Barnwell, South Carolina
|Barnwell, South Carolina|
|— City —|
|• Total||7.8 sq mi (20.1 km2)|
|• Land||7.6 sq mi (19.8 km2)|
|• Water||0.2 sq mi (0.4 km2)|
|Elevation||217 ft (66 m)|
|• Density||659.5/sq mi (254.6/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||1244965|
Barnwell is located at .(33.244534, -81.363214)
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.8 square miles (20 km2), of which, 19.8 square kilometers (7.64 sq mi) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) of it (1.80%) is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 5,035 people, 2,035 households, and 1,353 families residing in the city. The population density was 659.5 people per square mile (254.8/km²). There were 2,304 housing units at an average density of 301.8 per square mile (116.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 49.81% White, 47.37% Black, 1.05% Asian, 0.40% Native American, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, and 0.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.62% of the population.
There were 2,035 households out of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 22.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.5% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.01.
In the city the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 86.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $26,722, and the median income for a family was $37,841. Males had a median income of $35,039 versus $21,912 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,709. placing it in the top third of the state. About 20.4% of families and 22.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.5% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over.
On December 22, 1781, a band of British Loyalist fought with a group of local Patriots two miles north of the Blackville, SC. The location, called Windy Hill at that time, is slightly east of the present day Healing Springs Park and Church. The Commanding Officer was Captain Benjamin Odom, Jr. who was a member of Colonel William Harden’s Regiment. Sixteen Patriots were killed. Major “Bloody Bill” Cunningham’s Major “Bloody Bill” Cunningham was believed to be the Commander of the Tory Company. The area was known for many years as "Slaughter Hill".
Two other Revolutionary battles were fought in what is now Barnwell County, the Battle of Morris Ford and the Battle of Red Hill.
In 1785 the district was named Winton County and formed out of Orangeburg District, . It was formed to create another Judicial circuit. It was given its current name in 1798 when the County and its seat were named for Revolutionary War leader John Barnwell (1748–1800), who headed a militia in South Carolina. Barnwell County originally stretched from the Savannah River on the west almost to the Atlantic Ocean.
Built in 1832, the South Carolina Railroad connected Charleston to Hamburg, near Augusta, Georgia on the Savannah River. The railroad, which went through the middle of the county, was the first steam railroad in the world. Two stops on the railroad created the towns of Blackville, South Carolina and Williston in the mid-nineteenth century.
Barnwell is home to what is thought to be the only vertical freestanding sundial in the USA, though counter-examples exist. The Barnwell sundial was surrounded by a parking lot in the 1960s but in the 1990s the city removed the parking lot, built a park, and made the sundial a focal point.
Civil War 
Barnwell gave generously to the Confederate cause; the most distinguished person was General Johnson Hagood, who was later governor of South Carolina. Soon after Hagood's election, one of his constituents asked him if he wished to be called "General" or "Governor". "Call me General," Hagood said, with a twinkle in his eye, "I fought for that and begged for the other."
Barnwell was hated by General W.T. Sherman; he felt that the town should be burnt to the ground since it carried the name of one of the most prominent politicians who had demanded South Carolina’s withdrawal from the Union. When General Judson Kilpatrick was in Barnwell, his horses were stabled in the Episcopal Church of the Holy Apostles; the font in the church was used to water the horses.
20th century 
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2010)|
Barnwell Army Airfield w as built by the United States Army Air Forces and opened in May 1943. It was a satellite airfield of Columbia Army Air Base, supporting B-25 Mitchell medium bomber training for Third Air Force III Air Support Command. After the war it became Barnwell Regional Airport.
In 1950 the federal government asked DuPont to build and operate a plutonium production plant near the Savannah River in South Carolina. The company had unmatched expertise in atomic energy, having designed and built the plutonium production complex at the Hanford site, for the Manhattan Project during World War II. A large portion of farmland was bought under eminent domain and converted to the Savannah River Plant, managed by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.
Several towns and over 100 cemeteries were relocated during this time, including Dunbarton and Ellenton. Dunbarton was the town in which Duncannon was located; it was an early 19th century plantation and a wildlife preserve. Former President George H. W. Bush and his brothers used to visit their grandfather George Herbert Walker at the plantation. Union General William T. Sherman allegedly spared the plantation, built in 1835, because a woman and sick child were resting in a bedroom upstairs.
U.S. Army soldiers were brought into the county and were used as guards at this new facility. A camp was constructed for the soldiers off of Clinton Street, earning it the name "Barracks Road" among locals, in an area of the Little Salkehatchie swamp called O’Bannon Point. After discharge, many of these troops stayed on at SRP as civilian guards.
DuPont ran the Savannah River Site until 1989, when Westinghouse began the management of the facilities for the Department of Energy. The Savannah River Plant changed its name to the Savannah River Site. It was once one of the largest employers in the county.
Historical landmarks 
The Episcopal Church of the Holy Apostles and its rectory, as well as the Bethlehem Baptist Church and the Old Presbyterian Church were first listed on the National Register of Historic Places in the 1970s. The chapel of Saint Andrew’s Catholic Church is the earliest religious structure in Barnwell County. It is also the oldest originally Catholic Church in South Carolina.
The sundial is a unique vertical monument placed in front of the courthouse of Barnwell County. It was given to Barnwell in 1858 by Joseph D. Allen, at the time a state senator from Barnwell. It is thought to be the only free-standing, vertical sundial in the country. The sundial keeps almost perfect standard time, although standard time was not set up until 1884.
Bethlehem Baptist Church was officially organized in 1868, having its origin in the antebellum Barnwell Baptist Church, which was built on this site in 1829. The Barnwell Baptist Church had their services on this site until 1854 when the congregation built another church building on a different site in the town. At this time several Free Blacks and slaves were members of Barnwell Baptist Church, and they asked to use the 1829 sanctuary for worship services and meetings. Permission was granted to the group, and they met there informally until their official organization in 1868. The old Barnwell Baptist Church sanctuary continued to serve this newly organized church until the building was demolished in 1898. At the time it was demolished some of the material was salvaged and utilized in the present Bethlehem Baptist Church building
Notable residents 
- James Brown, "The Godfather of Soul", was born in the Elko area of Barnwell
- William Gilmore Simms, novelist, lived most of his life in the county.
- Troy Brown, New England Patriots wide receiver.
- Henry Louis Wallace, serial killer
- R. Winston Morris, professional tuba player and teacher.
- Edgar Brown, SC State Senator - member of the "Barnwell Ring"
- Solomon Blatt, SC State Representative - member of the "Barnwell Ring"
- Joseph Emile Harley, SC Governor - member of the "Barnwell Ring"
- Staff Sgt George E Buggs
The county was home to the Barnwell Ring, a group of powerful state politicians. Included were state Senator Edgar A. Brown (1888–1975), state Speaker of the House Solomon Blatt, Sr. (1895–1986), and Governor Joseph E. Harley (1880–1942). Other state and national politicians from Barnwell include:
- James Aldrich, state representative and judge during the 19th and early 20th century
- James O’Hanlon Patterson (1857–1911), United States Representative from South Carolina.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- Historic Barnwell from the city's website
- Wise County Courthouse Sundial, Decatur, TX from Waymarking.com
- History of the Episcopal Church of the Holy Apostles, Barnwell, South Carolina from the church's website