Barry Wellman

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Barry Wellman (left) and William Sims Bainbridge (right). Award ceremony for William Sims Bainbridge held by the CITASA section of ASA, 2008.

Barry Wellman, FRSC (born 1942) is a Canadian-American sociologist and is currently the director of NetLab at the Faculty of Information (iSchool) of the University of Toronto. His areas of research are community sociology, the Internet, human-computer interaction and social structure, as manifested in social networks in communities and organizations. His overarching interest is in the paradigm shift from group-centered relations to networked individualism. He has written or co-authored more than 300 articles, chapters, reports and books.[1]

Among the concepts Wellman has published are: "network of networks" and "the network city" (both with Paul Craven),[2] "the community question",[3] "computer networks as social networks",[4] "connected lives" and [5] the "immanent Internet" (both with Bernie Hogan),[6] "media-multiplexity" (with Caroline Haythornthwaite),[7] "networked individualism" and "networked society",[8] "personal community" and "personal network"[9] and three with Anabel Quan-Haase: "hyperconnectivity", "local virtuality" and "virtual locality".[10]

Lee Rainie and Barry Wellman are co-authors of the 2012 prize-winning Networked: The New Social Operating System (MIT Press).[11][12] Wellman is also the editor of three books, and the author of more than 200 articles, often written with students.[13] His Erdős number is 3.[14]

Wellman has received career achievement awards from the Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association, the International Network for Social Network Analysis, the International Communication Association, the GRAND Network of Centres of Excellence, and two sections of the American Sociological Association: Community and Urban Sociology; Communication and Information Technologies.[15] He was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 2007.[16] In 2012, Wellman was identified as having the highest h-index (of citations) of all Canadian sociologists.[17] Wellman was a faculty member at the Department of Sociology at the University of Toronto for 46 years, from 1967 to 2013.

Early life[edit]

Barry Wellman was born and raised in the Grand Concourse and Fordham Road area of the Bronx, New York City. He attended P.S. 33 and Creston J.H.S. 79, and was a teenage member of the Fordham Flames.[18] He gained his high school degree from the Bronx High School of Science in 1959.[18] He received his A.B. (Bachelor's) degree magna cum laude from Lafayette College in 1963, majoring in social history and winning prizes in both history and religious studies. At Lafayette, he was a member of the McKelvy Honors House and captained the undefeated 1962 College Bowl team, whose final victory was over Berkeley.[19]

His graduate work was at Harvard University, where he trained with Chad Gordon, Charles Tilly and Harrison White, and also studied with Roger Brown, George Homans, Alex Inkeles, Florence Kluckhohn, Talcott Parsons and Phillip J. Stone. He received a M.A. in Social Relations in 1965 and a Ph.D. in Sociology in 1969. His focus was on community, computer applications, social networks and self-conception, and his dissertation showed that the social identities of African-American and White American Pittsburgh junior high school students were related to the extent of segregation of their schools.

He has been married since 1965 to Beverly Wellman, a researcher in complementary and alternative medicine.[20]

Community sociology[edit]

Until 1990, he focused on community sociology and social network analysis. During his first three years in Toronto, he also held a joint appointment with the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry where he working with D.B. Coates, M.D., co-directing the "Yorklea Study" in the Toronto borough of East York. This first East York study, with data collected in 1968, attempted to do a field study of a large population, linking interpersonal relations with psychiatric symptoms. This early study of "social support" documented the prevalence of non-local friendship and kinship ties, demonstrating that community is no longer confined to neighborhood and studying non-local communities as social networks. Wellman's "The Community Question" paper, reporting on this study, has been selected as one of the seven most important articles in English-Canadian sociology.[21]

A second East York study, conducted in 1978-1979 at the University of Toronto's Centre for Urban and Community Studies, used in-depth interviews with 33 East Yorkers (originally surveyed in the first study) to learn more information about their social networks. It provided evidence about which kinds of ties and networks supply which types of social support. It showed, for example, that sisters provide siblings with much emotional support, while parents provide financial aid.[22] The support comes more from the characteristics of the ties than from the networks in which they are embedded.[23] This research also demonstrated that wives maintain social networks for their husbands as well as for themselves.[24]

Although Wellman's work has shifted primarily to studies of the Internet (see section below), he has continued collaborative analyses of the first and second East York studies, showing that reciprocity (like social support) is much more of a tie phenomenon than a social network phenomenon[25] and that the frequency and supportiveness of interpersonal contact before the Internet was non-linearly associated with residential (and workplace) distance.[26]

Wellman has edited Networks in the Global Village (1999), a book of original articles about personal networks around the world. In 2007, he edited a special issue, "The Network is Personal" of the journal, Social Networks (vol. 29, no. 3, July), containing analyses from Canada, France, Germany and Iran.

