’s camp were mainly found in English-educated community. With the support of the working class, the PAP won the second-most seats in 1955 election and formed the main opposition. Further, with the support of trade unions, the PAP won the election in 1959 and formed the Government under Lee Kuan Yew. However, the two camps were ideologically and politically different in nature. During its formative years, the left-wings already showed their dissatisfaction with the policies carried out by Lee Kuan Yew and Lee’s failure to fulfill his promises to help secure the release of the left-wing political detainees. Finally, the contentious issue of merger with Malaysia triggered the split within the PAP.
On 27 May 1961, Tunku Abdul Rahman, Prime Minister of the Federation of Malaya, suggested the creation of a new Malaysia state consisting of the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, North Borneo and Brunei.The reactions towards merger within the PAP were divided. The merger with Malaysia was supported by Lee Kuan Yew camp as a means of assuring Singapore’s future security and prosperity, while opposed by the left-wings as the merger was seen as an attempt to “wipe out the left-wing forces in Singapore” (Interview with Dr Lee Siew Choh).
The rupture within the PAP was widened by the Hong Lim and Anson by-elections in 1961. Displeased with the PAP government’s refusal to abolish the Internal Security Council(ISC), refusal to back down the merger plan and refusal to release the remaining political detainees, the PAP left-wings abandoned support for their own candidates in favor of Ong Eng Guan (in Hong Lim) and David Marshall (in Anson), which led to the PAP’s defeats in the two by-elections.
After the Anson by-election, the left-wings planned to oust Lee Kuan Yew from the party but they worried that their actions would made the British hold up plans for Singapore’s independence. As a result, the left-wings had a meeting with Lord Selkirk, the British Commissioner-General at Eden Hall, which was later known as “Eden Hall Tea Party”. At the meeting, the left got assurance from Selkirk that Britain was committed to independence and would not intervene militarily to maintain control after the overthrow of Lee Kuan Yew’s government.
On 20 July 1961, Lee Kuan Yew called an emergency meeting of the Legislative Assembly to vote on a motion of confidence in the Government. Twenty-seven assemblymen voted for the government and twenty-four, including thirteen of PAP left-wings, either abstained or voted against the motion of confidence. Thirteen PAP left-wings who abstained from voting were then expelled from the PAP. The expelled members including Lim Chin Siong, S. Woodhull and Fong Swee Suan then proceeded to form an opposition party, the Barisan Sosialis. After the split, 35 branch committees out of 51 and 19 of 23 paid organizing secretaries of the PAP had gone over to the Barisan.
The Barisan was officially inaugurated on 17 September 1962, with Lim Chin Siong as its secretary-general and Dr Lee Siew Choh as Chairman. Its founding slogan was ‘genuinely full internal self-government’ through merger with Malaya and it share the same aim with the PAP-‘the creation of an independent, democratic, non-communist, socialist Malaya’. The main objectives of the new party were presented in following four statements:
- To eradicate colonialism and set up a united national independent state comprising the Federation of Malaya and Singapore
- To establish a democratic Government of Malaya based on universal adult suffrage of all those who are born in or owe their allegiance to Malaya
- To bring into being an economic system that will endure a prosperous, stable and just society
- To mobilize all sections of the people for the building of a Malayan nation
While the Barisan supported the merger with Malaysia, the party campaigned vigorously against the PAP government’s merger term with the Federation of Malaya. According to the merger term agreed by the PAP government, Singapore would retain its autonomy in education and labour at the expense of the rights of Singapore citizens and the seats in the new Federal Parliament. The Barisan demanded that Singapore citizens should automatically become Malayan citizens with proportional representation in the Federal Parliament. At the end, the PAP government advocated that a referendum should be held to test whether people support merger or not. The Referendum Bill on merger incorporated proposals and amendments from the Barisan, David Marshall, Ong Eng Guan and SPA-UMNO. Three offered options A, B, C respectively proposed by the PAP, David Marshall and the SPA-UMNO. However, the Barisan appealed voters to cast blank votes on the referendum stating that no option correctly expressed Barisan's thoughts and the three options would “sell out Singapore”. Unfortunately, the move had been anticipated by the PAP government and a clause had been inserted within the Referendum Ordinance stating that voters who cast blank votes were unable to make a decision themselves and they must necessarily follow the majority. That is, the blank votes would be automatically counted together with whichever of the options that won the majority. The Referendum on Merger was held on 1 September 1962, and the results were:
Option (A): 397,626 votes (71%)
Option (B): 9,422 votes (1.7%)
Option (C): 7,911 votes (1.4%)
Blank votes: 144,077 votes (25%)
The option A won the majority, which meant the Barisan and its supporters were beaten by the PAP government in this battle.
