Barrow-in-Furness

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Coordinates: 54°06′39″N 3°13′34″W / 54.1108°N 3.2261°W / 54.1108; -3.2261

Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow montage2.jpg
Clockwise from the upper left: Central Barrow with the skyline of Blackpool also visible, Barrow Island, Walney Bridge and Furness College, Furness Abbey, Ramsden Square, Dock Museum and DDH, Barrow Town Hall and St. Mary's Church
Barrow in Furness Town Arms.jpg
Coat of arms of Barrow in Furness
Barrow-in-Furness is located in Cumbria
Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
 Barrow-in-Furness shown within Cumbria
Population 56,745 (2011 Census)
OS grid reference SD198690
    - London  222 mi (357 km) 
District Barrow-in-Furness
Shire county Cumbria
Region North West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town BARROW-IN-FURNESS
Postcode district LA13-LA16
Dialling code 01229
Police Cumbria
Fire Cumbria
Ambulance North West
EU Parliament North West England
UK Parliament Barrow and Furness
List of places
UK
England
Cumbria

Barrow-in-Furness, (/ˈbær ɪn ˈfɜrnəs/; commonly known as Barrow) is a town and seaport in the county of Cumbria, England. Historically part of Lancashire it was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1867 and merged with adjacent districts in 1974 to form the Borough of Barrow-in-Furness. Situated at the tip of the Furness peninsula close to the Lake District it is bordered by Morecambe Bay, the Duddon Estuary and the Irish Sea. In 2011 Barrow's population stood at around 57,000, while 69,000 lived in the wider borough making it the second largest urban area in Cumbria after Carlisle. People from Barrow are known as Barrovians.[1]

In the Middle Ages, Barrow was a small hamlet with Furness Abbey, on the outskirts of the modern-day town, controlling the local economy before its dissolution in 1537. The iron prospector Henry Schneider arrived in Furness in 1839 and, with other investors, opened the Furness Railway in 1846 to transport iron ore and slate from local mines to the coast. Further hematite deposits were discovered, of sufficient size to develop factories for smelting and exporting steel. By the late 19th century, the Barrow Hematite Steel Company-owned steelworks was the world's largest.[2]

Barrow's location and the availability of steel allowed the town to develop into a significant producer of naval vessels, a shift that was accelerated during World War I and the local yard's specialisation in submarines. The original iron- and steel- making enterprises closed down after World War II, leaving Vickers shipyard as Barrow's main industry and employer. Several Royal Navy flagships, the vast majority of its nuclear submarines as well as numerous ocean liners and oil tankers were manufactured at the facility.

The end of the Cold War and subsequent decrease in military spending saw high unemployment in the town through lack of contracts; despite this, the BAE Systems shipyard remains operational as the UK's largest by workforce and has major future expansion plans associated with the Trident successor programme.[3] Today Barrow is a hub for energy generation and handling. Several wind farms located off the coast of the town form one of the highest concentrations of turbines in the world.[4]

Toponymy[edit]

The name was originally that of an island – the name 'Barrai' can be traced back to 1190. This was later renamed 'Old Barrow', recorded as Oldebarrey in 1537, and Old Barrow Insula and Barrohead in 1577. The island was then joined to the mainland and the town took its name. The name itself seems to mean 'island with promontory', combining British barro- and Old Norse ey, but it is more likely that Scandinavian settlers simply accepted barro- as a meaningless name, and so added an explanatory Old Norse second element.[5]

Nicknames[edit]

During the late 19th and early 20th centuries Barrow was nicknamed the 'English Chicago' because of the sudden and rapid growth in its industry, economic stature and overall size.[6] More recently the town has been dubbed the 'Capital of blue-collar Britain' by the Daily Telegraph as a result of its strong working class identity,[7] Barrow is also often jokingly referred to as being located at the end of the longest cul-de-sac in the country (because of its relatively isolated location at the tip of the Furness peninsula).[8]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Barrow and the surrounding area has been settled non-continuously for several millennia. The area also has evidence of Neolithic inhabitants on Walney Island, and Furness Hoard discovery of Viking silver coins and other artefacts in 2011 provided significant archaeological evidence of Norse, which is an in-habitation of the early 9th century. The names of numerous areas of Barrow including Yarlside, Ormsgill and 'Barrow' and 'Furness' themselves are of Old Norse origin. The Domesday Book of 1086 records the settlements of Hietun, Rosse and Hougenai which are now the districts of Hawcoat, Roose and Walney respectively. Despite a rich history of Roman settlement across Cumbria and the discovery of related artefacts in the Barrow area; no buildings or structures have been found to support the idea of a functioning Roman community on the Furness peninsula.[9]

Furness Abbey, one of England's most powerful monasteries in the Middle Ages

In the Middle Ages the Furness peninsula was controlled by the Cistercian monks of the Abbey of St Mary of Furness, known as Furness Abbey. This was located in the 'Vale of Nightshade', now on the outskirts of the town.[10] Originally founded for the Savigniac order, it was built on the orders of King Stephen in 1123. Soon after the abbey's foundation the monks discovered iron ore deposits, later to prove the basis for the Furness economy. These thin strata, close to the surface, were extracted through open cut workings,[11] which were then smelted by the monks in small bloomeries (early furnaces).[12] The proceeds from mining, along with agriculture and fisheries, meant that by the 15th century the abbey had become the second richest and most powerful Cistercian abbey in England, after Fountains Abbey in Yorkshire.[13] The monks of Furness Abbey constructed a wooden tower on nearby Piel Island in 1212 which acted as their main trading point, it was twice invaded by the Scottish in 1316 and 1322. In 1327 King Edward III gave Furness Abbey a license to crenellate the tower and a motte-and-bailey castle was built. However, Barrow itself was just a hamlet in the parish of Dalton-in-Furness on the Furness peninsula, reliant on the land and sea for survival. Small quantities of iron and ore were exported from jetties on the channel separating the village from Walney Island. Amongst the oldest buildings in Barrow are several cottages and farm houses in Newbarns (now a ward of the town) which date back to the early 17th century, as well as Rampside Hall; a Grade I listed building and the best preserved in the town from the 1600s. Even as late as 1843 there were still only 32 dwellings including two pubs.[14]

19th century[edit]

Barrow Steelworks circa. 1877

In 1839 Henry Schneider arrived as a young speculator and dealer in iron, and he discovered large deposits of haematite in 1850. He and other investors founded the Furness Railway, the first section of which opened in 1846 to transport the ore from the slate quarries at Kirkby-in-Furness and haematite mines at Lindal-in-Furness and Askam and Ireleth to a deep water harbour near Roa Island.[15] The crucial and difficult link across Morecambe Bay between Ulverston and Carnforth on the main line was promoted, as the Ulverston and Lancaster Railway, by a group led by John Brogden and opened in 1857. It was promptly purchased by the Furness Railway[16] .[17]

The docks built between 1867 and 1881 in the more sheltered channel between the mainland and Barrow Island replaced the port at Roa Island. The increasing quantities of iron ore mined in Furness were then brought to Barrow to be transported by sea.

