Barnaul

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This article is about the city in Russia. For the Barnaul meteorite of 1904, see meteorite fall.
Barnaul (English)
Барнаул (Russian)
-  City  -
Barnaul Skyline 2007.jpg
View of Barnaul
Map of Russia - Altai Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Altai Krai in Russia
Barnaul is located in Altai Krai
Barnaul
Barnaul
Location of Barnaul in Altai Krai
Coordinates: 53°17′27″N 83°38′52″E / 53.29083°N 83.64778°E / 53.29083; 83.64778Coordinates: 53°17′27″N 83°38′52″E / 53.29083°N 83.64778°E / 53.29083; 83.64778
Coat of Arms of Barnaul (Altai krai) (1846).png
Flag of Barnaul (Altai krai).png
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day One of Sundays in August or September[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of October 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Altai Krai
Administratively subordinated to city of krai significance of Barnaul[1]
Administrative center of Altai Krai,[citation needed] city of krai significance of Barnaul[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2009)
Urban okrug Barnaul Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Barnaul Urban Okrug[2]
Head[citation needed] Igor Savintsev (acting)[citation needed]
Representative body City Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 612,401 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 21st
Time zone OMST (UTC+07:00)[4]
Founded 1730s[5]
City status since 1771[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[6] 656xxx
Dialing code(s) +7 3852[7]
Official website
Barnaul on WikiCommons

Barnaul (Russian: Барнаул; IPA: [bərnɐˈul]) is a city and the administrative center of Altai Krai, Russia, located on the Ob River. Population: 612,401 (2010 Census);[3] 600,749 (2002 Census);[8] 601,811 (1989 Census).[9]

Geography[edit]

The city lies along the Ob River in the West Siberian Plain. It is the closest major city to the Altai Mountains to the south. Barnaul is also situated relatively close to the border with the countries of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China.

History[edit]

A historical wooden house

Russian Empire[edit]

Barnaul was founded in 1730.[10] Originally chosen for its proximity to the mineral-rich Altai Mountains and its location on a major river, the site was founded by the wealthy Demidov family in the 1730s.[5] In addition to the copper which had originally attracted the Demidovs, substantial deposits of silver were soon found as well. In 1747, the Demidovs' factories were taken over by the Crown, and soon became the major silver center of Russia.[citation needed]

By the 1900s, Barnaul had grown into a major center of trade and culture of the region, especially after the construction of the Turkestan-Siberia Railway.

In 1914, Barnaul was the site of a draft riot, Russia's largest during World War I, which resulted in over a hundred casualties. [11]

World War II[edit]

Although the city was thousands of miles away from the actual fighting, hundreds of thousands of citizens from Altai Krai fought and died at the front in the course of the Second World War, a fact commemorated by a large memorial in central Barnaul.[citation needed]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Barnaul is the administrative center of the krai.[citation needed] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one work settlement and twenty-four rural localities, incorporated as the city of krai significance of Barnaul—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Barnaul is incorporated as Barnaul Urban Okrug.[2]

Climate[edit]

The continental climate of Barnaul (Köppen Dfb) is defined by its geographical position at the southern end of the Siberian steppe: it is subject to long winters, with an average of −15.5 °C (4.1 °F) in January, but also enjoys a short warm season in the summer with an average temperature of +19.9 °C (67.8 °F) in July. Temperatures can vary in the extreme, from below −45 °C (−49 °F) in the winter to above +35 °C (95 °F) in the summer.

The climate is relatively dry. The average precipitation in the area is 433 millimeters (17.0 in) per year, 75% of which occurs during the region's warmer season.

