Bartholomeus Anglicus (Bartholomew of England) (before 1203 – 1272) was an early 13th-century scholastic scholar of Paris, a member of the Franciscan order. He was the author of the compendium De proprietatibus rerum ("On the Properties of Things"), dated at 1240, an early forerunner of the encyclopedia and one of the most popular books in medieval times. Bartholomew also held senior positions within the church and was appointed Bishop of Łuków although he was not consecrated to that position.
Little is known of Bartholomew's early life. He is believed to have been born around the turn of the 13th century, to unknown parents. The first record of him was in 1224 in Paris as a teacher, although he is believed to have studied at Oxford University.
The work De proprietatibus rerum was written at the school of Magdeburg in Saxonia and intended for the use of students and the general public. Bartholomew carefully notes the sources for the material included, although, at present, it is sometimes impossible to identify or locate some of them. His annotations give a good idea of the wide variety of works available to a medieval scholar.
The original Latin work was translated into French in 1372 and a number of manuscripts of the Latin and French versions survive. The work was later printed in numerous editions. John Trevisa produced an English translation in 1397. Extracts were compiled by Robert Steele under the title Medieval Lore: an Epitome (1893). A critical edition of Trevisa's translation appeared in 1988.
The work was organized in 19 books. The subjects of the books, in order, are God, angels (including demons), the human mind or soul, physiology, of ages (family and domestic life), medicine, the universe and celestial bodies, time, form and matter (elements), air and its forms, water and its forms, earth and its forms including geography, gems, minerals and metals, animals, and color, odor, taste and liquids.
Book 1 De Deo On God and the names of God
Book 2 De proprietatibus angelorum On angels, good and bad
Book 3 De anima On the soul and reason
Book 4 De humani corporis On the bodily humors
Book 5 De hominid corpore On the parts of the body
Book 6 De state hominis On daily life
Book 7 De infirmitatibus On diseases and poisons
Book 8 De munro On earth and the heavenly bodies
Book 9 De temporizes On time and motion
Book 10 De materia et forma On matter, form and fire
Book 11 De aere On the air and weather
Book 12 De avibus On birds
Book 13 De aqua On water and fishes
Book 14 De terra On the earth and its surface
Book 15 De regionibus et provinces On regions and places
Book 16 De lapidibus et metallis On rocks, gems and minerals
Book 17 De herbis et arboribus On plants and trees
Book 18 De animalibus On land animals
Book 19 De accidentibus On colours, smells and tastes, substances, measurements, numbers and music
Sources as given by William Morris
- Adamantius Origen
- Gilles de Corbeil
- Alain de Lille
- Albertus Magnus
- Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi
- Alexander Neckam
- Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghānī
- Alfred of Sareshel
- Anselm of Canterbury
- Archelaus(geographer)
- Augustine of Hippo Saint Augustine
- Aurora, The: A metrical version of the Bible by Petrus Riga
- Solomon ibn Gabirol
- Haymo of Faversham (d. 1244).
- Basil of Caesarea In Hexameron
- Bede (673-735). The work by which he was best known in the thirteenth century was not his History but the works on the Calendar, etc.
- Jean Beleth
- Bernard of Clairvaux
- Bestriarium: A collection of early myths on animals; of Eastern origin. There are many different forms of this work. All are founded on Physiologus.
- Boethius treatise on arithmetic
- Callisthenes pseudo: Alexander romance
- Cassiodorus De Septem Disciplinis
- Cato the Elder: On Agriculture
- Calcidius: A commentary on the Timaeus (dialogue) of Plato.
- Cicero (107-44 B.C.). In SOMN. SCIPIONIS.
- Constantine the African He wrote the Viaticum and the Pantegna He introduced Arab medicine into Europe through the School of Salerno.
- Cyprian (d. 285). A Syriac astrologer, afterwards Bishop of Antioch, and Martyr in the Diocletian persecution.
- DAMASCENE (11th cent.). Quoted by Constantinus Afer. A physician.
- DAMASCENE, JOHN (end of 12th cent.). An Arab physician.
- Damascius (circ. 533). A Syrian commentator on Aristotle, who took refuge in Persia. Author of a work on wonders quoted by Photius.
- Pedanius Dioscorides
- Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite: De Coelesti Hierarchia, and de divinis nominibus
- Aelius Donatus Grammarian.
- EUFICIUS (circ. 600). A disciple of Gregory.
- Fabius Planciades Fulgentius or Fulgentius of Ruspe grammarian.
- Galen (131-210).
- Gilbertus Anglicus An English physician in France; wrote COMPENDIUM MEDICINAE.
- Pope Gregory I Commentary on Job.
- HALY The first medical work translated by Constantius Afercanus
- HERMES. In ALCHEMIA (not now extant).