The investors in the burgeoning mining and railway industries decided greater profits could be made by smelting the iron ore into steel, and then exporting the finished product. Schneider and James Ramsden, the railway's general manager, erected blast furnaces at Barrow that by 1876 formed the largest steelworks in the world.[18] Its success was a result of the availability of local iron ore, coal from the Cumberland mines and easy rail and sea transport. The Furness Railway, who counted local aristocrats William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire and the Duke of Buccleuch as investors, kick-started the Industrial Revolution on the peninsula. The railway brought mined ore to the town, where the steelworks produced large quantities of steel. It was used for shipbuilding, and derived products such as rails were also exported from the newly built docks.[15] Thus Barrow's population, only 700 in 1851, reached 10,000 by 1864 and 47,000 by 1881, forty years after the railway was built. In an attempt to diversify Barrow's economy James Ramsden founded the Barrow and Calcutta Jute Company in 1870 and the Barrow Jute Works was soon constructed alongside the Furness Railway line in Hindpool. The mill employed 2,000 women at its peak and was awarded a gold medal for its produce at the 1878 Paris Exposition Universelle.[19][20]

Painting of the Barrow Jute Works in 1875
Barrow's shipyard circa. 1890

The sheltered strait between Barrow and Walney Island was an ideal location for the shipyard. The first ship to be built, the Jane Roper, was launched in 1852; the first steamship, a 3,000-ton liner named Duke of Devonshire, in 1873. Shipbuilding activity increased, and on 18 February 1871 the Barrow Shipbuilding Company was incorporated. Barrow's relative isolation from the United Kingdom's industrial heartlands meant that the newly formed company included several capabilities that would usually be subcontracted to other establishments. In particular, a large engineering works was constructed including a foundry and pattern shop, a forge, and an engine shop. In addition, the shipyard had a joiners' shop, a boat-building shed and a sailmaking and rigging loft.[21]

During these boom years, Ramsden proposed building a planned town to accommodate the large workforce which had arrived. There are few planned towns in the United Kingdom, and Barrow is one of the oldest. Its centre contains a grid of well-built terraced houses, with a tree-lined road leading away from a central square. Ramsden later became the first mayor of Barrow,[22] which was given municipal borough status in 1867, and county borough status in 1889.[23] The imposing red sandstone town hall, designed by W.H. Lynn, was built in a neo-gothic style in 1887.[24] Prior to this, the borough council had met at the railway headquarters: the railway company's control of industry extended to the administration of the town itself.

The Barrow Shipbuilding Company was taken over by the Sheffield steel firm of Vickers in 1897, by which time the shipyard had surpassed the railway and steelworks as the largest employer and landowner in Barrow. The company constructed Vickerstown, modelled on George Cadbury's Bournville, on the adjacent Walney Island in the early 20th century to house its employees.[25] It also commissioned Sir Edwin Lutyens to design Abbey House as a guest house and residence for its managing director, Commander Craven.[26] Other significant employers in the town during the 19th century include the Gradwell brickmaking company, Narrow Fabrics Limited which produced elastic at their Greengate Mills site and the corn mill adjacent to Devonshire Dock. The British Griffin Iron and Steel Company was established in 1899 off Ainslie Street and produced wheels for 80% of the UK's tramways as well as numerous more across the British Empire.

20th century[edit]

Cornmill Crossing in 1895 (one of many stations of the Furness Railway), a retail park now exists on the site

By the 1890s the shipyard was heavily engaged in the construction of warships for the Royal Navy and also for export. The Royal Navy's first submarine, Holland 1, was built in 1901,[27] and by 1914 the UK had the most advanced submarine fleet in the world, with 94% of it constructed by Vickers. Vickers was also famous for the construction of airships and airship hangars during the early 20th century. Originally constructed in a large shed at Cavendish Dock, production later relocated to Barrow/Walney Island Airport. HMA No. 1, nicknamed the Mayfly is the most notable airship to have been built in Barrow. The first of its kind in the UK it came to an untimely end in 24 September 1911 when it was wrecked by wind during trials.[28] Well-known ships built in Barrow include the Mikasa, Japanese flagship during the 1905 Russo-Japanese War, the liner SS Oriana and the aircraft carriers HMS Invincible and HMAS Melbourne. It should also be noted that there was a significant presence of Vickers' armament division in Barrow with the huge Heavy Engineering Workshop on Michaelson Road supplying ammunition for the British Army and Royal Navy throughout both world wars. Thousands of local men fought abroad during World War I, 616 were ultimately killed in action.[29]

During World War II, Barrow was a target for the German air force looking to disable the town's shipbuilding capabilities (see Barrow Blitz).[30] The town suffered the most in a short period between April and May 1941. During the war, a local housewife, Nella Last, was selected to write a diary of her experiences on the home front for the Mass-Observation project. Her memoirs were later adapted for television as Housewife, 49 starring Victoria Wood. The difficulty in targeting bombs meant that the shipyards and steelworks were often missed, at the expense of the residential areas. Ultimately, 83 people were killed and 11,000 houses in the area were left damaged. To escape the heaviest bombardments, many people in the central areas left the town to sleep in hedgerows with some being permanently evacuated. Barrow's industry continued to supply the war effort, with Winston Churchill visiting the town on one occasion to launch the aircraft carrier HMS Indomitable.[31] Besides the dozens of civilians killed during World War II, some 268 Barrovian men were also killed whilst in combat.[29]

The end of the war saw the beginning of a long decline of mining and steel-making as a result of overseas competition and dwindling resources. The Barrow ironworks closed in 1963,[32] three years after the last Furness mine shut. The by then small steelworks followed suit in 1983,[33] leaving Barrow's shipyard as the town's principal industry. From the 1960s onwards it concentrated its efforts in submarine manufacture, and the UK's first nuclear-powered submarine, HMS Dreadnought was constructed in 1960. HMS Resolution, the Swiftsure, Trafalgar and Vanguard-class submarines all followed. The last of which are armed with Trident II missiles as part of the British government's Trident programme.

