Barlaam and Josaphat
Balauhar and Budasaf or Bilawhar wa-Yudasaf is a legendary Islamic telling of the story of Siddhartha Gautama originating in the Sogdian language (Middle Iranian). It came into Christianity as Barlaam and Josaphat.
It was ultimately derived, through a variety of intermediate versions (Arabic and Georgian), from the life story of the Buddha. Wilfred Cantwell Smith (1981) traced the story from a 2nd to 4th century Sanskrit Mahayana Buddhist text, to a Manichee version, which then found its way into Muslim culture as the Arabic Kitab Bilawhar wa-Yudasaf (Book of Bilawhar and Yudasaf), which was current in Baghdad in the 8th century.
The Bilauhar u Buddsaf story was translated into Pahlavi during the Sasanian period, and into Arabic in the Islamic era. This is not a strict translation of the Sanskrit Buddhacarita (Life of Buddha) but a collection of legends. The Arabic version is Balauhar wa Budasaf, in 8th Century and 10th Century versions.
- Al-Masudi (d.965) The Meadows of Gold is the classic reference point for the legend. Al-Masudi is contemporary with Al-Tawhidi (922-1023) recounting the Buddhist story of the blind men describing an elephant according to their sense of touch.
Daniel Gimaret (Kitāb Bilawhar wa Bûd̲âsf 1971) defines ten principle sources:
- The Halle-Taymuriyya manuscript; an abbreviated account of a severed manuscript, the first part is at Halle, the end in the Taymuriyya library in Cairo
- The Qasida of Aban al-Lahiqi - Ibn al-Nadim (d.998) mentions the story in his Al-Fihrist (The Catalogue), and states that Aban al Lahiqi (d.816) rendered it into Arabic verse.
- Rasa'il Ihwan as-Safa - The Brethren of Purity's Rasail Ikhwan al-Safa (c.960) refers to Balauhar's conversation with Budasaf, given in the form of Yuzasaf, verified by D. M. Lang. Yuzasaf occurs as a spelling in the Rasail Ikhwan al-Saja of the Brethren of Purity and other sources.
- Ibn Babuya (d.991) adapted it in his Kamal ud Din. The version was printed by lithography in Tehran in 1883 where the name Būdāsaf appears as Yūdāsaf; though it was incorrectly cited as Yūzāsaf by Ghulam Ahmad in support of his Urdu work Jesus in India (1899).
- The adab of Buzurgmihr
- Kitab Bilawhar wa Budasf - the complete but late version.
Sogdian, Turfan, Uyghur
- Persian paraphrase of Nizam ad-din Sami
- Ain-ul-Hayat of Ibn-i-Muhammad Hade Muhammad Imail, Allamah Majlisi (1616–1698)
- Waqiat-i-Kashmir of Muhammed Azam Dedamari (1747)
- Qisa Shazada Yuzasaph wo hakim Balauhar (anonymous Urdu text 18thC)
Confusion of Kushinara and Kashmir
Lang (1960) notes that the connection of the Buddhist Yuzasaf with Kashmir in part results from a printing error in the Bombay Arabic edition referencing the legend of the Wisdom of Balahvar which makes its hero prince Yuzasaf die in "Kashmir" (Arabic: كشمير) by confusion with Kushinara (Pali: كوشينر), the traditional place of the original Buddha's death. The disassociation of Yudasaf with the Hindu town of Kashinara and association with Kashmir is found in several local Kashmiri histories from the 17th Century onwards, leading to traditions associated with the Roza Bal shrine in Srinagar.
Yuzasif... After that he departed from the land of Saulabath and traveled to many areas propagating religion and reached the land of Kashmir. He toured the place andgave a new life to the dead hearts of the people of this country and he died during this period. Leaving the mortal body his soul flew up to the ethereal world. Before his death he summoned his disciple named, Ayabad who was serving him in sincerity and was a perfect man in all regards. He made a bequest to him in which he stated that it was time for him to depart from the world. You must fulfill all your duties. You must never give up truth and continue to remain on piety and worship. Then he ordered Ayabad to prepare a place for him to lie. Then he stretched out his legs and turned his head to the west and his face to the east. He died in this position.
