|- City -|
View of Barnaul
Location of Altai Krai in Russia
|City Day||One of Sundays in August or September|
|Administrative status (as of October 2011)|
|Federal subject||Altai Krai|
|Administratively subordinated to||city of krai significance of Barnaul|
|Administrative center of||Altai Krai, city of krai significance of Barnaul|
|Municipal status (as of July 2009)|
|Urban okrug||Barnaul Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Barnaul Urban Okrug|
|Head||Igor Savintsev (acting)|
|Representative body||City Duma|
|Population (2010 Census)||612,401 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||21st|
|Time zone||OMST (UTC+07:00)|
|City status since||1771|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 3852|
Barnaul (Russian: Барнаул, IPA: [bərnɐˈul]) is a city and the administrative center of Altai Krai, Russia, located on the Ob River. Population: 612,401 (2010 Census); 600,749 (2002 Census); 601,811 (1989 Census).
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Administrative and municipal status
- 4 Climate
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Education and culture
- 8 Sports
- 9 International relations
- 10 Notable people
- 11 Images of Barnaul
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The city lies along the Ob River in the West Siberian Plain. It is the closest major city to the Altai Mountains to the south. Barnaul is also situated relatively close to the border with the countries of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China.
Barnaul was one of the earliest cities established in Siberia. Originally chosen for its proximity to the mineral-rich Altai Mountains and its location on a major river, the site was founded by the wealthy Demidov family in the 1730s. In addition to the copper which had originally attracted the Demidovs, substantial deposits of silver were soon found as well. In 1747, the Demidovs' factories were taken over by the Crown, and soon became the major silver center of Russia.
By the 18th and early 19th centuries, 90% of Russian silver was produced in the Altai region. Barnaul was the site of the country's largest silver-smelting factory, and as production expanded, so did the population. In 1771, the once-small settlement was granted town status, one of the largest in Siberia.
By the 1900s, Barnaul had grown into a major center of trade and culture of the region, especially after the construction of the Turkestan-Siberia Railway.
World War II
Although the city was thousands of miles away from the actual fighting, hundreds of thousands of citizens from Altai Krai fought and died at the front in the course of the Second World War, a fact commemorated by a large memorial in central Barnaul.
The same period saw Barnaul's economic importance increase dramatically as a result of the relocation of major Soviet industrial facilities from the west of the country to the safety of distant Siberia. As a result, Barnaul continues to host one of the largest ammunition factories in Russia.
Administrative and municipal status
Barnaul is the administrative center of the krai. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one work settlement and twenty-four rural localities, incorporated as the city of krai significance of Barnaul—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Barnaul is incorporated as Barnaul Urban Okrug.
The continental climate of Barnaul (Köppen Dfb) is defined by its geographical position at the southern end of the Siberian steppe: it is subject to long, frigid winters, with an average of −15.5 °C (4.1 °F) in January, but also enjoys a short warm season in the summer with an average temperature of +19.9 °C (67.8 °F) in July. Temperatures can vary in the extreme, from below −45 °C (−49 °F) in the winter to above +35 °C (95 °F) in the summer.
The climate is relatively dry. The average precipitation in the area is 433 millimeters (17.0 in) per year, 75% of which occurs during the region's warmer season.
|Climate data for Barnaul|
|Record high °C (°F)||5.3
|Average high °C (°F)||−10.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−15.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−20.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−48.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||24
|Avg. rainy days||0.4||1||3||12||16||16||17||16||16||14||6||1||118.4|
|Avg. snowy days||22||18||13||4||0.4||0||0||0||0.2||4||14||24||99.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||77||112||178||218||272||315||320||265||199||109||75||64||2,204|
|Source #1: pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: NOAA (sun only, 1961-1990)|
Barnaul is an important industrial center of Western Siberia. There are more than 100 industrial enterprises in the city, employing approximately 120 thousand people. Leading industries in the city work with diesel and carbon processing; as well as production of heavy machinery, tires, furniture and footwear. It is also home to a newly established diamond faceting industry, which the city hopes will expand and become a major source of revenue in the future. Barnaul is currently one of the only locations in Russia which has an industry specializing in diamond-faceting.