Barrow-built Mikasa was the Imperial Japanese Navy's flagship during the Russo-Japanese War

The end of the Cold War in 1991 marked a reduction in the demand for military ships and submarines, and the town continued its decline. The shipyard's dependency on military contracts at the expense of civilian and commercial engineering and shipbuilding meant it was particularly hard hit as government defence spending was reduced dramatically.[34] As a result, the workforce shrank from 14,500 in 1990 to 5,800 in February 1995,[35] with overall unemployment in the town rising over that period from 4.6% to 10%.[3] The rejection by the VSEL management of detailed plans for Barrow's industrial renewal in the mid-to-late 1980s remains controversial.[36] This has led to renewed academic attention in recent years to the possibilities of converting military-industrial production in declining shipbuilding areas to the offshore renewable energy sector.[37]

21st century[edit]

In the 2002 Barrow-in-Furness legionellosis outbreak, 172 people were reported to have caught the disease, of whom seven died. This made it the fourth worst outbreak in the world in terms of number of cases and sixth worst in terms of deaths. The source of the bacteria was later found to be steam from a badly maintained air conditioning unit in the council-run arts centre Forum 28.[38]

At the conclusion of the inquest into the seven deaths, the coroner for Furness and South Cumbria criticised the council for its health and safety failings.[39] In 2006, council employee Gillian Beckingham and employer Barrow Borough Council were cleared of seven charges of manslaughter, but both admitted breaching the Health and Safety at Work Act. Beckingham, the council senior architect ultimately responsible for health and safety at the centre, was fined £15,000 and the authority £125,000.[40] The borough council was the first public body in the country to face corporate manslaughter charges.[41]

2006 saw the construction of Barrow Offshore Wind Farm which has acted as a catalyst for further investment in offshore renewable energy in the town. Ormonde Wind Farm and Walney Wind Farm followed in 2011, the latter of which became the largest offshore wind farm in the world. The three wind farms are located west of Walney Island and are operated primarily by DONG Energy, contain a total of 162 turbines and have a combined nameplate capacity of 607 MW providing energy for well over half a million homes. West of Duddon Sands Wind Farm is proposed to be constructed off the Barrow coast during 2013 and will be even larger than Walney Wind Farm when built.

Regeneration[edit]

The Waterfront

Buccleuch Dock is at the centre of a multi-million marina development
Emlyn Hughes House in the Abbey Road Gateway regeneration and conservation area

Many areas of the town have seen regeneration in the 1990s, and on 28 September 2007 Barrow's £200 million Dockland regeneration project began. Due to be completed by 2020, the project includes a new 'Barrow Marina Village' which will incorporate an £8 million 400-berth marina, 600 houses, restaurants, shops, hotels and a new state of the art bridge across Cavendish Dock. A large watersports centre is also being built, with the possibility of a cruise ship terminal. Some cruise ships are already scheduled to dock in Barrow, mainly for tourists to visit the Lake District, although there is no official cruise ship terminal yet. Dozens of cruise ships have visited the Port of Barrow in recent years.[42]

Shipyard
Major plans were unveiled in 2014 to prepare the shipyard for the construction of new submarines associated with the Trident successor after BAE Systems was awarded contracts for construction the previous year. The £300 million investment is the largest seen at the shipyard since the late 1980's with groundbreaking of the development set to commence in late 2014.[43][44] Construction will take up to eight years and create thousands of new jobs at the shipyard thereafter.[43] Amongst proposals are an extension to the DDH complex and new buildings in the central yard area off Bridge Road on Barrow Island (a site formerly mooted for a huge construction hall for the construction of Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carrier sections which the yard failed to win contracts for), these will house pressure hull units ready for shot blasting and painting, and be a place for joining submarine equipment modules.[44]

Proposed bridges
A second bridge to Walney Island from mainland Barrow is planned to relieve congestion and as an aid to 24-hour access for the emergency services, most of which are based on the mainland.

For many years there have been discussions on the possible construction of bridges across Morecambe Bay and the Duddon Estuary, leading to the Build Duddon and Morecambe Bridges party contesting national elections in the borough of Barrow and Furness, receiving 409 (1.1%) votes in the 2005 general election.[45] The controversial idea of a 12 miles (19 km) long road bridge connecting Barrow to the Lancashire coast across Morecambe Bay has long been proposed. More recently the design is said to have become more 'green' : if built, it would become one of the world's longest bridges and it is hoped that it might be capable of powering hundreds of thousands of homes via such renewable sources as tidal power.

A smaller bridge (some 3 km or 1.9 mi long) crossing the Duddon Estuary linking Askam and Millom would improve transport links to the area, cutting journey times from Barrow to parts of West Cumbria, but would require considerable finance. There has also been talk of building a road and rail tunnel under the Duddon instead of a bridge.[46] There has been increased talk of this bridge since the announcement of Kirksanton on the North side of the Duddon Estuary being shortlisted as a site for a new nuclear power station.[47]

Other projects
Other major regeneration projects that have taken place in recent times include the £43 million expansion of Furness College's Channelside campus,[48] £22.5 million Furness Academy new build,[49] £14.5 million central Barrow flood relief scheme,[50] £8.5 million Barrow police station,[51] £5 million town centre redevelopment scheme,[52] £4 million Scottish Power Wind Farm operations centre[53] as well as the North Central Renewal Area and shake up of the town's residential and retirement homes.[54]

Government[edit]

Barrow's Grade II* listed town hall viewed from Schneider Square

Barrow is the largest town in the Borough of Barrow-in-Furness[55] and the largest settlement in the peninsula of Furness. The borough is the direct inheritor of the municipal and county borough charters given to the town in the late 19th century.[56] Historically it is part of the Hundred of Lonsdale 'north of the sands' in the historic county boundaries of Lancashire.[57] Since the local government reforms enacted in England in 1974 the town has been within the administrative county of Cumbria. It still forms a part of the Duchy of Lancaster. The Barrow-in-Furness Borough Council forms the 'lower' tier of local government under Cumbria County Council.[58] The town, along with Walney Island, is unparished and forms the bulk of the wards which make the entire borough's area. The Mayor and Deputy Mayor of Barrow are elected annually, and hold the roles of chairman and Vice-Chairman of Barrow-in-Furness Borough Council.[59] The borough and former county borough of Barrow-in-Furness have been served by 106 mayors, beginning with Sir James Ramsden in 1867 and continuing through to incumbent 2012 mayor John Murphy.[56] Between 2006 and 2011 no party held an overall majority of council seats, but in the 2011 local election, the Labour Party gained overall control of the council.

The Barrow-in-Furness UK Parliament constituency first came into existence during the 1885 United Kingdom general election, with David Duncan of the Liberal Party becoming the first MP for the town. The seat was won by the Conservative Party in 1892, before being won for the first time by Labour in 1906. In the subsequent forty years the seat swung between Conservative and Labour, but since 1945 it has been generally considered a Labour safe seat.[60] In 1983, the constituency was expanded to include several commuter towns such as Dalton-in-Furness and Ulverston and was renamed Barrow and Furness. It was subsequently won by the Conservatives, with the victory attributed to Labour's stance against the nuclear-powered submarines that were being constructed in Barrow.[60] Following a change in Labour policy the party won Barrow and Furness in 1992, which has since retained. John Woodcock has been the MP for the constituency since the 2010 general election.


