Barnstaple

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Coordinates: 51°04′56″N 4°02′56″W / 51.0823°N 4.0489°W / 51.0823; -4.0489

Barnstaple
Barnstaple Long Bridge and surrounding buildings - geograph.org.uk - 1754403.jpg
Barnstaple and the River Taw viewed from the south
Barnstaple is located in Devon
Barnstaple
Barnstaple
 Barnstaple shown within Devon
Population 30,916 
OS grid reference SS5633
Civil parish Barnstaple
District North Devon
Shire county Devon
Region South West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town BARNSTAPLE
Postcode district EX31
EX32
Dialling code 01271
Police Devon and Cornwall
Fire Devon and Somerset
Ambulance South Western
EU Parliament South West England
UK Parliament North Devon
List of places
UK
England
Devon

Barnstaple Listeni/ˈbɑrnstəbəl/ or /ˈbɑrnstəpəl/[1] is a former river-port, civil parish and largest town of the local government district of North Devon in the county of Devon, England.

Since 1974, it has been a civil parish governed by town council.[2] The parish of Barnstaple has a population of 23,710 but the population of the urban area of the town taking in Sticklepath, Roundswell and Bickington is 30,916.[3] Near-contiguous areas such as Bishop's Tawton, Fremington and Landkey and other satellite settlements make up a hinterland known as the 'Barnstaple Town Area' which has a population of 53,514.

Toponymy[edit]

The old spelling Barnstable[4] is now obsolete, but is retained by an American county and town and is still sometimes used for Bideford or Barnstable Bay.[5] The name is first recorded in the 10th century and is believed to derive from the Old English bearde, meaning "battle-axe", and stapol, meaning "pillar", referring to a post or pillar set up to mark a religious or administrative meeting place. The belief that the name derives from staple meaning "market", indicating that there was a market here from the foundation of the settlement, is incorrect, because the use of staple in that sense is not recorded in England before 1423.[6]

Barnstaple was formerly referred to as "Barum", from a contraction of the Latin form of the name (ad Barnastapolitum) in Latin documents such as the episcopal registers of the Diocese of Exeter.[7] Barum was mentioned by Shakespeare, and the name was revived and popularised in Victorian times, when it featured in several contemporary novels. The name Barum is retained in the names of a football team, brewery, and of several local businesses. The former Brannam Pottery works which was sited in Litchdon Street was known for its trademark "Barum" etched on the base of its products.

History[edit]

The earliest settlement in the area was probably at Pilton on the bank of the River Yeo, now a northern suburb of the present town. Pilton is recorded in the Burghal Hidage (c. 917) as a burh founded by Alfred the Great,[8] and it may have been the site of a Viking attack in 893,[9] but by the later 10th century Barnstaple had taken over its role of local defence. Barnstaple had its own mint before the Norman Conquest.[8]

The large feudal barony of Barnstaple had its caput at Barnstaple Castle. It was granted by William the Conqueror to Geoffrey de Montbray, who is recorded as its holder in Domesday Book. The barony escheated to the crown in 1095 after Montbray had rebelled against King William II. William re-granted the barony to Juhel de Totnes, formerly feudal baron of Totnes. In about 1107, Juhel, who had already founded Totnes Priory, founded Barnstaple Priory, of the Cluniac order, dedicated to St Mary Magdalene.[10] After Juhel's son died without children, the barony was split into two, passing through the de Braose and Tracy families, before being reunited under Henry de Tracy. It then passed through several other families, before ending up in the ownership of Margaret Beaufort (died 1509), mother of king Henry VII. See Feudal barony of Barnstaple for full details.

In the 1340s the merchants of the town claimed that the rights of a free borough had been granted to them by King Athelstan in a lost charter. Although this was challenged from time to time by subsequent lords of the manor, it still allowed the merchants an unusual degree of self-government.[11] The town's wealth in the Middle Ages was founded on its being a staple port licensed to export wool. It had an early merchant guild, known as the Guild of St. Nicholas. In the early 14th century it was the third richest town in Devon, behind Exeter and Plymouth, and it was the largest textile centre outside Exeter until about 1600.[12] Its wool trade was further aided by the town's port, from which in 1588 five ships were contributed to the force sent to fight the Spanish Armada.

