Bartolomé Sureda y Miserol

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Portrait of Bartolomé Sureda y Miserol by Francisco Goya, 1803–04.

Bartolomé Sureda y Miserol (1769–1850) was a Spanish artisan. He served as director of the Real Fabrica de Porcelana del Buen Retiro, the Real Fabrica de Pano in Guadalajara, the Real Fabrica de Loza de la Moncloa, and the Real Fábrica de Cristales de La Granja.[1]

Biography[edit]

Sureda was trained in France in 1800 in the manufacture of porcelain and textiles. He returned to Spain in 1803, where he was made initially the Director of Labour, and the Director of the Real Fábrica del Buen Retiro in 1807; here he developed hard-paste porcelain which helped in quality production and financial improvement of the company. With the French invasion in 1808 and eventual destruction of the factory in 1812, Sureda returned to France.[1][2] He was known to be in Mallorca in 1817 and was involved in manufacturing "worsted cloth." He was recalled to Madrid to head the Real Fabrica de Pano in Guadalajara and was also given the charge as acting director of the Real Fabrica de la Moncloa. In 1817, the Buen Retiro's successor became the Royal Porcelain Factory and Thin Earthenware of the Moncloa. All the employees of the destroyed factory were reemployed in the new one,[2] and Sureda returned to be its director until 1820.[3] In 1822, he became director of the Real Fábrica de Cristales de La Granja. After his retirement from the royal service on 13 November 1829, he moved back to Mallorca.[1]

He was recalled to Bueno Retiro from Paris, on 2 September 1803 and as per records he started working in the factory from October 1803. This establishes the dating of the portrait dated 1803–1808 of Sureda and his wife; the costume worn for the portrait is of 1799 vintage which also establishes the dates.[1]

When he worked in Bueno Retiro, Sureda used for his porcelain works all the materials required in hard porcelain, similar to that used in Sevres, except for the Keoline and calcined Scapolite, its substitute; lead was not used by him in his works. He used pure feldspar flux (feldspar obtained from Colmenar de Oreja) for glazing. He drew raw materials from sites close to Madrid, Vallecas’s Scapolite and Galagar's flint. The magnesium paste developed by him, which he used extensively in the manufacture of Bueno Porcelain was considered unique for its chemical composition which permitted firing under varying temperatures.[4]

He followed Goya’s style of painting, and after he retired to Melorca devoted his time to his life’s ambition of painting of landscapes, religious themes and general scenes. He died on 10 May 1850.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Brown, Jonathan; Mann, Richard G. (29 March 1991). Spanish Paintings of the Fifteenth through Nineteenth Centuries. Oxford University Press. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-0-521-40107-4. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Campbell, Gordon (2006). The Volume 2 of The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts. Oxford University Press. p. 118. ISBN 9780195189483. 
  3. ^ Vicente González, José de (2009). Antiguas boticas españolas y sus recipientes. tresCtres. pp. 391–. ISBN 978-84-92727-03-2. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  4. ^ Fort, Rafael; de Buergo, Monica Alvarez; Heras, Miquel Gomez-; Calvo, Carmen Vazquez-. (2006). Heritage, Weathering and Conservation: Proceedings of the International Heritage, Weathering and Conservation Conference (HWC-2006), 21–24 June 2006, Madrid, Spain. Taylor & Francis. pp. 140–141. ISBN 9780415412728. Retrieved 19 September 2012.