Social network theory[edit]

Concomitant with his empirical work, Wellman has contributed to the theory of social network analysis. The most comprehensive statement is in his introductory article to Social Structures, co-edited with the late S.D. Berkowitz. This work reviews the history of social network thought, and suggests a number of basic principles of social network analysis.[27]

More recent and more focused theoretical work has discussed the "glocalization" of contemporary communities (simultaneously "global" and "local")[28] and the rise of "networked individualism" – the transformation from group-based networks to individualized networks.[29][30] American Sociological Association career achievement award winner Harrison White notes: "Barry Wellman stands out as having devoted an entire career to exploring and documenting natural social worlds in network terms."[31]

Social network methods[edit]

Wellman's methodological contributions have been for the analysis of ego-centered or "personal" networks – defined from the standpoint of an individual (usually a person). As batches of personal networks are often studied, this calls for somewhat different techniques than the more common social network practice of analyzing a single large network.

A 2007 paper, co-authored by Wellman (with Bernie Hogan and Juan-Antonio Carrasco), has discussed alternatives in gathering personal network data.[32] A paper with Kenneth Frank showed how to tackle the problem of simultaneously analyzing personal network data on the two distinct levels of ties and networks.[33] "Neighboring in Netville" has been cited as the only published study of personal networks from a known roster of potential network members.[34] The most widely cited papers are the simplest: co-authored guides to analyzing personal network data while using the statistical software packages SAS and SPSS.[35]

Other work by Wellman with Howard D. White and associates has examined how to link social network analysis with the scientometric study of citation networks. This research has shown that scholarly friends do not necessarily cite each other, but that scholars cited in the same article are apt to seek each other out and become friends.[36]

Internet, technology and society[edit]

Wellman has often worked in collaboration with computer scientists, communication scientists and information scientists. In 1990, he became involved in studying how ordinary people use the Internet and other communication technologies to communicate and exchange information at work, at home and in the community. Thus his work has expanded his interest in non-local communities and social networks to encompass the Internet, mobile phones and other information and communication technologies.

Work networks and ICTs[edit]

Wellman's initial project ("Cavecat" which morphed into "Telepresence") was in collaboration with Ronald Baecker, Caroline Haythornthwaite, Marilyn Mantei, Gale Moore, and Janet Salaff. This effort in the early 1990s was done before the widespread popularity of the Internet, to use networked PCs for videoconferencing and computer supported collaborative work (CSCW).[37] Caroline Haythornthwaite (for her dissertation and other works) and Wellman analyzed why computer scientists connect with each other – online and offline. They discovered that friendships as well as collaborative work were prime movers of connectivity at work.[38]

Wellman and Anabel Quan-Haase also studied whether such computer-supported work teams were supporting networked organizations, in which bureaucratic structure and physical proximity did not matter. Their research in one high-tech American organization – heavily dependent on instant messaging and e-mail – showed that the supposed ICT-driven transformation of work to networked organizations was only partially fulfilled in practice. The organizational constraints of departmental organization (including power) and physical proximity continued to play important roles. There were strong norms in the organization for when different communication media were used, with face-to-face contact intertwined with online contact.[39]

Community networks and ICTs[edit]

As a community sociologist, Wellman began arguing that too much analysis of life online was happening in isolation from other aspects of everyday life. He published several papers (alone and with associates) arguing the need to contextualize Internet research, and proposing that online relations – like off-line – would be best studied as ramified social networks rather than as bounded groups.[40] This argument culminated in a 2002 book, The Internet in Everyday Life (co-edited with Caroline Haythornthwaite), providing exemplification from studies in a number of social milieus.

