Basic oxygen steelmaking
Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS, BOP, BOF, and OSM), also known as Linz-Donawitz-Verfahren steelmaking or the oxygen converter process is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbon-rich molten pig iron is made into steel. Blowing oxygen through molten pig iron lowers the carbon content of the alloy and changes it into low-carbon steel. The process is known as basic due to the type of refractories—calcium oxide and magnesium oxide—that line the vessel to withstand the high temperature of the molten metal.
The process was developed in 1948 by Robert Durrer and commercialized in 1952–1953 by Austrian VOEST and ÖAMG. The LD converter, named after the Austrian towns Linz and Donawitz (a district of Leoben) is a refined version of the Bessemer converter where blowing of air is replaced with blowing oxygen. It reduced capital cost of the plants, time of smelting, and increased labor productivity. Between 1920 and 2000, labor requirements in the industry decreased by a factor of 1,000, from more than 3 worker-hours per tonne to just 0.003. The vast majority of steel manufactured in the world is produced using the basic oxygen furnace; in 2000, it accounted for 60% of global steel output. Modern furnaces will take a charge of iron of up to 350 tons and convert it into steel in less than 40 minutes, compared to 10–12 hours in an open hearth furnace.
The basic oxygen process developed outside of traditional "big steel" environment. It was developed and refined by a single man, Swiss engineer Robert Durrer, and commercialized by two small steel companies in allied-occupied Austria, which had not yet recovered from the destruction of World War II.
In 1858, Henry Bessemer patented a steelmaking process involving oxygen blowing for decarburizing molten iron (UK Patent No. 2207). For nearly a hundred years commercial quantities of oxygen were not available at all or were too expensive, and the invention remained unused. During World War II German (C. V. Schwartz), Belgian (John Miles) and Swiss (Durrer and Heinrich Heilbrugge) engineers proposed their versions of oxygen-blown steelmaking, but only Durrer and Heilbrugge brought it to mass-scale production.
In 1943, Durrer, formerly a professor at the Berlin Institute of Technology, returned to Switzerland and accepted a seat on the board of Roll AG, the country's largest steel mill. In 1947 he purchased the first small 2.5-ton experimental converter from the U. S., and on April 3, 1948 the new converter produced its first steel. The new process could conveniently process large amounts of scrap metal with only a small proportion of primary metal necessary. In the summer of 1948 Roll AG and two Austrian state-owned companies, VOEST and ÖAMG, agreed to commercialize the Durrer process.
By June 1949, VOEST developed an adaptation of Durrer's process, known as the LD (Linz-Donawitz) process. In December 1949, VOEST and ÖAMG committed to building their first 30-ton oxygen converters. They were put into operation in November 1952 (VOEST in Linz) and May 1953 (ÖAMG, Donawitz) and temporarily became the leading edge of the world's steelmaking, causing a surge in steel-related research. Thirty-four thousand businesspeople and engineers visited the VOEST converter by 1963. The LD process reduced processing time and capital costs per ton of steel, contributing to the competitive advantage of Austrian steel. VOEST eventually acquired the rights to market the new technology. However, errors made by the VOEST and the ÖAMG management in licensing their technology made control over its adoption in Japan impossible and by the end of the 1950s the Austrians lost their competitive edge.
The original LD process consisted in blowing oxygen over the top of the molten iron through the water-cooled nozzle of a vertical lance. In the 1960s steelmakers introduced bottom-blown converters and introduced inert gas blowing for stirring the molten metal and removing the phosphorus impurities.
In the Soviet Union, some experimental production of steel using the process was done in 1934, but industrial use was hampered by lack of efficient technology to produce liquid oxygen. In 1939, the Russian physicist Pyotr Kapitsa perfected the design of the centrifugal turboexpander. The process was put to use in 1942-1944. Most turboexpanders in industrial use since then have been based on Kapitsa's design and centrifugal turboexpanders have taken over almost 100 percent of the industrial gas liquefaction and in particular the production of liquid oxygen for steelmaking.