The developing trade with America in the 16th and 17th centuries greatly benefited the town. The wealthy merchants that this trade created built impressive town houses, some of which survive behind more recent frontages—they include No. 62 Boutport Street, said to have one of the best plaster ceilings in Devon.[13] The merchants also built several almshouses, and they ensured they would be remembered by installing elaborate monuments to their families in the church.[13]

By the 18th century, Barnstaple had ceased to be a woollen manufacturing town, but this business was replaced by the import of Irish wool and yarn, for which it was the main landing place; the raw materials were carried by land to the new clothmaking towns in mid- and east Devon, such as Tiverton and Honiton.[12] However, the harbour was gradually silting up—as early as c. 1630 Tristram Risdon reported that "it hardly beareth small vessels"—and Bideford, which is lower down the estuary and benefits from the scouring action of the fast flowing River Torridge, gradually took over the foreign trade.[12]

Although for a time between 1680 and 1730, Barnstaple's trade was surpassed by Bideford's, it retained its economic importance until the early 20th century,[12] when it was manufacturing lace, gloves, sail-cloth and fishing-nets, it had extensive potteries, tanneries, sawmills and foundries, and shipbuilding was also carried on.[14]

Barnstaple was one of the boroughs reformed by the Municipal Reform Act 1835. Between the 1930s and the 1950s the town swallowed the villages of Pilton, Newport, and Roundswell through ribbon development.

Barnstaple Clock Tower, erected in 1862 as a memorial to Prince Albert

Government[edit]

Since 1974, Barnstaple has been a civil parish governed by town council.[2] It is represented in Parliament by the North Devon county constituency, held by Liberal Democrat, Nick Harvey, since 1992.

Geography[edit]

Barnstaple is the main town of North Devon and claims to be the oldest borough in the United Kingdom. It lies 68 miles (109 km) west-south-west of Bristol, 50 miles (80 km) north of Plymouth and 34 miles (55 km) northwest of the county town and city of Exeter. It was founded at the lowest crossing point of the River Taw, where its estuary starts to widen, about 7 miles (11 km) inland from Barnstaple Bay (or Bideford Bay) in the Bristol Channel.[8] On the north side of the town, the River Taw is joined by the River Yeo, which rises on Berry Down, near Combe Martin.

The greater part of the town lies on the eastern bank of the estuary, connected to the western side by the ancient Barnstaple Long Bridge which has 16 arches.[8] The early medieval layout of the town is still apparent from the street plan and street names, with Boutport Street ("About the Port") following the curved line of the ditch outside the town walls.[13] The area of medieval shipbuilding and repair is still called The Strand, the Old English word for shore.

Climate[edit]

Barnstaple has cool, wet winters and mild, wet summers. Temperatures range from 9 C (48 F) in January to 21 C (70 F) in July. October is the wettest month with 103 mm (4.1 in) of rain. The record high is 34 C (94 F), and the record low is −9 C (16 F). Barnstaple gets 862 mm (33.9 in) of rain per year, with rain on 138 days.

Climate data for Barnstaple, United Kingdom
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16
(61)
18
(64)
20
(68)
25
(77)
27
(81)
31
(88)
33
(91)
34
(93)
28
(82)
29
(84)
18
(64)
15
(59)
34
(93)
Average high °C (°F) 9
(48)
10
(50)
11
(52)
13
(55)
18
(64)
19
(66)
21
(70)
20
(68)
19
(66)
15
(59)
12
(54)
9
(48)
14.7
(58.3)
Average low °C (°F) 4
(39)
4
(39)
5
(41)
6
(43)
9
(48)
11
(52)
13
(55)
13
(55)
11
(52)
9
(48)
6
(43)
4
(39)
7.9
(46.2)
Record low °C (°F) −6
(21)
−6
(21)
−9
(16)
−3
(27)
0
(32)
1
(34)
7
(45)
7
(45)
−1
(30)
−2
(28)
−6
(21)
−6
(21)
−9
(16)
Rainfall mm (inches) 75
(2.95)
65
(2.56)
53
(2.09)
64
(2.52)
60
(2.36)
63
(2.48)
64
(2.52)
65
(2.56)
59
(2.32)
103
(4.06)
93
(3.66)
98
(3.86)
862
(33.94)
Avg. rainy days 15 10 12 10 11 9 9 10 11 13 14 14 138
 % humidity 83 82 80 77 76 78 79 79 79 81 83 83 80
Source #1: Weather2[15]
Source #2: HolidayCheck.com[16]

