# Barry Boehm

Barry Boehm

Barry W. Boehm (born 1935) is an American software engineer, TRW Emeritus Professor of Software Engineering at the Computer Science Department of the University of Southern California, and known for his many contributions to software engineering.

## Biography

Boehm received a B.A. in mathematics from Harvard University in 1957, and a M.S. in 1961, and Ph.D. from UCLA in 1964, both in mathematics as well.[1]

In 1955 he started working as a Programmer-Analyst at General Dynamics. In 1959 he switched to the RAND Corporation where he was Head of the Information Sciences Department until 1973. From 1973 to 1989 he was Chief Scientist of the Defense Systems Group at TRW Inc.. From 1989 to 1992 he served within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) as Director of the DARPA Information Science and Technology Office, and as Director of the DDR&E Software and Computer Technology Office.[1] Since 1992 he is TRW Professor of Software Engineering, Computer Science Department, and Director, USC Center for Systems and Software Engineering, formerly Center for Software Engineering.

He has served on the board of several scientific journals, including the IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Computer, IEEE Software, ACM Computing Reviews, Automated Software Engineering, Software Process, and Information and Software Technology.[1]

Recent awards for Barry Boehm include the Office of the Secretary of Defense Award for Excellence in 1992, the ASQC Lifetime Achievement Award in 1994, the ACM Distinguished Research Award in Software Engineering in 1997, and the IEEE International Stevens Award. He is an AIAA Fellow, an ACM Fellow, an IEEE Fellow, and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He received the Mellon Award for Excellence in Mentoring in 2005[2] and the IEEE Simon Ramo Medal in 2010.

## Work

Boehm's research interests include software development process modeling, software requirements engineering, software architectures, software metrics and cost models, software engineering environments, and knowledge-based software engineering.[1]

His contributions to the field, according to Boehm (1997) himself, include "the Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO), the Spiral Model of the software process, the Theory W (win-win) approach to software management and requirements determination and two advanced software engineering environments: the TRW Software Productivity System and Quantum Leap Environment".[1]

### Software versus hardware costs

In an important 1973 report entitled "Ada - The Project : The DoD High Order Language Working Group" to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA),[3] Boehm predicted that software costs would overwhelm hardware costs. DARPA had expected him to predict that hardware would remain the biggest problem, encouraging them to invest in even larger computers. The report inspired a change of direction in computing.

### Software economics

Barry Boehm's 1981 book Software Engineering Economics documents his Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO). It relates software development effort for a program, in man-years T, to source lines of code (SLOC).

$T = k * (SLOC)^{(1+x)}$

For a single software developer, k can be factored out by using more than 1 SLOC data point. In this case, x can be a fraction like 0.1 or 0.25.

• Note: since man-years are not interchangeable with years, Brooks' Law applies:
• Adding programmers to a late project makes it later.
• Thus this formula is best applied to stable software development teams which have completed multiple projects.

### Spiral model

Spiral model (Boehm, 1988).

Boehm also created the spiral model of software development, in which the phases of development are repeatedly revisited. This iterative software development process influenced MBASE and extreme programming.

### Wideband Delphi

Boehm refined the Delphi method of estimation to include more group iteration, making it more suitable for certain classes of problems, such as software development. This variant is called the Wideband Delphi method.

### Incremental Commitment Model

The Incremental Commitment Model (ICM) [4] is a system design, developmental, and evolution process for the 21st Century systems. The systems' types cover a wide range from COTS based systems to "routine" Information Systems to human intensive and life or safety critical.[5] It was only in 1998, after the development of the ICM that Barry Boehm along with A Winsor Brown started to focus on reconciling it with the WinWin Spiral Model and its incarnation in MBASE [6] and the follow-on Lean MBASE,[7] and working towards an Incremental Commitment Model for Software (ICMS) by adapting the existing WinWin Spiral Model support tools.[5] In 2008, the evolving ICM for Software with its risk-driven anchor point decisions, proved very useful to several projects which ended up having unusual life cycle phase sequences.[5]

## Publications

Barry Boehm has published over 170 articles[8] and several books. Books, a selection:

• 1978. Characteristics of Software Quality. With J.R. Brown, H. Kaspar, M. Lipow, G. McLeod, and M. Merritt, North Holland.
• 1981. Software Engineering Economics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice-Hall, 1981 ISBN 0-13-822122-7.
• 1989. Software Risk Management. IEEE Computer Society Press.
• 1996. Ada and Beyond: Software Policies for the Department of Defense. National Academy Press.
• 2007. Software engineering: Barry Boehm's lifetime contributions to software development, management and research. Ed. by Richard Selby. Wiley/IEEE press, 2007. ISBN 0-470-14873-X.

Articles:

• 1996. "Anchoring the Software Process",. In: IEEE Software, July 1996.
• 1997. "Developing Multimedia Applications with the WinWin Spiral Model," with A. Egyed, J. Kwan, and R. Madachy. In: Proceedings, ESEC/FSE 97 and ACM Software Engineering Notes, November 1997.

## References

1. Barry Boehm TRW Professor of Software Engineering, Computer Science Department Director, USC Center for Software Engineering. Accessdate 2008-10-18.
2. ^ Mellon Award for Excellence in Mentoring on Tuesday, April 19, 2005.
3. ^ William A. Whitaker (1993). Ada - The Project : The DoD High Order Language Working Group. Accessdate 2008-08-06.
4. ^ Brown, A.W., and Meyers, S. 2005. COINCOMO—Combining Elements of the COCOMO Suite, ISPA, June 2005. To be available through http://sunset.usc.edu/cse/pub/publication/techReport.html
5. ^ a b c Boehm, B., Brown, A. W., and Koolmanojwong, S. Demonstration Proposal: Incremental Commitment Model for Software. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. 90089.
6. ^ Boehm, B., Abts, C., Brown, A. W., Chulani, S., Clark, B. K., Horowitz, K., Madachy, R., Reifer, D., and Steece, B. 2000. Software Cost Estimation with COCOMO II. ISBN 0-13-026692-2. Prentice Hall PTR Upper Saddle River, NJ.
7. ^ Boehm, B. 2005. Guidelines for Lean Model-Based (System) Architecting and Software Engineering – Version 1.5. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. 90089. http://greenbay.usc.edu/csci577/spring2006/site/guidelines/index.html.
8. ^ Barry Boehm at dblp.mpi-inf.mpg.de. retrieved 18 October 2008.

## Note

Barry Boehm is not related to the Boehm garbage collector, which was created by Hans-Juergen Boehm.