Wellman did empirical work in this area: he was part of a team (led by James Witte) that surveyed visitors to the National Geographic Society's website in 1998 and used these data to counter the dystopian argument that Internet involvement was associated with social isolation.[41]

The large U.S. national random-sample survey analyzed in the Pew Internet report, "The Strength of Internet Ties" (with Jeffrey Boase, John B. Horrigan and Lee Rainie) also showed a positive association between communication online and communication by telephone and face-to-face. The study showed that email is well-suited for maintaining regular contact with large networks, and especially with relationships that are only somewhat strong. The study also found that Internet users get more help than non-users from friends and relatives.[42]

Research into the "glocalization" concept also fed into this intellectual stream. Keith Hampton and Wellman studied the Toronto suburb of "Netville", a pseudonym. It showed the interplay between online and offline activity, and how the Internet – aided by a list-serve – is not just a means of long-distance communication but enhances neighboring and civic involvement.[43]

Wellman's current work continues to focus on the interplay between information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, social relations and social structure. He is collaborating with Helen Hua Wang and Jeffrey Cole of the World Internet Project's Center for the Digital Future to investigate the first national U.S. survey of social relationships and Internet use. Their work shows that the number of friends are growing, and that heavy Internet users have more friends than others.[44] Wellman also collaborated with Ben Veenhof (Statistics Canada), Carsten Quell (Department of Canadian Heritage) and Bernie Hogan to relate time spent at home on the Internet to social relations and civic involvement. A different focus is his collaboration on Wenhong Chen's study of transnational immigrant entrepreneurs who link China and North America.[45]

Wellman's major current focus is as the head of the Connected Lives project studying the interplay between communication, community and domestic relationships in Toronto and in Chapleau in rural northern Ontario. Early findings of the interplay between online and offline life are summarized in "Connected Lives: The Project".[46] More focused research (with Jennifer Kayahara) has shown how the onetime two-step flow of communication has become more recursively multi-step as the result of the Internet's facilitation of information seeking and communication.[47] Recent research (with Tracy Kennedy) has argued that many households, like communities, have changed from local groups to become spatially dispersed networks connected by frequent ICT and mobile phone communication.[48] Other NetLab researchers, besides those noted in the text and the notes have included Julie Amoroso, Christian Beermann, Dean Behrens, Vincent Chua, Jessica Collins, Dimitrina Dimitrova, Zack Hayat, Chang Lin, Julia Madej, Maria Majerski, Mo Guang Ying, Diana Mok, Bárbara Barbosa Neves, and Lilia Smale.

Teaching and mentoring[edit]

Wellman mentors graduate and undergraduate students in courses about community, social network analysis, and technology and society. He has co-authored with 51 students, including five undergraduates and one high school student. In 1998, he received the annual "Mentoring Award" from the International Network for Personal Relationships.[1]

Offices[edit]

  • Founded and led the University of Toronto's "Structural Analysis Programme" in the Department of Sociology, 1979–1982, which focused on studying social structure and relationships from a social network perspective. The Department of Sociology subsequently established the "Barry Wellman Award" for excellence in undergraduate research.[50]
  • Associate Director of the Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto (1980–1984), where his research was based, 1970-2007.[51]
  • Council member and then President of two sections of the American Sociological Association:
    • Community and Urban Sociology (1998-2000): led the team that founded the journal, City and Community;[52]
    • Communications and Information Technologies (2005-2006): membership increased from 95 to 303.[53]
  • North American editor of Information, Communication and Society (2003-).[55]

Awards and Recognitions[edit]