Demography[edit]

Barnstaple parish's population in the 1801 census was 3,748, in the 1901 census 9,698, and in the 2001 census, the population was 20,724.[17]

As of 2005 estimates the racial make-up of the town was as follows:[citation needed]

  • White British 98.7%
  • White Irish 0.2%
  • Mixed race 0.2%
  • Chinese 0.4%
  • Other 0.5%

Economy[edit]

North Devon is some distance from the UK's traditional areas of industrial activity and population. In the late 1970s Barnstaple gained a number of industrial companies due to the availability of central government grants for the construction of factories and their operation on low or zero levels of local taxation. This was only partially successful, with few of these lasting more than the few years that grants were available. One success was the manufacturing of generic medicines by Cox Pharmaceuticals (now branded Actavis), who moved in 1980 from their site in Brighton, Sussex. The most lasting consequence for the town was the development and expansion of the industrial estates at Seven Brethren, Whiddon Valley and Pottington.

Whilst the 1989 opening of the improved A361 connection to the motorway network helped in some ways to promote trade, notably weekend tourism, it had a detrimental effect on a number of distribution businesses. The latter had previously viewed the town as a base for local distribution networks, a need that was removed with an approximate halving of travelling time to the M5 motorway.

Because Barnstaple is the main shopping area for North Devon, retail work is a contributor to the economy. There are many generic chain stores in the town centre and in the Roundswell Business Park, on the western fringe of the town. However, by far the largest employer in the region is local and central Government. The two main government employers in the area are the Royal Marines Base Chivenor, 3 miles (4.8 km) west of the town, and North Devon District Hospital, 1 mile (1.6 km) to the north.

In 2005 unemployment in North Devon was 1.8–2.4%, and the median per capita wage for North Devon was 73% of the UK national average. The level of work in the informal or casual sector is high, partly due to the impact of seasonal tourism, as is the case in much of the South West of England.

Culture and community[edit]

Barnstaple is twinned with Barnstable, Massachusetts in the USA, Uelzen in Germany, Trouville-sur-Mer in France,[18] and Susa in Italy.

Landmarks[edit]

Queen Anne's Walk, formerly the Mercantile Exchange, c. 1708, with the town's main quay to the left. The statue of Queen Anne was given in 1708 by Robert Rolle (died 1710), MP, of Stevenstone

Barnstaple has an eclectic mix of architectural style with the 19th century probably now predominant. There are some remnants of early buildings to enjoy as well as several early plaster ceilings. St. Anne's Chapel in the central churchyard is probably the best of the ancient buildings to survive. Queen Anne's Walk was erected c. 1708 as a mercantile exchange. The Georgian Guildhall is also of interest as well as the Pannier Market beneath. The museum has an "arts and crafts" vibe with its tessellated floors, locally made staircase and decorative fireplaces.[19]

Barnstaple Castle[edit]

Barnstaple Castle Mound, 11th century, now next to the public library and car park

A wooden castle was built by Geoffrey de Mowbray, Bishop of Coutances in the 11th century, clearing houses to make room for it. Juhel of Totnes later occupied the castle and founded Barnstaple Priory just outside its walls. The castle's first stone buildings were probably erected by Henry de Tracey, a strong supporter of King Stephen. In 1228, the Sheriff of Devon ordered the walls of the castle to be reduced to a height of 10 feet (3 m). By the time of the death of the last Henry de Tracey in 1274, the castle was beginning to decay. The fabric of the castle was used in the construction of other buildings and by 1326 the castle was a ruin. The remaining walls blew down in a storm in 1601.[20] Today only the tree covered motte remains.[21]

St Anne's Chapel[edit]

