Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
|Bartolomé Esteban Murillo|
|Born||late December 1617; baptised January 1, 1618
|Died||April 3, 1682 (aged 64)
|Known for||Painting, Drawing|
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (born late December 1617, baptized January 1, 1618 – April 3, 1682) was a Spanish Baroque painter. Although he is best known for his religious works, Murillo also produced a considerable number of paintings of contemporary women and children. These lively, realist portraits of flower girls, street urchins, and beggars constitute an extensive and appealing record of the everyday life of his times.
Murillo was born to Gaspar Esteban and María Pérez Murillo. He may have been born in Seville or in Pilas, a smaller Andalusian town. It is clear that he was baptized in Seville in 1618, the youngest son in a family of fourteen. His father was a barber and surgeon. His parents died when Murillo was still very young, and the artist was largely brought up by his aunt and uncle. Murillo married Beatriz Cabrera in 1645; their first child, named María, was born shortly after their marriage. The mother and daughter became the subjects of two of his paintings: The Virgin of the Rosary and Madonna and Child.
Murillo began his art studies under Juan del Castillo in Seville, he became familiar with Molanus (Ian van der Meulen or Molano) art rules and Flemish painting; the great commercial importance of Seville at the time ensured that he was also subject to influences from other regions. His first works were influenced by Zurbarán, Jusepe de Ribera and Alonzo Cano, and he shared their strongly realist approach. As his painting developed, his more important works evolved towards the polished style that suited the bourgeois and aristocratic tastes of the time, demonstrated especially in his Roman Catholic religious works.
In 1642, at the age of 26, he moved to Madrid, where he most likely became familiar with the work of Velázquez, and would have seen the work of Venetian and Flemish masters in the royal collections; the rich colors and softly modeled forms of his subsequent work suggest these influences. He married Beatriz Cabrera y Villalobos in 1645, and returned to Seville. In that year, he painted thirteen canvases for the monastery of St. Francisco el Grande in Seville which improved his reputation. Following the completion of a pair of pictures for the Seville Cathedral, he began to specialize in the themes that brought him his greatest successes: the Virgin and Child and the Immaculate Conception.
After another period in Madrid, from 1658 to 1660, he returned to Seville. Here he was one of the founders of the Academia de Bellas Artes (Academy of Art), sharing its direction, in 1660, with the architect Francisco Herrera the Younger. This was his period of greatest activity, and he received numerous important commissions, among them the altarpieces for the Augustinian monastery, the paintings for Santa María la Blanca (completed in 1665), and others. He died in Seville in 1682 at the age of 64.
Murillo had many pupils and followers. The prolific imitation of his paintings ensured his reputation in Spain and fame throughout Europe, and prior to the 19th century his work was more widely known than that of any other Spanish artist. Artists influenced by his style included Gainsborough and Greuze.
Works on display in the United States
His painting Christ on the Cross is at the Timken Museum of Art in San Diego. Two of his paintings are entitled Christ After the Flagellation, and one of these is at the Krannert Art Museum, Champaign, IL. His work is also found at the Mabee-Gerrer Museum of Art in Shawnee, Oklahoma, and at the Meadows Museum at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas.
The Little Fruit Seller (1670), Alte Pinakothek
The Young Beggar, Musée du Louvre
Two women at a window, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Two Trinities, National Gallery, London
The Virgin of the Rosary, Museo del Prado
St. Isidore of Seville, Cathedral of Seville
St. Leander of Seville, Cathedral of Seville
St. Francis Solanus, Alcazar, Seville
Murillo's La Inmaculada Concepción del espejo, Museo de Arte de Ponce
- A., O'Neill (1833). A Dictionary of Spanish Painters. London: C. O'Neill. p. 246.
- "Bartolome Esteban Murillo". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 2007-08-30.
- The center medallion of the badge of the Spanish Order of Charles III is clearly modeled on Murillo's unique manner of representing the Immaculate Conception.
- Marqués, Manuela B. Mena. "Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban." Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press.
- "Christ on the Cross". Timken Museum of Art.
- "Christ After the Flagellation". Krannert Art Museum.
- "Bartolomé Esteban MURILLO". Meadows Museum. Retrieved 2012-12-08.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bartolomé Esteban Murillo.|
- Paintings in Museums and Public Art Galleries Worldwide
- Murillo Biography, Style and Critical Reception
- Virgin and Child in Glory (1673) at the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool
- Murillo Gallery at MuseumSyndicate
- "Bartolomé Esteban Murillo". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- Murillo at ArtRenewalCenter