Council/ Electoral wards of Barrow-in-Furness

Barrow Island | Central | Hawcoat | Hindpool | Newbarns | Ormsgill | Parkside | Risedale | Roosecote | Walney North | Walney South

Geography[edit]

Barrow is situated at the tip of the Furness peninsula on the north-western edge of Morecambe Bay, south of the Duddon Estuary and east of the Irish Sea. The town centre and major industrial areas sit on a fairly flat coastal shelf, with a gentle incline leading away from the coast. Ten miles to the north-east is the southern boundary of the Lake District National Park. Barrow is the only major urban area in south Cumbria, with other nearby settlements including Dalton-in-Furness, Ulverston, Askam-in-Furness and Millom. Barrow is less than 20 miles from the mathematical centre point of the United Kingdom near Lancaster, Lancashire.

Islands[edit]

Main article: Islands of Furness

The town is sheltered from the Irish Sea by Walney Island, a 14 mile (22.5 km) long island connected to the mainland by the bascule type Jubilee bridge. About 13,000 live on the isle's various settlements, mostly in Vickerstown, which was built to house workers in the rapidly expanding shipyard. Another significant island which lay in the Walney Channel was Barrow Island, but following the filling of the channel to create land for the shipyard it is now directly connected to the town. Other islands which lie close to Barrow are Piel Island, whose castle protected the harbour from marauding Scots, Sheep Island, Roa Island and Foulney Island.

Climate[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Population
Barrow's population numbered in its low thousands at the turn of the 19th century and increased over the next century to over 60,000, peaking at almost 76,000 in the 1960s. Since the start of the 21st century the population of the town has gradually diminished to just under 60,000. It is the second largest settlement in Cumbria and amongst the thirty largest in North West England. The Barrow council district, which includes adjacent urban areas, has a population of around 69,100 according to the most recent census. This is 4% less than the 2001 figure of 71,900, and the highest percentage population loss in the country between 2001 and 2011.[62][63] The Barrow-in-Furness metropolitan area consists of numerous commuter towns and villages within the Furness peninsula and has a population of around 108,000.[64] Barrow is also the only major urban area within South West Cumbria, a region with a population in excess of 130,000.[65]

Historical population of the Borough of Barrow-in-Furness
Year 1801 1811 1831 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
Population[66] 1,958 2,078 2,702 4,684 22,513 40,343 58,172 62,694 67,354 72,360 73,394 74,447 75,509 76,619 75,902 72,192 72,645 73,704 71,979 69,087

Ethnicity and country of birth
The 2011 census states 96.9% of Barrow's population as White British, and ethnic minority populations in Barrow stood at 3.1%.[67] Other ethnic groups in Barrow include Other White 1.3%, Asian 1.0%, Mixed Race 0.5%, Black 0.1%, Arab 0.1% and all other ethnic groups represented 0.1% of the population. The first people to settle in what is now Barrow were the Celts and Scandinavians followed by the Cornish. Most Barrovians however are descended from immigrants from Scotland, Ireland and other parts of England who arrived from the late 19th century onwards. Barrow has significant Chinese (in particular those originating from Hong Kong), Filipino, Indian, Thai and Kosovar communities as well as a large Polish population post the 2004 EU enlargement, however in general has a much lower proportion of ethnic minorities than national average.[67] The Society for Anglo-Chinese Understanding is a charity based in Barrow that aims to develop relations with the British Chinese community and the general British population. It was established in 1975 and publishes the quarterly China Eye magazine.

St. James' Church, the largest place of worship in Barrow

In 2011 93.2% of the borough's population was born in England, 2.6% in Scotland, 0.6% in Northern Ireland and 0.5% in Wales. 3.1% of the town's 2011 population were born elsewhere in the world, 1.3% of which were born in the European Union. The five most common foreign countries of birth were Poland, the Republic of Ireland, Germany, the Philippines and India.[68]

Language
According to the 2011 census, 98.8% of Barrovians spoke English as a main language, although around 40 languages are spoken in the town with Polish, various Chinese languages and Tagalog prevailing as the second, third and fourth most common main languages (0.3%, 0.2% and 0.1% of the population respectively).[69] Of the 797 Barrovians who had a main language other than English, 82.9% can speak English well to very well.[70]

Religion

In the 2011 census 70.7% of Barrow's population stated themselves as being Christian. People stating no religion or chose not to state totalled 28.4% combined. Other religious groups represented 0.9% of the population, with Islam and Buddhism prevailing as the first and second most common groups.[71] Conishead Priory, the first Kadampa Buddhist centre in the west, is home to around 100 Buddhists and is located on the outskirts of Barrow within the South Lakeland district.[72] Historically Barrow was home to a notable Ashkenazi Jewish community that peaked in size during the 1930's with a synagogue in the town.[73] Despite this it closed in 1974 and only a dozen Jews were recorded by the 2011 census.

Economy[edit]

The huge doors of the east entrance to Devonshire Dock Hall

Historically Barrow's economy was dominated by the manufacturing sector, with the Barrow Hematite Steel Company and Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering being amongst the most important global companies in their respective fields during the 20th century. In the present day, manufacturing remains the largest employment sector in the town with BAE Systems being the single largest employer. However, like most of the UK, employment trends have greatly diversified since the 20th century and there are no other predominant employment sectors in Barrow.

Shipyard and port[edit]

Barrow has played a vital role in global ship and submarine construction for over 125 years. Ottoman submarine Abdül Hamid was built in the town in 1886 and became the first submarine in the world to fire a live torpedo underwater, while oil tanker British Admiral became the first British vessel to exceed 100,000 tonnes when launched in 1965. The vast majority of all current and former Royal Navy submarines were constructed in Barrow as well as numerous Royal Navy Fleet Flagships.

HMS Invincible pictured in Florida in 2004 is one of the most famous ships to have been built in Barrow

The BAE Systems Maritime – Submarines shipyard at Barrow is the largest in the UK by workforce ahead of BAE Systems Maritime – Naval Ships in Govan, Cammell Laird in Birkenhead and Harland and Wolff in Belfast. It was expanded in 1986 by construction of a new covered assembly facility, the Devonshire Dock Hall (DDH), completed by Alfred McAlpine, on land that was created by infilling part of the Devonshire Dock with 2.4 million tonnes of sand pumped from nearby Roosecote Sands.[74] DDH is the tallest building in Cumbria at 51 m. With a length of 268 m (879 ft), width of 51 m (167 ft) and an area of 25,000 square metres (270,000 sq ft) it is the second largest shipbuilding construction complex of its kind in Europe.[75][76]

The DDH provides a controlled environment for ship and submarine assembly, and avoids the difficulties caused by building on the slope of traditional slipways. Outside the hall, a 24,300 tonne capacity shiplift allows completed vessels to be lowered into the water independently of the tide. Vessels can also be lifted out of the water and transferred to the hall.[77] The first use of the DDH was for construction of the Vanguard-class submarines, and later vessels of the Trafalgar class were also built there. The shipyard is currently constructing the Astute-class submarines, the first of which was launched on 8 June 2007.[78] BAE Systems is currently studying the design of a new class of ballistic missile submarines. BAE Systems also has orders for submarine pressure domes for the Spanish Navy.[79]