Identification of Yuzasaf with Jesus
In 1895 the founder of Ahmadiyya Islam, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad made the first identification of the local Kashmiri Josaphat tradition with Jesus of Nazareth, publishing this claim in Masih Hindustan-mein (Urdu 1899, English translation Jesus in India 1978).
Paul C. Pappas states that from a historical perspective, this identification of Yuzasaf relies on legends and documents which include clear historical errors (e.g. Gondophares' reign) and that "it is almost impossible to identify Yuz Asaf with Jesus".
The story of Barlaam and Josaphat or Joasaph is a Christianized and later version of the story of Siddhartha Gautama, who became the Buddha. In the Middle Ages the two were treated as Christian saints, being entered in the Greek Orthodox calendar on 26 August, and in the Roman Martyrology in the Western Church as "Barlaam and Josaphat" on the date of 27 November. In the Slavic tradition of the Eastern Orthodox Church, these two are commemorated on 19 November (corresponding to 2 December on the Gregorian calendar).
According to the legend, King Abenner or Avenier in India persecuted the Christian Church in his realm, founded by the Apostle Thomas. When astrologers predicted that his own son would some day become a Christian, Abenner had the young prince Josaphat isolated from external contact. Despite the imprisonment, Josaphat met the hermit Saint Barlaam and converted to Christianity. Josaphat kept his faith even in the face of his father's anger and persuasion. Eventually Abenner converted, turned over his throne to Josaphat, and retired to the desert to become a hermit. Josaphat himself later abdicated and went into seclusion with his old teacher Barlaam.
Ioasaph (Georgian Iodasaph, Arabic Yūdhasaf or Būdhasaf) is derived from the Sanskrit Bodhisattva. The Sanskrit word was changed to Bodisav in Persian texts in the 6th or 7th century, then to Budhasaf or Yudasaf in an 8th-century Arabic document (possibly Arabic initial "b" ﺑ changed to "y" ﻳ by duplication of a dot in handwriting). This became Iodasaph in Georgia in the 10th century, and that name was adapted as Ioasaph in Greece in the 11th century, and then as Iosaphat or Josaphat in Latin.
The Greek legend of "Barlaam and Ioasaph" is sometimes attributed to the 7th century John of Damascus, but actually it was transcribed by the Georgian monk Euthymius in the 11th century. The first Christianized adaptation was the Georgian epic Balavariani dating back to the 10th century. A Georgian monk, Euthymios of Athos, translated the story into Greek, some time before he was killed while visiting Constantinople in 1028. There the Greek adaptation was translated into Latin in 1048 and soon became well known in Western Europe as Barlaam and Josaphat.
The story of Barlaam and Josaphat was popular in the Middle Ages, appearing in such works as the Golden Legend, and a scene there involving three caskets eventually appeared, via Caxton's English translation of a Latin version, in Shakespeare's "Merchant of Venice".
Two Middle High German versions were produced: one, the "Laubacher Barlaam", by Bishop Otto II of Freising and another, Barlaam und Josaphat, a romance in verse, by Rudolf von Ems. The latter was described as "perhaps the flower of religious literary creativity in the German Middle Ages" by Heinrich Heine.
Although Barlaam was never formally canonized, Josaphat was, and they were included in earlier editions of the Roman Martyrology (feast day 27 November) — though not in the Roman Missal — and in the Eastern Orthodox Church liturgical calendar (26 August in Greek tradition etc. / 19 November in Russian tradition).
There are a large number of different books in various languages, all dealing with the lives of Saints Barlaam and Josaphat in India. In this hagiographic tradition, the life and teachings of Josaphat have many parallels with those of the Buddha. "But not till the mid-nineteenth century was it recognised that, in Josaphat, the Buddha had been venerated as a Christian saint for about a thousand years." The authorship of the work is disputed. The origins of the story seem to be a Central Asian manuscript written in the Manichean tradition. This book was translated into Georgian and Arabic.
The best-known version in Europe comes from a separate, but not wholly independent, source, written in Greek, and, although anonymous, attributed to a monk named John. It was only considerably later that the tradition arose that this was John of Damascus, but most scholars no longer accept this attribution. Instead much evidence points to Euthymius of Athos, a Georgian who died in 1028.
