Bartholin's gland

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Bartholin's gland
Skenes gland.jpg
Genital organs of female.
Latin glandula vestibularis major
Gray's p.1266
Artery external pudendal artery[1]
Nerve ilioinguinal nerve [1]
Lymph superficial inguinal lymph nodes
Precursor Urogenital sinus
MeSH Bartholin's+Glands
Dorlands
/Elsevier
Bartholin gland

The Bartholin's glands (also called Bartholin glands or greater vestibular glands) are two pea sized compound racemose glands[2] located slightly posterior and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina. They secrete mucus to lubricate the vagina and are homologous to bulbourethral glands in males. However, while Bartholin's glands are located in the superficial perineal pouch in females, bulbourethral glands are located in the deep perineal pouch in males. Their duct length is 1.5 to 2.0 cm and open into navicular fossa.[2] The ducts are paired and open on the surface of the vulva. It is claimed[by whom?] that the two external openings of the Bartholin's ducts are often invisible to the naked human eye.

Function[edit]

They secrete mucus to provide vaginal lubrication.[3][4] Bartholin's glands secrete relatively minute amounts of fluid when a woman is sexually aroused.[5] The minute droplets of fluid were once believed to be important for lubricating the vagina, but research from Masters and Johnson demonstrated that vaginal lubrication comes from deeper within the vagina.[5] The fluid may slightly moisten the labial opening of the vagina, serving to make contact with this sensitive area more comfortable for the woman.[5]

Clinical significance[edit]

Although unusual, it is possible for the Bartholin's glands to become irritated or infected, resulting in pain.[5] Inflammation of these glands can be caused by but not limited to gonorrhoeal and chlamydial infections and is called bartholinitis.[2] If the duct becomes obstructed, a Bartholin's cyst can develop, and a Bartholin's cyst in turn can become infected and form an abscess. Adenocarcinoma of the gland is rare, but benign tumors and hyperplasia are even more rare.[6]

History[edit]

Bartholin's glands were first described in the 17th century by the Danish anatomist Caspar Bartholin the Younger (1655–1738).[7] Some sources mistakenly ascribe their discovery to his grandfather, theologian and anatomist Caspar Bartholin the Elder (1585–1629).[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Greater Vestibular (Bartholin) gland
  2. ^ a b c Manual of Obstetrics. (3rd ed.). Elsevier. pp. 1-16. ISBN 9788131225561.
  3. ^ "Viscera of the Urogenital Triangle". University of Arkansas Medical School. 
  4. ^ Chrétien, F.C.; Berthou J. (September 18, 2006). "Crystallographic investigation of the dried exudate of the major vestibular (Bartholin's) glands in women.". Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 135 (1): 116–22. doi:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2006.06.031. PMID 16987591. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Bartholin's Gland". Discovery Health. 
  6. ^ Argenta PA; Bell K; Reynolds C; Weinstein R (Oct 1997). "Bartholin's gland hyperplasia in a postmenopausal woman". Obstetrics & Gynecology 90 (4 part 2): 695–7. doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(97)00409-2. PMID 11770602. 
  7. ^ Bartholin's gland at Who Named It?
  8. ^ C. C. Gillispie (ed.): Dictionary of Scientific Biography, New York 1970. See the article on Thomas Bartholin.

External links[edit]