The shipyard has been awarded contracts for the construction of submarines which will carry nuclear missiles in a successor programme to the current Vanguard-class containing the Trident system.[43] Although only in the planning stage, BAE Systems has committed to the programme and is set to invest £300 million in Barrow's shipyard constructing buildings capable of constructing and assembling the new class of submarines. This major proposal is the largest in 25 years at the shipyard and will see thousands of new jobs created, further cementing its place as the UK's largest shipyard and one of the few to have seen continuous contracts since founding over a century ago.[43]

The most recent surface vessels to be constructed in Barrow were Wave class tanker Wave Knight and Albion-class amphibious assault ships HMS Albion and HMS Bulwark in the early 2000's when the shipyard was part of BAE Systems Marine division. It also undertook fitting out and commissioning of helicopter carrier HMS Ocean in the mid-1990s after the ship was built by Kvaerner Govan in Glasgow.

Associated British Ports Holdings owns and operates the Port of Barrow which can berth vessels up to 200 m (660 ft) long and with a draught of 10 m (33 ft). Principal traffic includes the export of condensate by-product from the production of gas at the Rampside Gas Terminal, wood pulp and locally quarried limestone which is exported to Scandinavia for use in the paper industry. The port, which has deep water access, also handles the shipment of nuclear fuels and radioactive waste for BNFL's nearby Sellafield plant.[80]

James Fisher & Sons, a service provider in all sectors of the marine industry and a specialist supplier of engineering services to the nuclear industry in the UK and abroad,[81] was founded in Barrow in 1847.[82] It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is the largest company to have its headquarters situated in Cumbria.[83] Annual revenue stood at £307 million in 2012 (up 15% from £268 million in 2011), as well as staff numbers standing at over 1,500 worldwide, with 120 of those in the Barrow headquarters.[83][84] Numerous vessels are registered at the Port of Barrow, with the majority being owned by James Fisher & Sons and International Nuclear Services/Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited.

Energy generation[edit]

West Shore Beach at Earnse Bay with Black Combe visible in the distance

In 1985, gas was discovered in Morecambe Bay, and to this day the products have been processed onshore at Rampside Gas Terminal in south Barrow.[85] The complex is operated jointly by Centrica and ConocoPhillips. Directly adjacent to Rampside Gas Terminal is Roosecote Power Station which was the first CCGT power station to supply electricity to the United Kingdom's National Grid. Although originally coal-fired, the station is now gas-fired.

Barrow and its wider urban area form part of 'Britain's Energy Coast',[86] and has one of the highest concentrations of wind farms in the world, the vast majority are located offshore and have been built during the early 2010s. All four of these wind farms are located off the coast of Walney Island, including the 108 turbine West Duddon wind farm, 102 turbine Walney Wind Farm, 30 turbine Barrow Offshore Wind Farm and 30 turbine Ormonde Wind Farm.

Sellafield and Heysham nuclear power stations are also located within 25 miles (40 km) of Barrow.

Tourism[edit]

South Lakes Safari Zoo on the outskirts of the borough is one of Cumbria's top tourist attractions

Being only around 20 minutes from the Lake District close to Coniston Water and Windermere,[87] Barrow has been referred to as a 'gateway to the lakes' and 'where the lakes meets the sea',[88] a status which could be enhanced by the new marina complex and planned cruise ship terminal.[89]

Barrow itself has several tourist attractions that support just over 1,000 jobs, the town saw a higher growth in tourist expenditure during the 2000s than Cumbria as a whole and had approximately 2.3 million 'overnight stays' during 2008.[90] Barrow's most popular free-entry tourist attraction is the Dock Museum. The museum tells the history of Barrow (including the steelworks industry, the shipyard and the Barrow Blitz), as well as offering gallery space to local artists and schoolchildren. It is built upon and around an old graving dock.[91] Walney Island has two world renowned nature reserves (the 130 hectare South Walney Nature Reserve[92] and 650 hectare North Walney Nature Reserve).[93] Barrow's location at the tip of the Furness peninsula sees it host a number of beaches which are popular during summer months with sunbathers, kitesurfers and caravanners. They include Earnse Bay, Biggar Bank, Roanhead and Rampside, the former two of which provide views of the Isle of Man and Anglesey on exceptionally clear days.[94] The Park Leisure Centre is a fitness suite with a pool, set in the 45-acre (18 ha) Barrow Park.[95] The historic ruins of Furness Abbey and Piel Castle, which are both managed by English Heritage, are also popular tourist destinations. South Lakes Safari Zoo is one of Europe's leading conservation zoos and has been voted Cumbria's best tourist attraction for five non-consecutive years, it is located within the borough of Barrow-in-Furness on the outskirts of Dalton.[96]

Barrow also has a popular indoor market, which features a food hall as well as stalls selling clothes and other goods.[97][98] Barrow has been described as the Lake District's premier shopping town, with 'big name shops mingling with small local ones',[95] and being home to Portland Walk Shopping Centre.[99] The town also features Hollywood Park – a leisure facility with restaurants, shops[95] and Cumbria's largest cinema.[100] The town also features several other retail parks (including Cornmill Crossing, Cornerhouse Retail Park, Hindpool Retail Park and Walney Road Retail Park).[101] Other modern visitor attractions in Barrow include the indoor Kart racing complex and bowling alley at James Freel Close, as well as 'Lazer Zone' in Hindpool Road's former Custom House.

Other[edit]

Other major employers include the National Health Service, through Furness General Hospital, which employs 1,800 staff,[102] the Kimberly Clark paper mill which has 400 employees,[103] BAE Systems' Land and Armaments division, Furness Building Society which is one of the twenty largest of its kind, Cumbria County Council and Barrow Borough Council. Amongst many retailers that have established themselves in Barrow, the furniture store Stollers is noted as being one of the largest shops of its kind in the UK.