The modern edition of the Greek text, from the 160 surviving variant manuscripts (2006), with introduction (German, 2009) is published as Volume 6 of the works of John the Damascene by the monks of the Abbey of Scheyern, edited by Robert Volk. It was included in the edition due to the traditional ascription, but marked "spuria" as the translator is the Georgian monk Euthymius the Hagiorite (ca. 955–1028) at Mount Athos and not John the Damascene of the monastery of Saint Sabas in the Judaean Desert. The 2009 introduction includes an overview
Among the mansuscripts in English, two of the most important are the British Museum MS Egerton 876 (the basis for Ikegami's book) and MS Peterhouse 257 (the basis for Hirsh's book) at the University of Cambridge. The book contains a tale similar to The Three Caskets found in the Gesta Romanorum and later in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice.
- E. Rehatsek – The Book of the King's Son and the Ascetic – English translation (1888) based on the Halle Arabic manuscript
- Gimaret – Le livre de Bilawhar et Budasaf – French translation of Bombay Arabic manuscript
- David Marshall Lang: The Balavariani: A Tale from the Christian East California University Press: Los Angeles, 1966. Translation of the long version Georgian work that probably served as a basis for the Greek text. Jerusalem MS140
- David Marshall Lang: Wisdom of Balahvar – the short Georgian version Jerusalem MS36, 1960
- The Balavariani (Georgian and Arabic ბალავარიანი, بلوریانی)
- Robert Volk, Die Schriften des Johannes von Damaskos VI/1: Historia animae utilis de Barlaam et Ioasaph (spuria). Patristische Texte und Studien Bd. 61. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2009. Pp. xlii, 596. ISBN 978-3-11-019462-3.
- Robert Volk, Die Schriften des Johannes von Damaskos VI/2: Historia animae utilis de Barlaam et Ioasaph (spuria). Text und zehn Appendices. Patristische Texte und Studien Bd. 60. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2006. Pp. xiv, 512. ISBN 978-3-11-018134-0.
- Boissonade – older edition of the Greek
- G.R. Woodward and H. Mattingly – older English translation of the Greek Online Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, 1914
- Codex VIII B10, Naples
- Baralâm and Yĕwâsĕf. Budge, E.A. Wallis. Baralam and Yewasef : the Ethiopic version of a Christianized recension of the Buddhist legend of the Buddha and the Bodhisattva. Published: London; New York: Kegan Paul; Biggleswade, UK: Distributed by Extenza-Turpin Distribution; New York: Distributed by Columbia University Press, 2004.
- Jean Sonet, Le roman de Barlaam et Josaphat (Namur, 1949–52) after Tours MS949
- Leonard Mills, after Vatican MS660
- Zotenberg and Meyer, after Gui de Cambrai MS1153
- Gerhard Moldenhauer Vida de Barlan MS174
- Ferdinand Heuckenkamp, version in langue d'Oc
- Jeanroy, Provençal version, after Heuckenkamp
- Nelli, Troubadours, after Heuckenkamp
- Occitan, BN1049
- G.B. Bottari, edition of various old Italian MS.
- Georg Maas, old Italian MS3383
- Hilário da Lourinhã. Vida do honorado Infante Josaphate, filho del Rey Avenir, versão de frei Hilário da Lourinhã: e a identificação, por Diogo do Couto (1542–1616), de Josaphate com o Buda. Introduction and notes by Margarida Corrêa de Lacerda. Lisboa: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, 1963.
- Hirsh, John C. (editor). Barlam and Iosaphat: a Middle English life of Buddha. Edited from MS Peterhouse 257. London; New York: Published for the Early English Text Society by the Oxford University Press, 1986. ISBN 0-19-722292-7
- Ikegami, Keiko. Barlaam and Josaphat : a transcription of MS Egerton 876 with notes, glossary, and comparative study of the Middle English and Japanese versions, New York: AMS Press, 1999. ISBN 0-404-64161-X
- John Damascene, Barlaam and Ioasaph (Loeb Classical Library). David M. Lang (introduction), G. R. Woodward (translator), Harold Mattingly (translator)· Publisher: Loeb Classical Library, W. Heinemann; 1967, 1914. ISBN 0-674-99038-2
- MacDonald, K.S. (editor). The story of Barlaam and Joasaph : Buddhism & Christianity. With philological introduction and notes to the Vernon, Harleian and Bodleian versions, by John Morrision. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink, 1895.
