Baroda was an Indian princely state, ruled by the Gaekwad dynasty from its formation in 1721. Following the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805, the Gaekwads of Baroda made peace with the British, entering into a subsidiary alliance which acknowledged British suzerainty and control of the state's external affairs in return for retaining internal autonomy.
With wealth coming from the lucrative cotton trade as well as rice, wheat and sugar, it was one of the largest and richest of the hundreds of princely states existing alongside British India. It was thus one of the states which had a British Resident appointed to deal with no other princely state.
In the 1930s, the Baroda Residency was combined with those for the princely states adjacent to the Bombay Presidency to form the "Baroda, Western States and Gujarat Agency". The autonomy of the state ended in 1949 when it acceded to the newly formed Union of India.
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