Employment[edit]

Craven House is headquarters of James Fisher & Sons, the only Barrow company on the London Stock Exchange
Tesco is a significant employer, with several outlets across Barrow

According to the 2011 census, 78.2% of males aged 16–64 and females aged 16–59 in Barrow were economically active. This figure is higher than the North West and England average.[104] 73.8% of the population was employed, which again is higher than regional and national average, the unemployment rate stood at 5.6% which is lower than both averages.[104] Despite this the percentage of people claiming key benefits, which is independent of the unemployment figure is much higher than both averages at 21.0%, or almost a quarter of all Barrovians of a working age.[104] The most common form of benefit received was the Incapacity Benefit claimed by 11.0% of the adult population,[dubious ] while 4.0% claimed Jobseeker's Allowance which is on par with national average.[104]

Below is a list of how many people were employed by certain sectors according to the 2011 census. Little change has occurred over the 10-year period since the previous census with Barrow still having a much higher percentage of workers in the manufacturing sector than national average, ranking third in 2011 behind Corby, Northamptonshire and Pendle, Lancashire.[105][106]

  • Manufacturing: 6,570 employed (21.0% of the town's working population)
  • Wholesale and Retail Trade: 4,728 (15.1%)
  • Human Health and Social Work: 4,539 (14.5%)
  • Construction: 2,387 (7.6%)
  • Education: 2,381 (7.6%)
  • Accommodation and Food Service Activities: 1,962 (6.3%)
  • Public Administration and Defence: 1,913 (6.1%)
  • Transport and Storage: 1,296 (4.1%)
  • Administrative and Support Service: 1,055 (3.4%)
  • Professional, Scientific and Technical: 1,000 (3.2%)
  • Information and Communication: 496 (1.6%)
  • Financial and Insurance: 492 (1.6%)
  • Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning Supply: 441 (1.4%)
  • Water Supply: 264 (0.8%)
  • Real Estate: 221 (0.7%)
  • Mining and Quarrying: 165 (0.5%)
  • Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing: 122 (0.4%)
  • Other: 1,225 (3.9%)

Transport[edit]

Road

Walney Bridge (officially Jubilee Bridge) links Barrow Island to Walney Island

Barrow's principal road link is the A590, linking it to Ulverston, the Lake District and to the M6 motorway.[107] Just north of Barrow is the southern terminus of the A595, linking the town to Whitehaven, Workington, Maryport and eventually Carlisle.[107] The possibility of a bridge link over Morecambe Bay is occasionally raised, with feasibility studies currently underway.[108] Abbey Road is the principal road network through central Barrow, whilst Walney Bridge connects Barrow Island to Walney Island.

Bus
Bus services within the town are operated by Stagecoach North West. There is no specifically designated bus station, although many buses start and terminate their routes near the town hall. The original bus station was known for its role in a 1970s television commercial for Chewits sweets before its demolition.[109] Other services link Barrow with outlying villages as well as longer distance routes to Dalton-in-Furness, Ulverston and Kendal.

Rail

Barrow-in-Furness railway station provides connections to Whitehaven, Workington and Carlisle to the north, via the Cumbrian Coast Line and to Ulverston, Grange-over-Sands and Lancaster to the east, via the Furness Line – both of which connect to the West Coast Mainline. It handles over 600,000 passengers annually. Barrow has a second railway station, Roose, which serves the suburb of the same name.

Furness Abbey, Barrow's third main line station, closed in 1950. There was also a station on Barrow Island, used to enable workers at Vickers Limited (as it was then known) to commute directly between the shipyard and nearby towns served by the Furness Railway. This railway link was severed in 1966 when the famous cradle bridge across the docks was closed permanently for safety reasons.

Between 1885 and 1932, the Barrow-in-Furness Tramways Company operated a double-decker tram service over several miles primarily around central Barrow, Barrow Island and Hindpool.

Air
Barrow/Walney Island Airport operates two Beechkraft Kingair B200 and one B250 aircraft which fly to various destinations across the UK every weekday, including Bristol, Glasgow, London and Manchester. It is owned and operated by BAE Systems (IATA airport code: BWF, ICAO: EGNL) and the longest runway is almost 4,000 feet long. The nearest commercial airport is Blackpool, although most people from Barrow use the larger international airports at Liverpool and Manchester.

Sea
Despite being one of the UK's leading shipbuilding centres, the Associated British Ports' Port of Barrow is only a minor port. Formerly passenger ferries operated between Barrow and Fleetwood and Heysham, however currently there are only local ferry links between Roa Island and Piel Island. Proposals exist to construct a cruise ship terminal in Barrow as part of the Waterfront redevelopment project.[110]

Sport[edit]

Holker Street, the home of Barrow A.F.C.

Football[edit]

Barrow A.F.C. are in the Conference National division of English football.[111] The team, founded in 1901, are nicknamed "the Bluebirds" and play their home games at the Holker Street stadium.[112] The side were members of the Football League until they were demoted in 1972.[112] In 1990, they won the FA Trophy beating Leek Town 3-0 in the final at Wembley Stadium, London.[113] Twenty years later, on 8 May 2010, Barrow repeated the feat, beating Stevenage Borough 2-1 after extra time.[114] Football players born in Barrow include England internationals Emlyn Hughes[115] and Gary Stevens,[116] as well as Harry Hadley,[117] and Vic Metcalfe.[118] Of current professional footballers, Wayne Curtis,[119] Morecambe striker, and Iran Under-20 and Hibernian winger Shana Haji[120] both hail from the town.

Holker Old Boys F.C., based at Rakesmoor Lane, are the town's second most successful football team, and they play in the North West Counties Football League Division One.

Rugby[edit]

Main article: Barrow Raiders
Craven Park, the home of Barrow Raiders

Rugby league is a well-established sport and the town is considered as one of the game's traditional heartlands at professional and amateur levels.[121] The professional team, Barrow Raiders, whose home games are at Craven Park, played in the Championship until 2011 but as of 2012, they now operate in the league below, known as Championship One. In the 1950s the side played in three Challenge Cup finals, winning the last of these against Workington Town. In the 1997 reorganisation of the sport the original Barrow RLFC team merged with Carlisle Border Raiders to form Barrow Border Raiders,[122] with the word "border" later dropped. Players who were born in the town and played at a professional level include brothers Ade[123] and Mat Gardner[124] and Willie Horne.[125] The latter captained Barrow to their Challenge Cup victory and represented Great Britain at an international level. He was inducted into the "Barrow Hall of Fame" along with former Barrow players Phil Jackson and Jimmy Lewthwaite.[126]

Golf[edit]

Barrow is home to two large golf clubs. Barrow Golf Club, founded in 1922, is situated in Hawcoat and covers some 6,209 yards (5,678 m) with 18 holes.[127] Furness Golf Club, founded in 1872, is the sixth oldest golf club in England and is possibly the more famous of the two. It is located on Walney Island, just 50 yards (46 m) from the Irish Sea. It also offers an 18-hole course, a shop and other facilities.[128] The Furness Golf Centre is located on the outskirts of Barrow close to Roanhead and is home to a 14-bay driving range, golf shop, swing studio and the Fairway Hotel.[129]

Other sports[edit]

Barrow has staged speedway racing at three venues since the pioneer days in the late 1920s. The first track was at Holker Street. This venue had a revival for a short spell in the early to mid-1970s being utilised by the short-lived Barrow Bombers. In 1930 the sport moved to Little Park but this a somewhat hazy venue. The sport had a revival in 1978 at Park Avenue Industrial Estate but this was relatively short lived.