- Rgya Tch'er Rol Pa – ou: Développement des jeux, Philippe-Édouard Foucaux (1811–1894) 1847. Lalitavistara
- Barlaam and Josaphat (book)
- Gautama Buddha in world religions
- Thomas the Apostle
- Buddhism and Christianity
- Josaphat (disambiguation)
Notes and references
- John Walbridge The Wisdom of the Mystic East: Suhrawardī and Platonic Orientalism Page 129 – 2001 "The form Būdhīsaf is the original, as shown by Sogdian form Pwtysfi and the early New Persian form Bwdysf. ... On the Christian versions see A. S. Geden, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, s.v. "Josaphat, Barlaam and," and M. P. Alfaric, ..."
- "Barlaam and Josaphat". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- Macdonnel, Arthur Anthony (1900). " Sanskrit Literature and the West.". A History of Sanskrit Literature. New York: D. Appleton and Co. p. 420.
- Wilfred Cantwell Smith Towards a World Theology, Westminster, 1981
- Ahmad Hasan Dani History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of ... 1999 Page 81 "The Bilauhar u Buddsaf is another story of Indian origin which was translated into Pahlavi during the Sasanian period, and thence into Arabic in the Islamic era. This work, which is basically an account of the Buddha's life, is not a translation of
- Winand M. Callewaert, Shīlānand Hemrāj Bhagavadgītānuvāda: a study in the transcultural translation – 1983 Page 329 "An early version of the Pancatantra in Arabic (Kdlila wa Dimna) was made in about 750 A.D. from a Pahlavi rendering, and from a Turkish rendering the Buddha Carita was translated (Kitab Balauhar wa Budasaf)."
- Suresh K. Sharma, Usha Sharma Cultural and Religious Heritage of India: Islam 2004 – Page 202 "wandering monks, who could have belonged neither to Christianity nor to Islam. ... of Indian books that became embodied in Arabic literature 'we find an Arabic version of Balauhar wa Budasaf (Barlaam and Josaphat), and also a Budd-book."
- Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri A comprehensive history of India – 1982– Volume 3,Part 2 – Page 1365 "Balauhar wa Budasaf"
- Indian Muslims: a study of the minority problem in India Page 238 "These were rendered into Arabic partly from the Persian or Pahlavi translations, while others were translated direct from the Sanskrit.12 Among these translations of Indian books "we find an Arabic version of the Balauhar wa Budasaf (Barlaam ..."
- Julia Ashtiany Abbasid Belles Lettres 1990 - Page 143 "India too was the source not only of separate stories such as those collected by al-Jahshiyari, but also of the Arabic Buddha legends, the most important of which is Bilawhar wa-Budasaf, a Middle Persian version of which was rendered into ..."
- Suresh K. Sharma, Usha Sharma Cultural and Religious Heritage of India: Islam 2004 Page 202 "Among these translations of Indian books that became embodied in Arabic literature 'we find an Arabic version of Balauhar wa Budasaf (Barlaam and Josaphat), and also a Budd-book."
- Acteurs des transferts culturels en Méditerranée médiévale Rania Abdellatif, Yassir Benhima, Daniel König - 2012- Page 181 "By misspelling, the Arabic Būḏāsaf becomes Yūḏāsaf, which then becomes Iodasaph in Georgian. See Ilia V. ABULADZE, Introduction, in: David Marshall LANG, The Balavariani (Barlaam and Josaphat), London 1966, p. 19–41, here p."
- Marion Turner A Handbook of Middle English Studies 2013- Page 427 "In Arabic recensions, the honorific becomes Budhasaf and from a scribal slip emerges as Yudhasaf (Lang 29): “Because the Arabic B and Y differ by only a single diacritical point, Budhasaf by virtue of a scribal error became Iodasaph in ..."