In 2014, Barry Wellman received the "Lifetime Achievement" award from the Oxford Internet Institute "in recognition of his extraordinary record of scholarship in social network theory and Internet research which has contributed so much to our understanding of life online." [56]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Barry Wellman's Vitae
  2. ^ Craven, Paul; Wellman, Barry (1973). "The Network City". Sociological Inquiry 43: 57–88. doi:10.1111/j.1475-682X.1973.tb00003.x. 
  3. ^ Wellman, Barry (1979). "The Community Question: The Intimate Networks of East Yorkers". American Journal of Sociology 84 (5): 1201–31. doi:10.1086/226906.  Claude Fischer, "Inventing the Social Network," Boston Review, December 19, 2013, [1]
  4. ^ Barry Wellman, “Computer Networks as Social Networks.” Science 293 (September 14, 2001): 2031-34.
  5. ^ Barry Wellman and Bernie Hogan, with Kristen Berg, Jeffrey Boase, Juan-Antonio Carrasco, Rochelle Côté, Jennifer Kayahara, Tracy L.M. Kennedy and Phouc Tran. “Connected Lives: The Project” Pp. 157-211 in Networked Neighbourhoods: The Online Community in Context, edited by Patrick Purcell. Guildford, UK: Springer, 2006.
  6. ^ Barry Wellman and Bernie Hogan (2004). “The Immanent Internet.” Pp. 54-80 in Netting Citizens: Exploring Citizenship in a Digital Age, edited by Johnston McKay. Edinburgh: St. Andrew Press.
  7. ^ , Caroline Haythornthwaite and Barry Wellman, “Work, Friendship and Media Use for Information Exchange in a Networked Organization.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 49, 12 (Oct., 1998): 1101-1114
  8. ^ Barry Wellman, “Physical Place and Cyber Place: The Rise of Networked Individualism.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25,2 (June, 2001): 227-52
  9. ^ Barry Wellman, "The Community Question: The Intimate Networks of East Yorkers." American Journal of Sociology 84 (March, 1979): 1201-31.
  10. ^ Anabel Quan-Haase and Barry Wellman, “Networks of Distance and Media: A Case Study of a High Tech Firm.” Trust and Communities conference, Bielefeld, Germany, July, 2003; Anabel Quan-Haase and Barry Wellman. 2004. “Local Virtuality in a High-Tech Networked Organization.” Anaylse & Kritik 26 (special issue 1): 241-57 SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1; Anabel Quan-Haase and Barry Wellman, “How Computer-Mediated Hyperconnectivity and Local Virtuality Foster Social Networks of Information and Coordination in a Community of Practice.” International Sunbelt Social Network Conference, Redondo Beach, California, February 2005.; Anabel Quan-Haase and Barry Wellman. “Hyperconnected Net Work: Computer-Mediated Community in a High-Tech Organization.” Pp. 281-333 in The Firm as a Collaborative Community: Reconstructing Trust in the Knowledge Economy, edited by Charles Heckscher and Paul Adler. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006
  11. ^ Ross Slutsky and Doug Bernard (June 14, 2012). "The Web’s "Triple Revolution" «  Digital Frontiers". Voice of America. Retrieved 2 July 2012. 
  12. ^ "Networked: The New Social Operating System Blog". PEW Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved 10 July 2012. ; "2012 PROSE Awards Complete List of Winners," Association of American Publishers, February 2013 [2]
  13. ^ Harzing's Publish or Perish, September 4, 2007. [3].
  14. ^ Via co-authorship with statistician Ove Frank, who in turn co-authored with Frank Harary [4]
  15. ^ [5]
  16. ^ [6][dead link]
  17. ^ Toronto Globe and Mail, March 27, 2012, pp. B8-B9.
  18. ^ a b Barry Wellman, "I was a teenage network analyst," Connections 17(2):28-45
  19. ^ Barry Wellman, "On from Lafayette," http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman/publications/index.html
  20. ^ Merrijoy Kelner and Beverly Wellman, eds., Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Challenge and Change. London: Harwood/Taylor and Francis, 2000; http://www.utoronto.ca/CAMlab/bev/index.html
  21. ^ Claude Fischer, To Dwell among Friends: Personal Networks in Town and City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1982.Robert Sampson, "Local Friendship Ties and Community Attachment in Mass Society: A Multilevel Systemic Model." American Sociological Review, 1988. Barrett A. Lee. RS Oropesa. Barbara J. Metch. Avery M. Guest. "Testing the Decline-of-Community Thesis: Neighborhood Organizations in Seattle, 1929 and 1979." American Journal of Sociology, 89, 5, 1161-1188. March, 1984. Barry Wellman, "The Community Question: The Intimate Networks of East Yorkers." American Journal of Sociology 84 (March, 1979): 1201-31.
  22. ^ Nan Lin, Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001; Barry Wellman and Scot Wortley. "Different Strokes from Different Folks: Community Ties and Social Support." 1990. American Journal of Sociology 96, 3 (Nov.): 558-88. Barry Wellman and Scot Wortley, "Brothers' Keepers: Situating Kinship Relations in Broader Networks of Social Support." Sociological Perspectives 32, 3 (1989): 273-306. Barry Wellman, Peter Carrington and Alan Hall "Networks as Personal Communities." Pp. 130-84 in Social Structures: A Network Approach, edited by Barry Wellman and S.D. Berkowitz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Vicky Cattell. (2001). "Poor people, poor places, and poor health: the mediating role of social networks and social capital." Social Science and Medicine, 52 (10): 1501-1516.