St Anne's Chapel was restored in 2012. It was an ancient chantry chapel, the assets of which were acquired by the Mayor of Barnstaple and others in 1585, some time after the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The deed of feoffment dated 1 November 1585 exists in the George Grant Francis collection in Cardiff:[22]
"i) Robert Appley the elder, Robert Cade, Hugh Brasyer and Richard Wetheridge of Barnestaple to: ii) William Plamer, mayor of Barnestaple, Richard Dodderidge, Roger Cade, Symon Monngey, Robert Appley the younger, Robert Pronze (Prouse?), Roger Beaple, George Pyne, gent., Jacob Wescombe, Gilbert Hareys, Robert Marlen, Thomas Mathewe, James Beaple, George Baker, James Downe, William Bayly, John Collybeare, Robert Collybeare and John Knyll of Barnestaple; 1 Chancery and Chapel of St Anne lately dissolved in Barnestaple with 1 house with land belonging to the late Chancery and Chapel; also 1 house and land in Barnestaple which John Littlestone of Barnestaple, merchant and John Buddle, potter granted to (i)."

The Pannier Market and Butchers Row[edit]

The interior of the Pannier Market
Butchers' Row, looking eastwards, with the side of the Pannier Market, left

Barnstaple has been the major market for North Devon since Saxon times. Demands for health regulation of its food market in Victorian times saw the construction in 1855 to 1856 of the town's Pannier Market, originally known as the Vegetable Market and designed by R D Gould. The building has a high glass and timber roof on iron columns. At 107 yards (98 m) long, it runs the length of Butchers Row. Market days are Monday – Crafts and General (April to December), Tuesday – General and Produce (all year), Wednesday – Arts Collectables and Books (all year), Thursday – Crafts and General (all year), Friday – General and Produce (all year) and Saturday – General and Produce (all year).

Built on the other side of the street at the same time as the Pannier Market, Butchers Row consists of ten shops with pilasters of Bath Stone, and wrought iron supports to an overhanging roof. Only two of the shops remain as butchers although the new shops still sell local agricultural goods. There is one baker, one delicatessen, two fishmongers, a florist and a greengrocer.

Others[edit]

Key
AP Icon.svg Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
Accessible open space Accessible open space
Themepark uk icon.png Amusement/Theme Park
CL icon.svg Castle
Country Park Country Park
EH icon.svg English Heritage
Forestry commission logo.svg Forestry Commission
Heritage railway Heritage railway
Historic house Historic House
Museum (free)
Museum
Museum (free/not free)
National Trust National Trust
Drama-icon.svg Theatre
Zoo icon.jpg Zoo

In Barnstaple

Around Barnstaple

Transport[edit]

Barnstaple Long Bridge

In 1989, the A361 North Devon Link Road was constructed, linking Barnstaple with the M5 motorway, approximately 40 miles (65 km) to the east. Traffic congestion in the town used to be severe, but in May 2007, the Barnstaple Western Bypass was opened so traffic heading towards Braunton and Ilfracombe avoids travelling through the town centre over the ancient bridge. The bypass consists of 1.6 miles (2.6 km) of new road and a 447 yards (409 m) long, five-span bridge. It was expected to have cost £42 million.[citation needed] As part of this work, the town's main square was re-modelled as the entrance to the town centre, and The Strand was closed to traffic.

The Barnstaple bus network is privatised and run by many bus operators including Stagecoach Bus Group. The main bus station is located on the junction with Queen Street and Belle Meadow Drive. National Express also run services from here.

The nearest airport is Exeter

Railway[edit]

A map of Barnstaple from 1937, showing the railway lines.

Barnstaple railway station is near the end of the Long Bridge but on the opposite bank of the River Taw to the town centre. The town used to have several other stations but these have all closed since the publication of the Reshaping of British Railways (the so-called Beeching Axe) report in the 1960s. The surviving station was opened on 1 August 1854 by the North Devon Railway (later the London and South Western Railway), although a service had operated from Fremington since 1848 for goods traffic only. The station became "Barnstaple Junction" on 20 July 1874 when the railway opened the branch line through to Ilfracombe, reverting to just plain "Barnstaple" again when this was closed on 5 October 1970. It is now a terminus and much reduced in size as part of the site is now used for the Barnstaple Western Bypass.