- Mélanges Gilbert Dagron Gilbert Dagron, V. Déroche, Centre de recherche d'histoire et civilisation de Byzance (Paris, France) - 2002 Page 459 "... Commémoraison du noble et digne saint Iodasaph, roi des Indiens » et dont les deux premières strophes peuvent se ... par le remarquable théologien shi'ite que fut Ibn Bâbûya (t991) et contenue dans un traité ismaélien ; voir notamment D. Gimaret, Le « Livre de Bilahwar et Būdāsf"
- Le livre de Bilawhar et Būdāsf selon la version arabe ismaélienne Daniel Gimaret - 1971 Publications - Volume 38 - Page 111
- Folklore Society (Great Britain) - 1896 "Another fact of much significance is this, that in the Georgian the proper names approach in their spelling very closely to the old Indian or Buddhist forms : e.g. Georgian Iodasaph is nearer than Josaphat to the Arabic Yudasaph and Budasaph "
- Bruce B. Lawrence, Muḥammad ibn ʻAbd al-Karīm Shahrastānī Shahrastānī on the Indian religions- 1976 Page 106 "Apart from the Pahlavi-to-Arabic translations of the tale of Budasaf and Balahwar, the locus classicus in Muslim literature for the depiction of Budasaf is Mas'udi's Muruj adh-dhahab. According to the author, Yudasaf/ Budasaf was born in India ..."
- Damodar P. Singhal India and world civilization Volume 2 1969 – Page 191 "The Arabic version of the Balauhar wa Budasaf (Barlaam and Josaphat) had become a part of Arabic literature. The Buddhist story of the blind men describing an elephant according to their sense of touch recurs in the writings of Tawhidi, ..."
- The March of India – Volume 15 – Page 57 1963 "From such sources a work was prepared in Arabic about the year 800 A.D. and named Kitab Balauhar wa Budasaf. Ibn al-Nadim mentions it in his Fihrist, and says that the Baghdad poet Aban al Lahiqi rendered it into Arabic verse. Ibn Babuya ..."
- The Contemporary Society for Contemporary Studies 1963-- Volume 7,Numéro 1 – Page 119 "Ibn Babuya of Qum incorporated an adaptation of it in his treatise, Kitabi Kamal al Din wa Itman ... Akbar al Furs wa'l Arab. The authors of Rasail Ikhwan al-Saja refers to Balauhar's conversation with Budasaf (given here in the form of Yuzasaf).
- Robert Volk Historia animae utilis de Barlaam et Ioasaph (spuria): Einführung 2009 – Page 156 "... sie überhaupt nicht bei ihrer Behandlung der verschiedenen arabischen Barlaam-Fassungen; Lang fand sie immerhin in den ‚Traktaten der Lauteren Brüder' (Rasā'il Ih ̆wān as-Safā'), einem philosophisch-enzyklopädischen Werk des 10."
- D.M. Lang, The Life of the Blessed Iodasaph: A New Oriental Christian Version of the Barlaam and Ioasaph Romance (Jerusalem, Greek Patriarchal Library: Georgian MS 140), BSOAS 20.1/3 (1957):
- The Contemporary Society for Contemporary Studies- Volume 7,Numéro 1 1963 - Page 119 "Ibn Babuya of Qum incorporated an adaptation of it in his treatise, Kitabi Kamal al Din wa Itman ... Akbar al Furs wa'l Arab. The authors of Rasail Ikhwan al-Saja refers to Balauhar's conversation with Budasaf (given here in the form of Yuzasaf)"
- Robert Volk Historia animae utilis de Barlaam et Ioasaph (spuria): Einführung 2009 Page 156 "In diesem Druck erscheint der Königssohn nicht in der Schreibung Būdāsaf, sondern als Yūdāsaf; völlig eigenmächtig liest Ghulām Ahmad jedoch „statt des arabischen Buchstabens Dal ... den Buchstaben Zay, wodurch er zu der Lesung .
- Daniel Gimaret Kitāb Bilawhar wa Bûd̲âsf 1971 - Page 38 "Les âdâb Buzurgmihr 1. Nous rattachons au groupe des versions « prébarlaamiennes » une œuvre qui est, en réalité, une des sources du K. Bilawhar. En effet, les pp. 89-91 et 100-109 de B sont la reproduction plus ou moins fidèle d'un texte ..."