Barrow is home to the Walney Terriers American Football club, formed in 2012 the club originally trained at Memorial Fields on Walney Island before establishing a homeground at Hawcoat Park (formerly and still often called Vickers Sport Club). One of the town's most notable annual sporting events is the Keswick to Barrow (K2B), a 40-mile walking and running event that has taken place every year since 1967 between Keswick and Barrow. The event has raised millions for charity and regularly sees in excess of 3,000 participants.[130]

Culture[edit]

Architecture[edit]

View of central Barrow from the north including St. James' Church, the Town Hall and Devonshire Dock Hall

Barrow is one of Britain's few planned towns and has many fine buildings to show for it.[131] There are many old and distinctive buildings in the town centre, mostly from the Victorian era, such as the Barrow Town Hall, Barrow Main Public Library, the Nan Tait Centre, the former Central Fire Station, Salvation Army, Custom House, National Westminster Bank, The Duke of Edinburgh Hotel, St. George's Church, St. Mary's RC Church and St. James' Church. A number of Barrow's most important landmarks were constructed from locally sourced sandstone, evident from the high number of brown and red coloured stone buildings in the town. There is also an increasing number of modern office buildings as well as the shipyard's construction halls which dominate much of Barrow's skyline. Despite much of Barrow having been constructed from the late 19th to mid 20th centuries, architectural styles vary greatly across the town from the Art Deco John Whinnerah Institute to the Byzantine style St. John's Church, Neo-Elizabethan Abbey House and Tudor Revival Vickerstown estate.

Vickerstown, a model village built on Walney Island around 1900

Barrow has 8 Grade I listed buildings, 15 Grade II* and 249 Grade II buildings. The majority of Grade I listed buildings and structures are in and around the Furness Abbey complex while many Grade II* listed buildings in the town are 19th century tenements on Barrow Island including the Devonshire Buildings.[132] There are a number of Conservation Areas across Barrow named as such for their architectural or historical significance, they include Barrow Island, Biggar, Central Barrow, Furness Abbey, North Scale, St. George's Square and Vickerstown.[133] Historically Barrow's skyline was dominated by shipyard cranes and industrial chimneys, although little evidence of this remains in the present day with the last hammerhead crane – the iconic yellow crane of Buccleuch Dock – being dismantled in 2011, despite calls for listing status like the smaller Titan Clydebank in Glasgow. The tallest free-standing structure in Barrow is currently Roosecote Power Station's tower at 63 metres (207 ft) and tallest building is Devonshire Dock Hall at 51 metres (167 ft). Also worth of note are the turbines of Ormonde Wind Farm located just off the coast of Barrow which stand at 152 metres (499 ft).

In terms of housing, the majority of dwellings in Barrow are Victorian terraces. At 47.0% of local housing stock in 2011, the figure is much higher than England's average of 24.5%. 29.7% of dwellings are semi-detached, 12.09% detached and 10.2% flats, maisonettes or apartments.[134] Despite the great variety in housing styles across central Barrow, Barrow Island, Hindpool, and Vickerstown, most were built around a grid design in accordance with plans drawn up by James Ramsden.

Arts[edit]

Music

Barrow has produced several musical performers of note. They include Thomas Round, a singer and actor in D'Oyly Carte productions of Savoy Opera[135] as well as Glenn Cornick, the original bass guitarist in the rock band Jethro Tull.[136] Paul MacKenzie, bass player with 1980s Preston-based thrash metal band Xentrix, is from Barrow.[137] More recently, hip-hop DJ and record producer Aim has had considerable commercial success.[138]

The Forum, Barrow's principal theatre and arts venue

Expressive arts
Several notables in Art and Literature have come from Barrow. Artist Keith Tyson, the 2002 Turner Prize winner, was born in nearby Ulverston, attended the Barrow-in-Furness College of Engineering and worked at the then VSEL shipyard.[139] Constance Spry, the author and florist who revolutionised interior design in the 1930s and '40s, moved to the town with her son Anthony during World War I to work as a welfare supervisor.[140] Peter Purves, later a Blue Peter presenter, began his acting career with 2 years as a member of the Renaissance Theatre Company at the town's Her Majesty's Theatre.[141]

During the mid-20th century, Barrow contained a wealth of theatres/cinemas including the Coliseum, Electric Theatre, Essoldo, Her Majesty's Theatre, Hippodrome, Ritz, Roxy, Royalty Theatre and Tivoli. All but the Roxy have since been demolished, most recently in 2004 with the demolition of the Apollo (formerly the Ritz). The Canteen Media & Arts Centre – known simply as "The Canteen" – and The Forum are now the main venues for theatre, while the Vue Cinema in Hollywood Park is the only cinema in the town.

Literature
In fictional works, Barrow and Vickerstown on Walney Island featured in children's show The Railway Series, which developed into Thomas the Tank Engine, as the point where the fictional Island of Sodor connected to mainland Britain and the national rail network.[142]

The Portuguese poet Fernando Pessoa wrote a series of sonnets called "Barrow-on-Furness" (sic). His "heteronym" Álvaro de Campos lived in Barrow when he was studying ship engineering, but Pessoa himself had never visited, and mistakenly assumed that "Furness" was the name of a river.[143] According to narrative exposition in Chapter five of Dorothy L. Sayers' 1926 novel Clouds of Witness, Inspector Charles Parker, Lord Peter Wimsey's friend and eventual brother-in-law, attended Barrow-in-Furness Grammar School. A number of the Lake Poets have referred to locations in present day Barrow, with one notable example being William Wordsworth's 1805 autobiographical poem The Prelude which describes his visits to Furness Abbey.

Media[edit]

Portland Walk, one of Barrow's primary retail areas

Newspapers
There is one paid-for evening daily paper, the North West Evening Mail. There is also a weekly freesheet called the Advertiser, which is delivered to most households in the Furness area. Both are owned by independent publisher the CN Group, formerly Cumbrian Newspapers.[144]

Radio
Barrow is served by one commercial radio station, The Bay, which is broadcast from Lancaster and serves the area around Morecambe Bay. Another commercial station, Abbey FM, ceased broadcasting in February 2009 when it went into administration.[145] The BBC's local radio service is BBC Radio Cumbria, who have studio facilities in the town.[146]

Television
Barrow lies in the Granada TVNorth West England region with the main signal coming from the Winter Hill transmitter near Bolton. There is also a relay transmitter at Millom whose signal can be received in the northern end of the town.

Various television personalities were born in the district. Dave Myers was a biker born in Barrow, before he found fame as one half of television cookery duo the Hairy Bikers.[147] Karen Taylor is a TV comedian best known for her BBC Three sketch show Touch Me, I'm Karen Taylor.[148] Steve Dixon is a newsreader for Sky News,[149] while Nigel Kneale was a well-known film and television scriptwriter.[150] Peter Purves, the sixth presenter of Blue Peter also lived and worked in Barrow for a time and the UK's top Thai demo chef and celebrity 'Chef Ooy' has lived and worked in Barrow for the last 25 years.