Reasons for decline
The Tunku Abdul Rahman was worried about the impact of the Singapore’s leftist influence in a unified Malaysia. He thus demanded that Singapore’s political opposition be arrested as a condition of merger. The PAP was hesitated about the arrests as it might damage the PAP’s popularity in Singapore. However, the Brunei Revolt breaking out on 8 December 1962, gave the PAP a ‘heaven sent opportunity’ to justify the arrests. The Barisan’s open support to the Brunei revolt gave the PAP an excuse that the arrests were to prevent possible communist subversion and safeguard the security and safety in Singapore.
On 2 February 1963, the ISC launched a crackdown against leftists and their supports. Under the action, codenamed Operation Coldstore, 107 people including political, trade unionists and student leaders who had shown support for Brunei Revolt were detained. Among those detainees, half of them were Barisans’ central leaders. Operation Coldstore was a fateful blow to the Barisan.
The Operation Coldstore, almost paralyzed the Barisan because of the detention of its major leaders including Lim Chin Siong. However, remaining Barisan leaders did not give up their struggle. On 22 April 1963, Lee Siew Choh and remaining Barisan activists launched "City Hall Battle". They marched from the Barisan's headquarter in Victoria Street to the steps of City Hall to protest the mass arrests in February and presented a petition to the Prime Minister in protest against the ‘ill treatment’ of the detainees. The protest was put down and seven party leaders including Lee Siew Choh were arrested.
1963 general election defeat
After the Operation Coldstore and ensuing protests, major cadres of Barisan were detained or put on a long trial. These events severely diminished the strength of the Barisan, which prevented the party to effectively take part in the 1963 general elections and the party was eventually defeated in the elections. The 1963 elections ended with a clear victory of PAP winning thirty-seven of the fifty-one seats. The Barisan won thirteen, and the remaining seat fell to Ong Eng Guan who contested under the banner of the United People’s Party.
After the elections, the Malaysian Government took a series of actions to further debilitate the Barisan. On Malaysia Day on 16 September 1963, the security authorizes decided to launch two further crackdowns on the “left-wing” extremists. In those September and October operations, "some fifteen leaders of the Communist United Front" were rounded up. Some student activists from Nanyang University were soon arrested for alleged subversive activities. In late August 1963, seven trade unions under Singapore Association of Trade Unions (SATU) controlled by the Barisan, were served notices by the Government to show cause why they should not be deregistered. On 30 October, the seven unions which were supposed to close down were eventually struck off the register. In October, the government dissolved two of Barisan's most effective ancillary associations, The Singapore Rural Residents’ Association and Singapore Country People’s Association.