- Bulletin d'études orientales - Volume 24 - Page 98 Institut français de Damas - 1971 "... de la prose arabe classique (1), en particulier la littérature dite d'adab — anthologies, sentences de dévots ou de sages, ... ni les âdâb Buzurgmihr interpolés dans le K. Bilawhar, et que Miskawayh a rapportés à la suite du K. Gävidän Ilirad."
- Melhem Chokr Zandaqa et zindīqs en Islam au second siècle de l'Hégire - Page 200 1993 "Le troisième est un manuel de sagesse mazdéen attribué à Buzurgmihr 88. traduit en arabe au IIe/vme siècle, et où l'auteur ... La traduction arabe porte le titre de Âdâb Buzurgmihr, elle est conservée par Miskawayh dans al-Hikma al-hâlida, ..."
- Gernot L. Windfuhr Persian Grammar: History and State of its Study – 1979– Page 171 "One is a fragment of 27 distichs of the epic of Barlaam and Josaphat (Bilauhar and Bfidisaf) written in Turfan in the 10th century. It provides evidence for the spread of Persian from former Sogdian-speaking Transoxania into the Central Asian ..."
- La transmission des textes philosophiques et scientifiques au ... Marie-Thérèse d'. Alverny, Charles Burnett - 1994 Page 33 In a long philosophical digression at the end of his book The Prince and the Ascetic Ibn Hasday made a free Hebrew adaptation of the legend of Buddha, known in Arabic as Bilawhar wa Yudasaf (Barlaam and Josaphat).
- Nāṣir-i Khusraw, Henry Corbin, Muḥammad Muʻīn Livre réunissant les deux sagesses 1984 Page 31 "je signale qu'il est encore reproduit par Najîraddîn 7~ùsî dans son «Goshâyesh Nainah» et qu'il doit avoir sa source dans le roman bouddhique de « Barlaam et Josaphat» (cf. Bilawhar wa Yudhâsâf, trad. persane de Majlisi in 'Ayn al-Hayât pp ...
- Anagarika Dharmapala, The Maha BodhiMaha Bodhi Society of India – 1992 – Volume 100 – Page 179 "... VIIth International Congress of Orientalists (Vienna 1886), Fritz Hommel presented 'Die alteste arabische Barlaam-Version ' (published in Proceedings, I Vienna 1888). ... Finally at the end of the 17th century, Aqa Muhammed Baqir Majlisi tr."
- John Rippon in Journal of Ecclesiastical History Volume 18, Issue 02, October 1967, pp 247-248, online "In The Wisdom of Balahvar Professor Lang assembled the evidence for the Buddhist origins of the legends of the Christian saints Barlaam and Josephat. He suggested the importance of Arabic intermediaries, showing that confusion of diacritical markings turned Budhasaf (Bodhisattva, the Buddha-to-be) into Yudasaf, Iodasaph, Yuzasaf and Josaphat. By a curious roundabout journey this error reappears in once Buddhist Kashmir where the modern Ahmadiyya Muslims, well known for their Woking mosque, claim that a tomb of Yus Asaf was the tomb of Jesus who died in Kashmir, after having been taken down live from the cross; though though the Bombay Arabic edition of the book Balahvar makes its hero die in Kashmir, by confusion with Kushinara the traditional place of the Buddha's death."
- Trilok Chandra Majupuria, Indra Majupuria Holy places of Buddhism in Nepal & India: a guide to sacred places-1987 Page 295 "(Kushinara-Pali) (Place of Parinirvana) The Pali name of this town where Buddha entered mahaparinir-vana is Kushinara, while the Sanskrit name for it is Kushinagara, Kushinagri, Kushigrama, Kushigramaka, etc."
- Ibn Babawayah "Ikmal uddin" Section with Yuzasif entering Kashmir on page 275 of Vol 2 (English)
- The story of Yuzasif (Arabic) starts from page 223 of vol 2
- The Maha Bodhi Maha Bodhi Society of India - 1979 Volume 87 - Page 168 "forms as "Balahvar" and "Barlaam" etcetera in the Western languages. Bhagavan is a foremost designation of the Buddha, and it means the "Blessed One". The commentator Buddha-ghosa describes it as : Blessed (bhagavant) is a term... 8 Similarly "Kapilavastu" has been written by the foreign writers of the legend as "Shawilabatt" and "Kusinara" as "Kashmir." Kapilavastu was the capital where Prince Siddhartha lived, and Kusinara was the place where the Buddha died. There are several short stories within the main story of Balahvar and Iodasaph. Teaching through parables was widely practiced."