- Hippocrates (460-351 B.C.).
- Huguccio (d. 1210). A jurisconsult and writer on Grammar.
- HYGINUS, PSEUDO- (6th cent.). Writer on Astronomy.  ?
- Pope Innocent III. (d. 1216). Wrote "De Contemptu Mundi," etc.
- Isaac Israeli ben Solomon (circ. 660). An Arab physician, who translated many Greek authors into Arabic.
- Isidore of Seville (d. 636). Bishop of Seville. He wrote a work on Etymology in 20 books, one of the most popular works of the Middle Age.
- Jacques de Vitry (d. 1240). A Crusading Bishop, afterwards Cardinal legate. Wrote an EXEMPLAR, and 3 books of Eastern and Western History.
- Jerome (340-420).
- JOSEPH BEN GORION (900). Abridgment of Jewish History containing many legends. Josippon
- Josephus (37-95). Jewish historian.
- JORATH. DE ANIMALIBUS. A Syriac writer (?).
- LAPIDARIUM. See MARBODIUS DE GEMMIS. There are many treatises under this name.
- Pope Leo IX. (1054). See Jacques Paul Migne, Patrologia.
- Lucan (d. 65). One of the most popular Latin poets of the Middle Age.
- Aemilius Macer (6th cent.). On THE VIRTUES OF HERBS. The extant hexameter poem known as Floridus or De viribus (aut virtutibus) herbarum, traditionally ascribed to Macer, is actually a medieval production by Odo Magdunensis, a French physician.
- Macrobius (circ. 409). His commentary on the dream of Scipio was a favourite work in Medieval times.
- Martianus Capella (circ. 400). Wrote a poem, THE MARRIAGE OF MERCURY AND PHILOLOGIA, treating of THE SEVEN LIBERAL ARTS, which was the standard text-book from the 5th century for the schools.
- Mashallah ibn Athari (circ. 1100).
- METHODIUS, PSEUDO- (8th cent.). DE AGARINI.
- Michael Scot (circ. 1235). At this time concerned in the translation of some Arabic works on Astronomy, and Aristotle's DE COELO and DE MUNDO DE ANIMA, and HISTORIA NATURALIS with commentaries.
- MISALATH ASTROLOGUS (?).
- Papias (lexicographer) (circ. 1053). Grammarian. [Milan, 1467, etc.]
- Perspectiva Sciencia. According to William Morris this may be Bacon's, Peckham's, or Albertus Magnus', but he favors Peckham. Others say; Alhacen's De Aspectibus, a medieval Latin translation of Ibn al-Haytham's Kitab al-Manazir (Book of Optics), was first cited in this compendium, dated about 1240.
- Petrus Comestor (d. 1198). Named MAGISTER HISTORIARUM or Master of Histories, wrote an account of the world from the Creation, which, when translated into French, was called the "Mer des Histoires." A favourite Medieval book.
- PHILARETUS (1100). A writer on Medicine. date seems wrong here redirects to Theophilus Protospatharius The real Philaretus wrote on pulses
- Physiologus. A Syriac compilation of moralities on animal myths. It first appears in Western Europe as THEOBALDUS DE NATURIS XII. ANIMALIUM. Of Alexandrian origin, it dates from before the fourth century, and appears to have been altered at the will of each writer.
- PLATEARIUS SALERNITANUS (circ. 1100) was Johannes, one of a family of physicians at Salerno. His work is called the PRACTICA. A book on the virtues of herbs. [Lugd., 1525, etc.]
- Plato (430-348 B.C.). The Timaeus (dialogue) is quoted, probably from Chalcidius.
- Pliny (d. 79). Natural History. This and Isidore's work are the two chief sources of medieval knowledge of Nature.
- Priscian (circ. 525). Grammarian and physicist.
- Ptolemy (circ. 130). An Alexandrian astronomer, known through Arabic translations only at that time. [Ven., 1509, etc.]
- Rabanus Maurus (776-856) of Fulda, pupil of Alcuin. A Benedictine, afterwards Archbishop of Mayence, who wrote DE UNIVERSO MUNDO. [1468; Col., 1627, etc.]
- Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (d. 935). An Arab physician, perhaps the greatest of the School. [Ven., 1548, etc.]
- Remigius of Auxerre (d. 908). A teacher of Grammar in the School of Paris. His grammar remained in use there four centuries. He wrote a gloss on Marcianus Capella.
- Richard of Saint Victor (d. 1173). A Scottish theologian, Prior of St. Victor. A mystic of considerable acuteness. [Ven., 1506, etc.]
- Richard Rufus of Cornwall (circ. 1225). A Cornishman who was a doctor in great renown, both at Oxford and Paris. He afterwards joined the Franciscans.
