Barium orthotitanate

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Barium orthotitanate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba2TiO4. It is a colourless solid that is of interest because of its relationship to barium titanate, a useful electroceramic.

Structure[edit]

Low-temperature Ba2TiO4 - TiO4 tetrahedra shaded blue; Ba atoms green; O atoms red

The solid has two known phases: a low-temperature (β) phase with P21/n symmetry[1] and a high-temperature (α′) phase with P21nb symmetry.[2] The structure of Ba2TiO4 is unusual among the titanates because its titanium atoms sit in a four-oxygen tetrahedron rather than a six-oxygen octahedron.[1][3]

Production[edit]

It forms as white crystals from a melt of BaCl2, BaCO3 and TiO2[4] or from just sintering BaCO3 and TiO2.[5] Another method of preparation is heating pellets of Ba(OH)2 and TiO2.[6] Additionally, there are polymer precursor, sol-gel and reverse micellar routes to Ba2TiO4 synthesis.[3] Ba2TiO4 has also been successfully grown as a thin film with chemical vapor deposition.[7]

Properties[edit]

Barium orthotitanate can remove up to 99.9% of CO
2
from a high-temperature gas stream[10] by the reaction:

Ba
2
TiO
4
+ CO
2
BaTiO
3
+ BaCO
3

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wu, Kang Kun; Brown, I. D. (10 April 1973). "The Crystal Structure of β-Barium Orthotitanate, β-Ba2TiO4, and the Bond Strength-Bond Length Curve of Ti-O". Acta Crystallographica B29: 2009–2012. doi:10.1107/S0567740873005959. 
  2. ^ Günter, John R.; Jameson, Geoffrey B. (14 September 1983). "Orthorhombic Barium Orthotitanate, α′-Ba2TiO4". Acta Crystallographica C40: 207–210. doi:10.1107/S0108270184003619. 
  3. ^ a b Shanker, Vishnu; Ahmad, Tokeer; Ganguli, Ashok K. (October 2004). "Investigation of Ba2–xSrxTiO4: Structural aspects and dielectric properties". Bulletin of Material Science 27 (5): 421–427. doi:10.1007/BF02708558. 
  4. ^ Bland, J. A. (August 1961). "The Crystal Structure of Barium Orthotitanate, Ba2TiO4". Acta Crystallographica 14: 875–881. doi:10.1107/S0365110X61002527. 
  5. ^ Bobovich, Ya. S. "The Raman Scattering of Barium Orthotitanate". Optics and Spectroscopy 13: 254–255. 
  6. ^ a b Todd, S. S.; Lorenson, R.E. (August 1952). "Heat Capacities at Low Temperatures and Entropies at 298.16°K. of Orthotitanates of Barium and Strontium". Journal of the American Chemical Society 74 (15): 2043–2045. doi:10.1021/ja01135a014. 
  7. ^ Guo, Dongyun; Goto, Takashi; Wang, Chuanbin; Shen, Qiang and Zhang, Lianmeng (2012). "High-speed growth of (103)-oriented Ba2TiO4 film by laser chemical vapor deposition". Materials Letters 70: 135–137. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2011.11.094. 
  8. ^ Ahmad, Tokeer; Ganguli, Ashok K. (1 October 2004). "Synthesis of nanometer-sized particles of barium orthotitanate prepared through a modified reverse micellar route: Structural characterization, phase stability and dielectric properties". Journal of Materials Research 19: 2905–2912. doi:10.1557/JMR.2004.0406. 
  9. ^ Jaffe, Bernard; Cook Jr., William R.; Jaffe, Hans (1971). "5. Barium Titanate". Piezoelectric Ceramics. London and New York: Academic Press. p. 62. ISBN 0123795508. 
  10. ^ Saito, Yoshinori; Sato, Hideto; Sakabe, Yukio (20 May 2008). "CO2 Recovery at High Temperatures Using Ba2TiO4". Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan 41 (5): 441–446. doi:10.1252/jcej.07WE236.