  23. ^ Barry Wellman and Kenneth Frank. “Network Capital in a Multi-Level World: Getting Support in Personal Communities.” Pp. 233-73 in Social Capital: Theory and Research, edited by Nan Lin, Karen Cook and Ronald Burt. Chicago: Aldine DeGruyter, 2001.Talja Blokland, Urban Bonds. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2003. Linton Freeman, A History of Social Network Analysis. Vancouver: Empiric Press, 2004.
  24. ^ Barry Wellman, "Men in Networks: Private Community, Domestic Friendships." Pp. 74-114 in Men's Friendships, edited by Peter Nardi. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. (1992). Barry Wellman, "Domestic Work, Paid Work and Net Work." Pp. 159-91 in Understanding Personal Relationships, edited by Steve Duck and Daniel Perlman. London: Sage, 1985.
  25. ^ Gabriele Plickert, Rochelle Côté and Barry Wellman. 2007. " It's Not Who You Know, It's How You Know Them: Who Exchanges What With Whom?” Social Networks 29, 3:405-29.
  26. ^ Diana Mok and Barry Wellman. 2007. “How Much Did Distance Matter Before the Internet?” Social Networks 29: in press.
  27. ^ Barry Wellman, "Structural Analysis: From Method and Metaphor to Theory and Substance." Pp. 19-61 in Social Structures: A Network Approach, edited by Barry Wellman and S.D. Berkowitz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
  28. ^ Barry Wellman, “Little Boxes, Glocalization, and Networked Individualism.” Pp. 11-25 in Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches, edited by Makoto Tanabe, Peter van den Besselaar, and Toru Ishida. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2002.
  29. ^ Barry Wellman, “Physical Place and Cyber Place: The Rise of Networked Individualism.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25,2 (June, 2001): 227-52.
  30. ^ Donald Steiny and Harri Oinas-Kukkonen (2007). "Networks awareness: social network search, innovation and productivity in organisations." International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations 4(4): 413-430.
  31. ^ Identity and Control, 2nd ed., Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008. p. 27
  32. ^ Bernie Hogan, Juan-Antonio Carrasco and Barry Wellman. 2007. “Visualizing Personal Networks: Working with Participant-Aided Sociograms.” Field Methods 19 (2), May: 116-144.
  33. ^ Barry Wellman and Kenneth Frank. “Network Capital in a Multi-Level World: Getting Support in Personal Communities.” Pp. 233-73 in Social Capital: Theory and Research, edited by Nan Lin, Karen Cook and Ronald Burt. Chicago: Aldine DeGruyter, 2001.
  34. ^ Keith Hampton and Barry Wellman. 2003. “Neighboring in Netville: How the Internet Supports Community and Social Capital in a Wired Suburb.” City and Community 2, 3 (Fall): 277-311; Barbara S. Lawrence. 2006. "Organizational reference groups: A missing perspective on social context. Organization Science, 17(1), 80-100.
  35. ^ Christoph Müller, Barry Wellman and Alexandra Marin. “How to Use SPSS to Study Ego-Centered Networks.” Bulletin de Methode Sociologique 69 (Oct, 1999): 83-100. Caroline Haythornthwaite and Barry Wellman. "Using SAS to Convert Ego-Centered Networks to Whole Networks." Bulletin de Methode Sociologique No. 50 (March, 1996): 71-84. Barry Wellman, "How to Use SAS to Study Egocentric Networks". Cultural Anthropology Methods Bulletin 4 (June, 1992): 6-12. Barry Wellman, "Doing It Ourselves: The SPSS Manual as Sociology's Most Influential Recent Book." Pp. 71-78 in Required Reading: Sociology's Most Influential Books, edited by Dan Clawson. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998.
  36. ^ Howard White, Barry Wellman and Nancy Nazer. 2004. “Does Citation Reflect Social Structure: Longitudinal Evidence from the `Globenet’ Interdisciplinary Research Group.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 55, 2: 111-26. Dimitrina Dimitrova, Emmanuel Koku, Barry Wellman and Howard White. “Who Do Scientists Network With?" Final Report to the Canadian Water Network, May 2007.
  37. ^ Marilyn Mantei, Ronald Baecker, William Buxton, Thomas Milligan, Abigail Sellen and Barry Wellman. "Experiences in the Use of a Media Space." 1992. Pp 372-78 in Groupware: Software for Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, edited by David Marca and Geoffrey Bock. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1992, pp. 372-78. Caroline Haythornthwaite and Barry Wellman, “Work, Friendship and Media Use for Information Exchange in a Networked Organization.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 49, 12 (Oct., 1998): 1101-1114.
  38. ^ Caroline Haythornthwaite and Barry Wellman, “Work, Friendship and Media Use for Information Exchange in a Networked Organization.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 49, 12 (Oct., 1998): 1101-1114. Caroline Haythornthwaite, Barry Wellman and Laura Garton, “Work and Community Via Computer-Mediated Communication.” Pp. 199-226 in Psychology and the Internet: Intrapersonal, Interpersonal and Transpersonal Implications, edited by Jayne Gackenbach. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998.