- Robert Grosseteste (d. 1253), the celebrated Bishop of Lincoln and patron of Bacon. Taught at Paris and at Oxford. Commentaries on Aristotle.
- SALUSTIUS (d. 363?). DE DIIS ET MUNDO. A geographer.
- Schola Medica Salernitana (circ. 1100). A treatise on the preservation of health in leonine verse for popular use, said to be addressed to Robert of England. It has been translated and commented on hundreds of times. The Middle Age very sensibly thought preservation from disease a branch of medicine equally important with the cure of it.
- SECUNDUS. A writer on Medicine. 4th century used Pliny
- Gaius Julius Solinus (circ. 100). Wrote an account of things in general—POLYHISTORIA
- STEPHANUS (circ. 600). Commentary on Galen.
- Walafrid Strabo (d. 847). A Benedictine, Abbot of Reichenau, near Constance. One of the authors of the Gloss.
- SYMON CORNUBIENSIS (?).
- Marcus Terentius Varro, M. T. (116-26 B.C.). Most celebrated grammarian.
- Virgil (70-19 B.C.).
- William of Conches (d. 1150). Lectured at Paris, 1139, on Grammar, wrote DE NATURA.
- Zeno of Cyprus (circ. 400), A writer on Medicine, and teacher at Alexandria.
Bartholomew was elected as Minister of Austria in 1247 and was then elected as Minister of Bohemia in 1255. This appointment included Poland where he resolved a dispute between Duke Boleslaw and the Cathedral Chapter at Kraków. Pope Alexander IV appointed him as Papal legate north of the Carpathians in 1256 and appointed him as the Bishop of Łuków. However, he was probably not consecrated in that position due to the second Mongol invasion of Poland in 1259. Bartholomew was appointed as Minister at Saxonia in 1262 and served in that position until his death in 1272.
- "Bartholomaeus Anglicus". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/101010791. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- "De proprietatib[us] rerum". Rakow Research Library Catalog. Corning Museum of Glass. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Steele 1893, p. 1
- Steele 1893, pp. 6–7
- Trevisa 1988
- (Anglicus), Bartholomaeus; Morris, William (1907). Mediæval lore from Bartholomaeus Anglicus. Chatto and Windus. pp. 176–. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- "Bartholomaeus Anglicus." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2004. Encyclopedia.com. (March 28, 2015). 
- I, Pope Gregory (1844). Morals on the Book of Job. J.H. Parker. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Thorndike, Lynn (1923). A History of Magic and Experimental Science. Columbia University Press. pp. 423–. ISBN 9780231087957. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Marbode; Cornarius (1799). Marbodi Liber lapidum, seu de Gemmis. typis J. C. Dieterich. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- *Smith, A. Mark, ed. and trans. (2001), written at Philadelphia, "Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception: A Critical Edition, with English Translation and Commentary, of the First Three Books of Alhacen's De aspectibus, the Medieval Latin Version of Ibn al-Haytham's Kitāb al-Manāzir, 2 vols", Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) 91 (4–5), ISBN 0-87169-914-1, JSTOR 3657357 3657358 3657357, OCLC 47168716, p.xx, note 32 is on p.cxxiii
- Schulman, Jana K. (2002). The Rise of the Medieval World, 500-1300: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313308178. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Wallis, Faith (2010). Medieval Medicine: A Reader. University of Toronto Press. pp. 31–. ISBN 9781442601031. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Athens.), Stephanus (of (1998). Stephanus the Philosopher and Physician: Commentary on Galen's Therapeutics to Glaucon. BRILL. ISBN 9789004109353. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Bartholomaeus Anglicus". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- Steele, Robert, ed. (1893). Medieval Lore: An Epitome of the Science, Geography, Animal and Plant Folk-lore and Myth of the Middle Age: Being Classified Gleanings from the Encyclopedia of Bartholomew Anglicus On the Properties of Things. E. Stock.
- Trevisa, John (1988). On the Properties of Things: John Trevisa's Translation of Bartholomaeus Anglicus, de Proprietatibus Rerum: A Critical Text. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-818530-8.
- Works by Anglicus Bartholomaeus at Project Gutenberg
- De proprietatibus rerum, 20 June 1492 edition published by A. Koberger in Nuremberg, held by the Corning Museum of Glass. (Accessed 17 April 2014)
- French translation by Jean Corbechon, Le Propriétaire des choses, (Lyon 1495), scanned by La Bibliothèque d'agglomération de Saint-Omer.
- French translation by Jean Corbechon, Le Propriétaire des choses, (circa 1500), scanned by La bibliothèque municipale de Nîmes.
- Complete text of the English translation by John de Trevisa revised by Stephen Batman, Batman uppon Bartholome his booke De Proprietatibus Rerum, (London 1582), Early English Books Online / University of Michigan