Stratum basale

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Histologic image showing a section of epidermis. Stratum basale labeled near bottom.

The stratum basale (basal layer, sometimes referred to as stratum germinativum) is the deepest layer of the five layers of the epidermis, which is the outer covering of skin in mammals.

The stratum basale is a continuous layer of cells. It is often described as one cell thick, though it may in fact be two to three cells thick in glabrous (hairless) skin and hyperproliferative epidermis (from a skin disease).[1]

The stratum basale is primarily made up of basal keratinocyte cells, which can be considered the stem cells of the epidermis. They divide to form the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum, which migrate superficially.[2] Other types of cells found within the stratum basale are melanocytes (pigment-producing cells), Langerhans cells (immune cells), and Merkel cells (touch receptors).

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  1. ^ McGrath, J.A.; Eady, R.A.; Pope, F.M. (2004). Rook's Textbook of Dermatology (Seventh Edition). Blackwell Publishing. Pages 3.7. ISBN 978-0-632-06429-8.
  2. ^ Habif, Thomas P. (2010). Clinical Dermatology, 5th ed. Mosby. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7234-3541-9.