  39. ^ Anabel Quan-Haase and Barry Wellman. “Hyperconnected Net Work: Computer-Mediated Community in a High-Tech Organization.” Pp. 281-333 in The Firm as a Collaborative Community: Reconstructing Trust in the Knowledge Economy, edited by Charles Heckscher and Paul Adler. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006; Anabel Quan-Haase and Barry Wellman, “From the Computerization Movement to Computerization: A Case Study of a Community of Practice.” In Computerization Movements and Technology Diffusion: From Mainframes to Ubiquitous Computing, edited by Ken Kraemer and Margaret Elliott. Medford, NJ: Information Today, 2007.
  40. ^ Barry Wellman and Milena Gulia. "Net Surfers Don't Ride Alone: Virtual Communities as Communities." Pp. 167-94 in Communities in Cyberspace, edited by Marc Smith and Peter edited by Barry Wellman. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999. Barry Wellman, "An Electronic Group is Virtually a Social Network." Pp. 179-205 in Culture of the Internet, edited by Sara Kiesler. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1997. Barry Wellman, "The Rise of Networked Individualism." Pp. 17-42 in Community Informatics, edited by Leigh Keeble and Brian Loader. London: Routledge, 2001. Barry Wellman and Bernie Hogan (2004). “The Immanent Internet.” Pp. 54-80 in Netting Citizens, edited by Johnston McKay. Edinburgh: St. Andrew Press. Barry Wellman. 2004. “The Three Ages of Internet Studies: Ten, Five and Zero Years Ago.” New Media and Society 6 (1): 108-114; Howard Rheingold. (20). The Virtual Community, 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  41. ^ Wenhong Chen, Jeffrey Boase and Barry Wellman. 2002. “The Global Villagers: Comparing the Users and Uses of the Internet Around the World.” Pp. 74-113 in The Internet in Everyday Life, edited by Barry Wellman and Caroline Haythornthwaite. Oxford: Blackwell. Anabel Quan-Haase and Barry Wellman with James Witte and Keith Hampton. 2002. “Capitalizing on the Internet: Network Capital, Participatory Capital, and Sense of Community.” Pp. 291-324 in The Internet in Everyday Life, edited by Barry Wellman and Caroline Haythornthwaite. Oxford: Blackwell.
  42. ^ Strength of Internet Ties
  43. ^ Keith Hampton and Barry Wellman. 2003. “Neighboring in Netville: How the Internet Supports Community and Social Capital in a Wired Suburb.” City and Community 2, 3 (Fall): 277-311. Keith Hampton and Barry Wellman. 2002. "The Not So Global Village of Netville." Pp. 345-71 in The Internet in Everyday Life, edited by Barry Wellman and Caroline Haythornthwaite. Oxford: Blackwell.
  44. ^ Hua Wang and Barry Wellman. 2010. “Social Connectivity in America: Changes in Adult Friendship Network Size from 2002 to 2007.” American Behavioral Scientist 53 (8): 1148-1169.
  45. ^ Wenhong Chen and Barry Wellman, “Doing Business at Home and Away: Policy Implications of Chinese-Canadian Entrepreneurship.” Canada in Asia Series, Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada, Vancouver. April, 2007. Barry Wellman, Wenhong Chen and Dong Weizhen. “Networking Guanxi." Pp. 221-41 in Social Connections in China: Institutions, Culture and the Changing Nature of Guanxi, edited by Thomas Gold, Douglas Guthrie and David Wank. Cambridge University Press, 2002. Wenhong Chen and Barry Wellman. 2009. “Net and Jet: The Internet Use, Travel and Social Networks of Chinese Canadian Entrepreneurs.” Information, Communication and Society, 12, 4 (June): 525-47.
  46. ^ Barry Wellman and Bernie Hogan, with Kristen Berg, Jeffrey Boase, Juan-Antonio Carrasco, Rochelle Côté, Jennifer Kayahara, Tracy L.M. Kennedy and Phouc Tran. “Connected Lives: The Project” Pp. 157-211 in Networked Neighbourhoods: The Online Community in Context, edited by Patrick Purcell. Guildford, UK: Springer, 2006.
  47. ^ Jennifer Kayahara and Barry Wellman, 2007. “Searching for Culture – High and Low.” Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 12 (4): April: http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol12/issue3/kayahara.html
  48. ^ Tracy Kennedy and Barry Wellman. 2007. “The Networked Household.” Information, Communication and Society 10: forthcoming.
  49. ^ Linton C. Freeman, The Development of Social Network Analysis. Vancouver: Empiric Press, 2004.
  50. ^ University of Toronto Department of Sociology - Home
  51. ^ CUCS - Research Associates
  52. ^ History of CUSS
  53. ^ Ronald Anderson and Barry Wellman, eds., "Symposium on the History of CITASA, 1988 to 2005: From Microcomputers to Communication and Information Technologies.” Social Science Computer Review 24, 2 (Summer, 2006).
  54. ^ American Sociological Association
  55. ^ Taylor & Francis Journals: Welcome
  56. ^ "Network Theorist Barry Wellman Receives Lifetime Achievement Award from the Oxford Internet Institute". Oxford Internet Institute. Retrieved September 6, 2014. 