Ilfracombe Branchline in the late 1960s.

The Ilfracombe branch line brought the railway across the river into the town centre. Barnstaple Quay was situated close by the Castle Mound. It was closed in 1898 and replaced by a nearby Barnstaple Town station at North Walk which was also the terminus of the narrow gauge Lynton and Barnstaple Railway until this closed in 1935. The narrow gauge line's main depot and operating centre was at nearby Pilton. The station building still exists, and can be viewed on-line from a webcam mounted on Barnstaple Civic Centre.[23]

A separate "Barnstaple" station, renamed Barnstaple (Victoria Road) in 1949, was opened to the east of the town in 1873 as the terminus of the Devon and Somerset Railway, eventually a part of the Great Western Railway. A junction was later provided to allow trains access to Barnstaple Junction and these ran through to Ilfracombe. It was closed in 1970.

Education[edit]

Museum of Barnstaple and North Devon

There are a selection of well-regarded primary and secondary state schools and a tertiary college in Barnstaple.

In 2012, the county of Devon 58%[24] of students achieved 5 GCSEs grade A* to C. The UK average is 59%.[24]

Percentage of students achieving 5 GCSEs grade A* to C
School Name Type 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
The Park Community School State 38% 44% 45% 47% 54% [25]
Pilton Community College State 47% 51% 50% 53% 49% [26]

Petroc (formerly North Devon College) is a large tertiary college providing a wide range of vocational and academic further education for more than 3,000 young people over 16. The college was due to spend £100 million on a new campus, to be opened on Seven Brethren in 2011,[27][28] but this fell through when the LSC removed its £75 million funding in January 2009.[29]

Petroc was launched in September 2009 – a year after NDC merged with Tiverton's East Devon College.[30]

Religious sites[edit]

St Peter's church with its broach spire

The parish church of Barnstaple is dedicated to St. Peter. Its oldest parts probably date to the 13th century, though the nave, chancel and tower date from 1318, when they were dedicated by Bishop Stapledon. The north and south aisles were added in c. 1670. The church has a notable broach spire, claimed by W. G. Hoskins to be the best of its kind in the country.[12] Inside the church are many mural monuments to 17th-century merchants, such as Raleigh Clapham (died 1636), George Peard (died 1644) and Thomas Horwood (died 1658), reflecting the prosperity of the town at that time.[13] The interior of the church was heavily restored by George Gilbert Scott from 1866, and then by his son John Oldrid Scott into the 1880s,[13] leaving it "dark and dull", according to Hoskins.[12]

Other religious buildings in the town include St Anne's Chapel (a 14th-century chantry chapel, now a museum) in the parish churchyard; Holy Trinity, built in the 1840s but necessarily rebuilt in 1867 as its foundations were unsound—it has a fine tower in the Somerset style; the Roman Catholic church of the Immaculate Conception, said to have been built to designs supplied by Pugin, in Romanesque Revival style; and a Baptist chapel of 1870 which includes a lecture hall and classrooms.[12][13]

Sport[edit]

Cricket is played at Barnstaple and Pilton.[31] Barnstaple Town F.C. have been based at Mill Road since 1904 and play in the Western Football League. Rugby union is played at Barnstaple Rugby Football Club[32] whose first team play in the National League 3 South West, which is fifth tier league in the English rugby union system. More sports are available at the North Devon Leisure Centre,[33] which is the home of Barnstaple Squash Club.[34] There are numerous bowling greens and tennis courts.[35] In February 2010 a Cornish Pilot Gig Rowing Club was established, bringing this sport to Castle Quay in the centre of Barnstaple.[36] There is also hockey available. Taw Valley Ladies Hockey Club (as well as a Junior set-up) and North Devon Men's Hockey Club - they both play at Park School.