Barrow has a large number of public works of art, including statues of prominent political figures and sporting personalities

Wartime diarist and local housewife Nella Last's memoirs were adapted for television, with parts of the town used in filming. The resulting programme, Housewife, 49, written by and starring comedian Victoria Wood, was broadcast by ITV in 2006. It won two BAFTA awards – one for Best Single Drama, the other for Best Actress (Victoria Wood).[151][152] CITV children's show The Treacle People had two villains named Barrow and Furness.[153] Myles Wright also was born in Barrow and lived in the near by village of Marton.

Barrow-in-Furness is also the connection between the fictional Island of Sodor in the Thomas the Tank Engine TV series as well as the Railway Series books by the Rev. W. Awdry of which the TV series is based.

Accent[edit]

Furness is unique within Cumbria and the local accent and dialect is fairly Lancashire-orientated. Until 1974 Furness was an exclave of Lancashire. As with Liverpool for example however, the Barrovian dialect has been influenced by large numbers of settlers from various regions. Up until the mid-19th century, Barrow was nothing but a small fishing village, however as the mining, steelworks and shipbuilding industries emerged and grew, thousands came to Barrow from the likes of Cornwall, Strathclyde and Tyneside which were successful mining and shipbuilding centres already in existence. As Glaswegian and Geordie dialects mingled in Barrow numerous more migrated from Lancashire and elsewhere in England which in effect created the noticeably Northern Barrovian dialect. In general the Barrovian accent tends to drop certain letters (including H and T); for example holiday could be pronounced as "'oliday" (which is not at all unique to the area), with more emphasis on the letter O. Similarly the local area of Hindpool which could be pronounced "'indpool" with emphasis on the letter I. Another example is with the letter T where twenty is often pronounced "twen'y" (again an emphasis on the letters N or Y could occur). See Cumbrian dialect as well as Lancashire dialect for more information.

Nightlife[edit]

There are countless pubs and working men's clubs located across Barrow. Barrow has fourteen of the latter, one of the highest number per capita of any British town.[154] There are also many bars and clubs found primarily in Barrow town centre on Duke Street and Cornwallis Street. Popular venues on Duke Street include the following bars: Jefferson's, the Lounge, Bar Cairo, Yates's. Cornwallis Street – often dubbed the "Gaza Strip" by locals – is currently undergoing a multi-million pound renovation with the former Martini's being the flagship renovation into Club M. Other clubs on Cornwallis Street include: Kavanna's, O'Sullivan's and Skint. Between 2004 and 2010 Barrow was home to one of North West England's largest nightclubs, the 2,500 capacity Blue Lagoon occupied the entire hull of the former Danish ferry Princess Selandia which still remains moored at Town Quay, Buccleuch Dock.[155] Barrow's largest nightclub is now Manhattan's which opened on Cavendish Street in late 2011.[156]

Social issues[edit]

Lifestyle[edit]

The majority of housing within the town is terraced, built for working class families

In September 2008, Barrow was named as the most working class location in the United Kingdom, based on a series of measures devised to judge the lifestyle of the people.[157] The research was carried out by Locallife.co.uk which determined that there is a fish and chip shop, working men's club, bookmakers or trade union office for every 2,917 people (Crewe, Doncaster, Wolverhampton and Preston completed the top five of 'the most working class places in Britain').[158] This is in direct contrast to the 1870s when a developing Barrow had more aristocrats per head of the population than anywhere else in the country.[157]

In 2007 Barrow was ranked as the 29th most deprived district in England (out of a total of 354), whilst 44% of wards within the town are in the most deprived fifth of English wards and areas.[159]

Health[edit]

Furness General Hospital, the primary hospital for Barrow and South West Cumbria

The principal hospital in Barrow is Furness General Hospital which is operated by the University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Trust and located on the outskirts of the town. As of July 2010 there are 12 NHS GP practices/doctors surgeries and 5 NHS dental surgeries in Barrow.[160] The average life expectancy for males in Barrow is 76.0 years (compared to England average of 77.7) and 80.9 years for females (again compared to national average of 81.8).[161] The 2001 UK Census showed that 63.12% of Barrovians were in good health, 23.63% in fairly good health and 13.25% in bad health. This compared to England's averages of 68.76%, 22.21% and 9.03% respectively show that in general people in Barrow are in a slightly worse state of health than England as a nation.[162] A 2009 NHS in depth publication of health in Barrow indicated that, eight years later the population of Barrow despite becoming healthier is still worse off than national average.[161] The opening statement of the publication read 'The health of people in Barrow-in-Furness is varied. Many indicators are significantly worse than the England average, including violent crime and binge drinking adults (an estimate). However, a number of indicators are similar to the average, such as GCSE achievement and healthy eating adults (an estimate), and a fifth of indicators are significantly better than average, including physically active children and adults.'[161] Barrow has the tenth worst rate of Incapacity Benefit claimants for mental illness in the country. The NHS also identified Barrow as having significantly worse figures than England average in the fields of deprivation, child poverty, violent crime, breast feeding initiation, children's tooth decay, binge drinking adults, over 65s 'not in good health', hospital stays for alcohol-related harm, male and female life expectancy, deaths from smoking and early deaths from cancer.[161] Despite this, as stated earlier the number of physically active children and adults in Barrow is significantly better than England average, whilst the town also has much lower numbers of drug misusers, diabetes sufferers and road accident injuries and deaths.[161] All other aspects of the health of Barrow's population have been stated as more or less level with nationwide average.[161]

Education[edit]

Nursery schools 13
Infant schools 5
Junior schools 5
Primary schools 15
Secondary schools 3
Private schools 1
Colleges 2
The iBox building at Furness College's Channelside campus
Furness Academy was established in 2009 and opened a new site in 2013

Education in the state sector is provided by the local education authority, Cumbria County Council. There are fifteen primary schools, five infant schools, five junior schools and many nurseries. Five secondary schools were created following the reorganisation of Barrow's selective tri-partite secondary education system in 1979: Parkview School, St. Bernard's Catholic High School, Walney School, Thorncliffe School and Alfred Barrow School. Three schools – Parkview, Thorncliffe and Alfred Barrow closed in August 2009 with the new Furness Academy opening in their place from early September 2009. In addition to publicly funded education, the town has one private school, Chetwynde, which has fee-paying pupils from nursery to sixth form level.[163]

In the further education sector there are two colleges.[164] Barrow-in-Furness Sixth Form College concentrates on teaching A-level subjects,[165] while Furness College specialises in vocational courses.[166]

The town's main library is the Central Library in Ramsden Square, situated near the town centre.[167] The library was established in 1882 in a room near the town hall, and moved to its current premises in 1922. A branch of the County Archive Service, opened in 1979 and containing many of the town's archives, is located within adjoining premises,[168] whilst until 1991 the library also housed the Furness Museum, a forerunner of the Dock Museum.[169] Smaller branch libraries are currently provided at Walney, Roose and Barrow Island.[167]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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