References[edit]

  • "The Networked Individual: A Profile of Barry Wellman," by Bernie Hogan.
  • Barry Wellman website.
  • Barry Wellman, “Through Life from the Bronx to Cyberspace.” Aristeia, Fall, 2005: 24.
  • “Connected Lives and Networked Individualism: The Internet in Everyday Life.” Big Ideas, TV Ontario, March 10, 2007. [7]
  • Bryan Kirschner, “Interview with Barry Wellman, S.D. Clark Professor of Sociology, on Social Network Analysis and Community.”, Port25 (Microsoft Open Source Podcast), December 15, 2006. [8]
  • Cara Donnelly, “Dr. Barry Wellman Comments on the Internet's Social Impact.” Hot Topics, April 2006. [9]
  • Annick Jesdanun, “Alone on the Internet? Hardly” Associated Press. January 26, 2006. [10]
  • Kenneth Kidd, “It’s All in Your Head.” Toronto Star, October 9, 2005. pp. I1, I8. [11]
  • Howard Rheingold, “NetLab Probes the Glocal Village.” TheFeature.com, December 16, 2004.
  • Diana Kuprel, "The Glocal Village: Internet and Community", Ide&as: Arts & Science Review", University of Toronto, Fall 2004.
  • "Un McLuhan Con Datos." La Vanguardia [Barcelona], November 18, 2001: 10-11.
  • Elaine Carey, "In Netville, Good Nexus Makes Good Neighbours," Toronto Star, September 14, 2000; , p. B2; [12]
  • Carin Rubenstein, “The Folks Next Door Aren't Strangers After All,"New York Times, January 7, 1993.