Notable residents[edit]

For full list, see Category:People from Barnstaple

Barnstable was the birth place of Daniel Parsons, local athlete and Under 16's rugby captain.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Papers of Barnstaple Borough 1150-1950, North Devon Record Office, B1, [3]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Pointon, G. E., ed. (1983) BBC Pronouncing Dictionary of British Names; 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; p. 18 (only the latter pronunciation)
  2. ^ a b [1][dead link]
  3. ^ "Barnstaple Town Study Report - October 2011". Northdevon.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-07. 
  4. ^ e.g. in Daniel Defoe: A tour through the whole island of Great Britain
  5. ^ e.g. DEFRA, Shore Management Plan Guidance (2011), Annex E1 pp.28,30
  6. ^ Watts, Victor (2010). The Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-names (1st paperback ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-0-521-16855-7. 
  7. ^ Hingeston-Randolph, F. C., ed. Episcopal Registers: Diocese of Exeter. 10 vols. London: George Bell, 1886–1915 (for the period 1257 to 1455)
  8. ^ a b c d Harris, Helen (2004). A Handbook of Devon Parishes. Tiverton: Halsgrove. pp. 13–15. ISBN 1-84114-314-6. 
  9. ^ Todd, Malcolm (1987). The South West to AD 1000. A Regional History of England. Longman. p. 276. ISBN 0-582-49274-2. 
  10. ^ Lamplugh, L., Barnstaple: Town on the Taw, 2002, Cullompton, p. 9
  11. ^ Kowaleski, Maryanne (1992). "The Port Towns of Fourteenth-Century Devon". In Michael Duffy et al. The New Maritime History of Devon Volume 1. From early times to the late eighteenth century. London: Conway Maritime Press. p. 64. ISBN 0-85177-611-6. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Hoskins, W. G. (1972). A New Survey of England: Devon (New ed.). London: Collins. pp. 327–330. ISBN 0-7153-5577-5. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f Pevsner, Nikolaus; Cherry, Bridget (revision) (1989) [1952]. The Buildings of England: Devon. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. pp. 148–160. ISBN 0-14-071050-7. 
  14. ^ "Barnstaple". 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  15. ^ "Climate Profile for Barnstaple". Aug 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  16. ^ "Temperature Barnstaple – climate Barnstaple England – weather Barnstaple". Aug 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  17. ^ Office for National Statistics : Census 2001 : Parish Headcounts : North Devon Retrieved 28 January 2010
  18. ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 2013-07-11. 
  19. ^ "Some Men who Made Barnstaple..." 2010 by Pauline Brain
  20. ^ Ford, David Nash. "History of Barnstaple Castle in Devon". Britannia.com. Retrieved 13 December 2007. 
  21. ^ Fry, Plantagenet Somerset (1980). The David & Charles Book of Castles. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. p. 184. ISBN 0-7153-7976-3. 
  22. ^ RISW GGF 1/122 Feoffment, dated 1 Nov. 1585; [1 parchment, 4 papers, 3 seals, in English, originally A10 or Box IX/i [2]
  23. ^ "Civic Centre webcam". Devon.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  24. ^ a b "Secondary School League Tables". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 March 2013. 
  25. ^ "Education | League Tables | Park School". DFE. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2013. 
  26. ^ "Pilton Community College". DFE. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2013. 
  27. ^ "£100M Funds Go-Ahead For College". BBC News. 31 January 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  28. ^ New college plans[dead link]
  29. ^ "Projects threatened by £56m cuts". BBC News. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  30. ^ Montgomery, Angus (23 September 2009). "Interbrand renames North Devon College as Petroc | News". Marketing Week. Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  31. ^ Play-Sport New Media (13 June 2002). "Play-Cricket the ECB Cricket Network". Barnpilcc.play-cricket.com. Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  32. ^ http://www.barnstaplerfc.co.uk
  33. ^ "North Devon Leisure Centre| Gym, Swimming Pool, Group Exercise Studio, Sports Hall, Squash Courts, Dojo - Martial Arts room | Devon, United Kingdom". Leisurecentre.com. Retrieved 2013-03-06. 
  34. ^ "Welcome to Barnstaple Squash Club". Barnstaplesquash.co.uk. Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  35. ^ "Tarka Tennis indoor center Barnstaple North Devon". Tarkatennis.net. Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  36. ^ http://www.barnstaplepilotgigclub.co.uk/

External links[edit]