The main business street of the city is Leninsky Prospect, which runs southwest from the Ob River through the center of the city. In recent years, a number of new high-end shopping centers have appeared to meet demand for products desired by the city's nouveau riche. Another industry quickly changing the face of Barnaul's downtown area is the restaurant industry: while choices had been extremely limited until recently, a growing number of establishments catering to people of differing income levels are becoming more common, coinciding with the upturn in the region's economy.
Barnaul has air, railway, road and riverboat links to other parts of Russia. The city lies approximately 220 kilometers (140 mi) south of Novosibirsk, the largest city in Siberia and the third-largest in Russia. It is at a junction of the Novosibirsk–Almaty and Biysk train lines. There are also frequent buses to nearby cities Biysk and Gorno-Altaysk. It takes about four hours to reach the Altai Mountains in the south by car along the Chuysky highway.
Barnaul airport located about fifteen minutes from the center of the city, which offers daily flights to and from Moscow and Saint Petersburg among other more local flights. Barnaul is approximately four hours by plane from Moscow, and slightly longer to Saint Petersburg. It also takes approximately four hours by plane to reach Vladivostok on the Pacific coast of Russia.
Any part of the city can be reached using public transport, whether by bus, trolley, tram or taxi.
Although Barnaul's main roads have undergone recent renovation, most other roads are in serious disrepair.
Education and culture
Barnaul is an important regional center of scientific development. Five universities, including Altai State Technical University, Barnaul State Pedagogical University, Altai State Medical University, Altai State Agrarian University and Altai State University, as well as 35 libraries are located in the city. Barnaul also has five theatres and three museums. The city's Museum of Local Lore was founded in 1823 and is one of the oldest in Siberia, displaying local artists' work as well as unique artifacts from the Altai region.
Since 1957 FC Dynamo Barnaul has been the city's professional football club. The club has recently advanced from the Russian Second Division to the Russian First Division before being relegated again to Russian Second Division in 2009.
Twin towns and sister cities
Barnaul is twinned with:
- Flagstaff, Arizona, United States
- Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain
- Baicheng, Jilin, China
- Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China (2007)
- Rita Streich, coloratura soprano
- Konstantin Scherbakov, pianist
- Julia Neigel, singer, songwriter
- Anna Nikolskaya-Ekseli, writer of children's books and sci-fi
Images of Barnaul
- Law #28-ZS
- Law #144-ZS
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 37. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
- Почтовые индексы Алтайский край, Город Барнаул. Ruspostindex.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
- How to call Russia: country code, area codes, phone books. Howtocallabroad.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Sanborn, Josh. "The Mobilization of 1917 and the Question of the Russian Nation." Slavic Review, Vol. 59, No. 2: pp. 267-89.
- "Weather And Climate - Climate Barnaul" (in Russian). Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "Climate Normals for Barnaul". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- Алтайский краевой Совет народных депутатов. Закон №28-ЗС от 1 марта 2008 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №21-ЗС от 8 апреля 2013 г. «Об упразднении посёлка Полевой Нижнегусихинского сельсовета Усть-Пристанского района Алтайского края и о внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Алтайского края». Вступил в силу 8 марта 2008 г. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №67, 8 марта 2008 г. (Altai Krai Council of People's Deputies. Law #28-ZS of March 1, 2008 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #21-ZS of April 8, 2013 On Abolishing the Settlement of Polevoy in Nizhnegusikhinsky Selsoviet of Ust-Pristansky District of Altai Krai and on Amending Various Laws of Altai Krai. Effective as of March 8, 2008.).
- Алтайское краевое Законодательное Собрание. Закон №144-ЗС от 27 декабря 2008 г. «О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №44-ЗС от 2 июля 2009 г «О внесении изменений в Приложение 1 к Закону Алтайского края "О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №5–6, 15 января 2009 г. (Altai Krai Legislative Assembly. Law #144-ZS of December 27, 2008 On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #44-ZS of July 2, 2009 On Amending Appendix 1 of the Law of Altai Krai "On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the day of the official publication.).
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Barnaul.|
- Barnaul.org Official website of Barnaul
- GIS-Map of Barnaul
- Weather in Barnaul
- Map of Barnaul
- Pictures of Barnaul