Basic metabolic panel
|Basic metabolic panel|
|LOINC||24320-4, 24321-2, 51990-0|
A basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a set of seven or eight blood chemical tests and is one of the most common lab tests ordered by health care providers. The BMP provides key information regarding fluid and electrolyte status, kidney function, blood sugar levels, and response to various medications and other medical therapies. It is frequently employed as a screening tool during a physical exam.
The basic metabolic panel is a simpler version of the Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), which includes tests for liver function.
The version with seven tests is often referred to by medical professionals in USA as the "CHEM-7", or "SMA-7" (Sequential Multiple Analysis-7). Because it is such a common test, this term is commonly sprinkled into the scripts of popular American TV medical dramas, increasing public exposure to the term.
The seven parts of a CHEM-7 are tests for:
- Four electrolytes:
These levels, taken as a set, can be rapidly performed to indicate several common acute conditions requiring immediate specific medical treatment, such as dehydration/hypovolemia, water intoxication (which can present with similar symptoms as dehydration but requires the opposite treatment), diabetic shock (either ketoacidosis, hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia), congestive heart failure, renal failure or liver failure, various substance overdoses or adverse reactions, and others. A Chem-7 is thus a vital tool when attempting to stabilize a patient.
Calcium (Ca2+) is often considered part of the BMP, though, by definition, it is not part of the CHEM-7. A basic metabolic panel including calcium is sometimes colloquially referred to as a "CHEM-8". Calcium, as a light alkali metal, is also an electrolyte, but abnormalities are more commonly associated with malnutrition, osteoporosis, or malignancy, especially of the thyroid.
These lab values are often listed in a standard grid:
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- "BASIC METABOLIC PANEL, SERUM". Retrieved 2007-08-26.[dead link]
- "Basic Metabolic Panel-Topic Overview". Retrieved 2007-08-26.