# Barkhausen stability criterion

For the noise in the output of a ferromagnet upon a change in the magnetizing force, see Barkhausen effect.
Block diagram of a feedback oscillator circuit to which the Barkhausen criterion applies. It consists of an amplifying element A whose output vo is fed back into its input vf through a feedback network β(jω).
To find the loop gain, the feedback loop is considered broken at some point and the output vo for a given input vi is calculated:
:$G = \frac {v_o}{v_i} = \frac{v_f}{v_i}\frac {v_o}{v_f} = \beta A(j \omega)\,$

In electronics, the Barkhausen stability criterion is a mathematical condition to determine when a linear electronic circuit will oscillate.[1][2][3] It was put forth in 1921 by German physicist Heinrich Georg Barkhausen (1881–1956).[4] It is widely used in the design of electronic oscillators, and also in the design of general negative feedback circuits such as op amps, to prevent them from oscillating.

## Limitations

Barkhausen's criterion applies to linear circuits with a feedback loop. Therefore it cannot be applied to one port negative resistance active elements like tunnel diode oscillators.

## Criterion

It states that if A is the gain of the amplifying element in the circuit and β(jω) is the transfer function of the feedback path, so βA is the loop gain around the feedback loop of the circuit, the circuit will sustain steady-state oscillations only at frequencies for which:

1. The loop gain is equal to unity in absolute magnitude, that is, $|\beta A| = 1\,$ and
2. The phase shift around the loop is zero or an integer multiple of 2π: $\angle \beta A = 2 \pi n, n \in 0, 1, 2,\dots\,.$

Barkhausen's criterion is a necessary condition for oscillation but not a sufficient condition: some circuits satisfy the criterion but do not oscillate.[5] Similarly, the Nyquist stability criterion also indicates instability but is silent about oscillation. Apparently there is not a compact formulation of an oscillation criterion that is both necessary and sufficient.[6]

## Erroneous version

Barkhausen's original "formula for self-excitation", intended for determining the oscillation frequencies of the feedback loop, involved an equality sign: |βA| = 1. At the time conditionally-stable nonlinear systems were poorly understood; it was widely believed that this gave the boundary between stability (|βA| < 1) and instability (|βA| ≥ 1), and this erroneous version found its way into the literature.[7] However, stable oscillations only occur at frequencies for which equality holds.

## References

1. ^ Basu, Dipak (2000). Dictionary of Pure and Applied Physics. CRC Press. pp. 34–35. ISBN 1420050222.
2. ^ Rhea, Randall W. (2010). Discrete Oscillator Design: Linear, Nonlinear, Transient, and Noise Domains. Artech House. p. 3. ISBN 1608070484.
3. ^ Carter, Bruce; Ron Mancini (2009). Op Amps for Everyone, 3rd Ed.. Newnes. pp. 342–343. ISBN 0080949487.
4. ^ Barkhausen, H. (1935). Lehrbuch der Elektronen-Röhren und ihrer technischen Anwendungen [Textbook of Electron Tubes and their Technical Applications] (in German) 3. Leipzig: S. Hirzel. ASIN B0019TQ4AQ. OCLC 682467377.
5. ^ Lindberg, Erik (26–28 May 2010). "The Barkhausen Criterion (Observation ?)". Proceedings of 18th IEEE Workshop on Nonlinear Dynamics of Electronic Systems (NDES2010), Dresden, Germany. Inst. of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. pp. 15–18. Retrieved 2 February 2013. discusses reasons for this. (Warning: large 56MB download)
6. ^ von Wangenheim, Lutz (2010), "On the Barkhausen and Nyquist stability criteria", Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC) 66 (1): 139–141, doi:10.1007/s10470-010-9506-4, ISSN 1573-1979. Received: 17 June 2010 / Revised: 2 July 2010 / Accepted: 5 July 2010.
7. ^ Lundberg, Kent (2002-11-14). "Barkhausen Stability Criterion". Kent Lundberg faculty website. MIT. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-16.