Climate data for Barnaul
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
7.4
(45.3)
16.4
(61.5)
32.3
(90.1)
37.4
(99.3)
36.6
(97.9)
37.9
(100.2)
38.3
(100.9)
34.0
(93.2)
27.4
(81.3)
15.3
(59.5)
6.3
(43.3)
38.3
(100.9)
Average high °C (°F) −10.8
(12.6)
−8.1
(17.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
10.1
(50.2)
20.1
(68.2)
24.3
(75.7)
26.3
(79.3)
24.3
(75.7)
17.7
(63.9)
9.2
(48.6)
−2.2
(28)
−8.5
(16.7)
8.48
(47.27)
Daily mean °C (°F) −15.5
(4.1)
−13.7
(7.3)
−6.5
(20.3)
3.8
(38.8)
12.8
(55)
17.7
(63.9)
19.9
(67.8)
17.4
(63.3)
11.0
(51.8)
3.8
(38.8)
−6.3
(20.7)
−12.9
(8.8)
2.62
(36.72)
Average low °C (°F) −20.1
(−4.2)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−11.8
(10.8)
−1.2
(29.8)
6.5
(43.7)
11.6
(52.9)
14.0
(57.2)
11.6
(52.9)
5.6
(42.1)
−0.4
(31.3)
−10.0
(14)
−17.4
(0.7)
−2.52
(27.46)
Record low °C (°F) −48.2
(−54.8)
−42.9
(−45.2)
−35.5
(−31.9)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−8.8
(16.2)
−1.2
(29.8)
2.9
(37.2)
0.4
(32.7)
−7.8
(18)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−38.9
(−38)
−43.1
(−45.6)
−48.2
(−54.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 24
(0.94)
18
(0.71)
17
(0.67)
28
(1.1)
40
(1.57)
55
(2.17)
68
(2.68)
44
(1.73)
43
(1.69)
37
(1.46)
37
(1.46)
31
(1.22)
442
(17.4)
Avg. rainy days 0.4 1 3 12 16 16 17 16 16 14 6 1 118.4
Avg. snowy days 22 18 13 4 0.4 0 0 0 0.2 4 14 24 99.6
 % humidity 78 76 74 63 55 64 70 70 69 73 79 79 70.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 77 112 178 218 272 315 320 265 199 109 75 64 2,204
Source #1: pogoda.ru.net[12]
Source #2: NOAA (sun only, 1961-1990)[13]

Economy[edit]

Newly constructed buildings in Barnaul

Barnaul is an important industrial center of Western Siberia. There are more than 100 industrial enterprises in the city, employing approximately 120 thousand people. Leading industries in the city work with diesel and carbon processing; as well as production of heavy machinery, tires, furniture and footwear.[citation needed]

The main business street of the city is Leninsky Prospect, which runs southwest from the Ob River through the center of the city.[citation needed]

Transportation[edit]

Barnaul has air, railway, road and riverboat links to other parts of Russia. The city lies approximately 220 kilometers (140 mi) south of Novosibirsk, the largest city in Siberia and the third-largest in Russia. It is at a junction of the NovosibirskAlmaty and Biysk train lines. There are also frequent buses to nearby cities Biysk and Gorno-Altaysk.

Barnaul airport located about fifteen minutes from the center of the city, which offers daily flights to and from Moscow and Saint Petersburg among other more local flights.

Education and culture[edit]

Barnaul is an important regional center of scientific development. Five universities, including Altai State Technical University, Barnaul State Pedagogical University, Altai State Medical University, Altai State Agrarian University and Altai State University, as well as 35 libraries are located in the city. Barnaul also has five theatres and three museums. The city's Museum of Local Lore was founded in 1823 and is one of the oldest in Siberia, displaying local artists' work as well as unique artifacts from the Altai region.

Sports[edit]

Since 1957 FC Dynamo Barnaul has been the city's professional football club. The club has recently advanced from the Russian Second Division to the Russian First Division before being relegated again to Russian Second Division in 2009.[citation needed]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Barnaul is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

Images of Barnaul[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Law #28-ZS
  2. ^ a b c Law #144-ZS
  3. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Current local time in Barnaul". Time and Date. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 37. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  6. ^ Почтовые индексы Алтайский край, Город Барнаул. Ruspostindex.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  7. ^ How to call Russia: country code, area codes, phone books. Howtocallabroad.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  8. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  10. ^ "Barnaul - capital of Altai Krai". Altai Region. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  11. ^ Sanborn, Josh. "The Mobilization of 1917 and the Question of the Russian Nation." Slavic Review, Vol. 59, No. 2: pp. 267-89.
  12. ^ "Weather And Climate - Climate Barnaul" (in Russian). Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  13. ^ "Climate Normals for Barnaul". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 

Sources[edit]

  • Алтайский краевой Совет народных депутатов. Закон №28-ЗС от 1 марта 2008 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №73-ЗС от 12 ноября 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Алтайского края "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Алтайского края"». Вступил в силу 8 марта 2008 г. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №67, 8 марта 2008 г. (Altai Krai Council of People's Deputies. Law #28-ZS of March 1, 2008 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #73-ZS of November 12, 2013 On Amending the Law of Altai Krai "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Altai Krai". Effective as of March 8, 2008.).
  • Алтайское краевое Законодательное Собрание. Закон №144-ЗС от 27 декабря 2008 г. «О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №44-ЗС от 2 июля 2009 г «О внесении изменений в Приложение 1 к Закону Алтайского края "О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №5–6, 15 января 2009 г. (Altai Krai Legislative Assembly. Law #144-ZS of December 27, 2008 On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #44-ZS of July 2, 2009 On Amending Appendix 1 of the Law of Altai Krai "On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]