- W. Y. Evans-Wentz Tibet's Great Yogi Milarepa: A Biography from the Tibetan being ...2000 - Page 276 "Similarly, the funeral pyre of the Lord Buddha Gautama could not be made to burn until Kashyapa arrived seven days late."
- Per Beskow in The Blackwell Companion to Jesus ed. Delbert Burkett 2011 "Only later did Ahmad's disciples invent the compromise that Jesus had been twice in India. Ahmad's primary source is a legend, known in the West as the tale of Barlaam and Josaphat. It was widely read all through the Middle Ages as an edifying... Yuzasaf as the principal character is named in Urdu, is helped on his way by the wise Bilhawar ... Ahmad divided Yuzasaf in two: Yuz Asaf. He declared that Yuz signified Jesus (who is not called by that name in any"
- Jesus' Tomb in India: The Debate on His Death and Resurrection by Paul C. Pappas 1991 ISBN 0895819465 ; page 155: "Al-Haj Nazir Ahmad's work Jesus in Heaven on Earth, which constitutes the Ahmadi's best historical defense of Jesus' presence in Kashmir as Yuz Asaf, appears to be full of flaws, especially concerning Gondophares' reign", page 100: "The Ahmadi thesis can rest only on eastern legends recorded in oriental works, which for the most part are not reliable, not only because they were written long after the facts, but also because their stories of Yuz Asaf are different and in contradiction", page 115: "It is almost impossible to identify Yuz Asaf with Jesus"
- Great Synaxaristes (Greek): Ὁ Ὅσιος Ἰωάσαφ γιὸς τοῦ βασιλιὰ τῆς Ἰνδίας Ἄβενιρ. 26 Αυγούστου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
- November 19/December 2. Orthodox Calendar (Pravoslavie.ru).
- Venerable Joasaph the Prince of India. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
- The Golden Legend: The Story of Barlaam and Josaphat
- Kevin Trainor (ed), "Buddhism" (Duncan Baird Publishers, 2001), p. 24
- Emmanuel Choisnel Les Parthes et la Route de la soie 2004 Page 202 "Le nom de Josaphat dérive, tout comme son associé Barlaam dans la légende, du mot Bodhisattva. Le terme Bodhisattva passa d'abord en pehlevi, puis en arabe, où il devint Budasaf. Étant donné qu'en arabe le "b" et le "y" ne different que ..."
- F.C. Conybeare, "The Barlaam and Josaphat Legend in the Ancient Georgian and Armenian Literatures" (Gorgias Press)
- William Cantwell Smith, "Towards a World Theology" (1981)
- Sangharakshita, "From Genesis to the Diamond Sutra – A Western Buddhist's Encounters with Christianity" (Windhorse Publications, 2005), p.165
- Die Blüte der heiligen Dichtkunst im deutschen Mittelalter ist vielleicht »Barlaam und Josaphat«... See Heinrich Heine, Die romantische Schule (Erstes Buch) at heinrich-heine.net. (German).
- Emmanuel Choisnel Les Parthes et la Route de la soie 2004 – Page 202 "Dans l'Église grecque orthodoxe, Saint Josaphat a été fêté le 26 août et, dans l'Église romaine, le 27 novembre a été la ... D. M. Lang, auteur du chapitre « Iran, Armenia and Georgia » dans la Cambridge History of Iran, estime pour sa part ..."
- Barlaam and Ioasaph, John Damascene, Loeb Classical Library 34, Introduction by David M. Lang
- Barlaam and Ioasaph, John Damascene, Loeb Classical Library 34, at LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY
- Pieter W. van der Horst, Utrecht – Review of 2006/2009 Robert Volk edition
- Barlaam and Ioasaph (Legend in form attributed to St John of Damascus)
- Version in Golden Legend
- "Barlaam and Josaphat". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- Barlaam and Josaphat in Jewish Encyclopedia
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Barlaam and Josaphat". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.