Soon after Malaysia was formed, alarmed by Indonesia’s confrontation and rebel activities in the Borneo territories, the central parliament in Kuala Lumpur passed legislation which required all youth between the age of 18 and 25 to do National Service. The left-wings regarded this action as a government move "to counter the left-wing movement" However, within the left-wing camp, there were two different strategies to campaign against the National Service scheme supported by two schools led respectively by Chen Hock Wah, who was a member of the CPM and Lee Siew Choh, who was Chairman of Barisan. Chen Hock Wah proposed two-step policy called “Principled Registration” or “Registration under Protest”. The first step was not to stop persons affected being registered. The second step was to tell the persons affected not to present themselves for rollcall if they were actually mobilized for active service after registration. on the other hand, the school led by Lee Siew Choh advocated boycott of the law and proposed affected persons should not even register in the first place. A great quarrel broke out in Barisan between the two lines and Chen’s strategy obtain majority support. Finally, Lee Siew Choh, together with seven other founding members resigned from the party attributing his resignation to the difference between him and other leaders. The party was split wide open, though Lee was persuaded to resume his chairmanship of Barisan on 9 March 1965.
Singapore's separation from Malaysia
The Barisan had fought against the merger with Malaysia, however, upon the declaration of Singapore’s independence from Malaysia in 1965, leaders of Barisan declined to recognize the independence. Lee Siew Choh, chairman of Barisan attacked that the independence obtained by Singapore was not genuine and released public slogans of “Crush Malaysia”, “Phony Independence”, and “Boycott Parliament”. Reaction towards Singapore’s independence within left-wing camp was again divided. Lim Huan Boon, who was a member of the CPM and one of Barisan's representatives in the Legislative Assembly recognized the independence of Singapore stating that there was no such thing as phony or half independence. Lim Chin Siong, another leader of Barisan who was in detention, also considered Singapore’s independence to be genuine.
Regarding that there was neither true national independence nor parliamentary democracy, Barisan began to boycott Parliament and elections. In October 1966, the Barisan got all its remaining representatives in Parliament to resign their seats and started what they called extra-parliament struggle. An editorial in the The Straits Times commented that the Barisan chose the wrong time to launch an extra-parliamentary struggle:
“To give up the constitutional arena, at a time when none other exists, is very much like giving up politics altogether”.
The departure from the parliament arguably sealed the fate of Barisan.
By 1967, Barisan had been depleted and its declining fortunes can be seen in contraction of its membership. Within three years from 1963 to 1966, its branches number had shrank to 33 from 36 with only 22 were effective. In contrast, the PAP maintained its 51 branches throughout the three years. The Barisan boycotted the General Elections in 1968 and allowed the PAP to win all 51 seats in the Parliament.
Barisan returned to contest the 1972 General Elections. However, it failed to win any seat in this and subsequent elections. It was clear that Barisan was no longer in a position to function effectively as a political party. In May 1988, the Barisan was dissolved into the Workers' Party of Singapore, which officially sealed its history in Singapore.
From the perspective of the PAP government, the Barisan was a communist-controlled organization which Lee Kuan Yew labeled as a "main open front communist organization" The ISC stated that the Barisan activists were indeed communist-inspired and the Barisan was controlled by the Communist force to sabotage the formation of Malaysia.
Although admitted that they adopted Communist tactics for anti-colonial cause because Communist movement would gather mass supports at that time, Lim Chin Siong refuted the Communist label attached to him and the Barisan. He claimed:
"Let me make it clear, once and for all, that I am not a Communist, or a Communist front-man, or, for that matter, anybody’s front-man."
"I was an MBA League member, but that doesn’t mean that I was a communist…MBA is far from MCP…Study the Manifesto of the PA; it was more anti-colonial and more communist in doctrine…Of course during that time, the largest surviving party in Malaya was MCP and PAP was relatively new, so it was inevitable the thinking was influenced by communism." (Interview with Lim Chin Siong)
It may have been possible that the Barisan was inspired by successful Communist movements to end colonialism and to mobilize the masses elsewhere in the world at that time, it is difficult to decide whether the Barisan is Communist-controlled or not. There was a quite fair assessment:
"It is not clear whether the Barisan is merely a front for the Communist Party and its executive in Singapore, the Town Committee, or whether it is a party which is willing to accept Communist support, though the ultimate objective did not call for the creation of a Communist political system nor the establishment of a beachhead for the Chinese People’s Republic."
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