The big American steelmakers caught up late with the new technology; the first oxygen converters in the United States were launched at the end of 1954 by McLouth Steel in Trenton, Michigan, which accounted for less than 1 per cent of the national steel market. U.S. Steel and Bethlehem Steel introduced the oxygen process only in 1964. By 1970 half of world's and 80% of Japan's steel output was produced in oxygen converters. In the last quarter of the 20th century basic oxygen converters were gradually replaced by the electric arc furnace. In Japan the share of LD process decreased from 80% in 1970 to 70% in 2000; worldwide share of the basic oxygen process stabilized at 60%.
The basic oxygen steel-making process is as follows:
- Molten pig iron (sometimes referred to as "hot metal") from a blast furnace is poured into a large refractory-lined container called a ladle;
- The metal in the ladle is sent directly for basic oxygen steelmaking or to a pretreatment stage. Pretreatment of the blast furnace metal is used to reduce the refining load of sulfur, silicon, and phosphorus. In desulfurising pretreatment, a lance is lowered into the molten iron in the ladle and several hundred kilograms of powdered magnesium are added and the sulfur impurities are reduced to magnesium sulfide in a violent exothermic reaction. The sulfide is then raked off. Similar pretreatments are possible for desiliconisation and dephosphorisation using mill scale (iron oxide) and lime as reagents. The decision to pretreat depends on the quality of the charge and the required final quality of the steel.
- Filling the furnace with the ingredients is called charging. The BOS process is autogenous, i.e. the required thermal energy is produced during the process from combustion of carbon and oxygen. Maintaining the proper charge balance, the ratio of hotmetal, from melt, to cold scrap, is therefore very important. The BOS vessel is one-fifth filled with steel scrap. Molten iron from the ladle is added as required by the charge balance. A typical chemistry of hotmetal charged into the BOS vessel is: 4% C, 0.2–0.8% Si, 0.08%–0.18% P, and 0.01–0.04% S all of which can be burned off by the supplied oxygen.
- The vessel is then set upright and a water-cooled lance is lowered down into it and high purity oxygen is delivered into the vessel through a lance at velocities greater than Mach 1. The lance "blows" 99% pure oxygen onto the steel and iron, igniting the carbon dissolved in the steel, burning it to form carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and causing the temperature to rise to about 1700°C. This melts the scrap, lowers the carbon content of the molten iron and helps remove unwanted chemical elements. It is this use of pure oxygen instead of air that improves upon the Bessemer process, as the nitrogen (a particularly undesirable element) and other gases in air do not react with the charge.
- Fluxes (burnt lime or dolomite) are fed into the vessel to form slag, which absorbs impurities of the steelmaking process. During "blowing," the metal in the vessel forms an emulsion with the slag, that facilitates the refining process. Near the end of the blowing cycle, which takes about 20 minutes, the temperature is measured and samples are taken. The samples are tested and a computer analysis of the steel is given within six minutes. A typical chemistry of the blown metal is 0.3–0.6% C, 0.05–0.1% Mn, 0.01–0.03% Si, 0.01–0.03% S and P.
- The BOS vessel is tilted again and the steel is poured into a giant ladle. This process is called tapping the steel. The steel is further refined in the ladle furnace, by adding alloying materials to give the it special properties required by the customer. Sometimes argon or nitrogen is bubbled into the ladle to make mix the alloys correctly. The steel now contains 0.1–1% carbon. In general, the more carbon in the steel, the harder it is, but it is also more brittle and less flexible.
- After the steel is removed from the BOS vessel, the slag, filled with impurities, is poured off and cooled.
- McGannon, Harold E. editor (1971). The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: Ninth Edition. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: United States Steel Corporation.
- Smil, Vaclav (2006). Transforming the twentieth century: technical innovations and their consequences, Volume 2. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-516875-5.
- Brock, James W.; Elzinga, Kenneth G. (1991). Antitrust, the market, and the state: the contributions of Walter Adams. M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-87332-855-8.
- Tweraser, Kurt (2000). The Marshall Plan and the Reconstruction of the Austrian Steel Industry 1945-1953. in: Bischof, Gunther et al. (2000). The Marshall Plan in Austria. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-7658-0679-7. pp. 290–322.
- Basic Oxygen Steelmaking module at steeluniversity.org, including a fully interactive simulation
- Basic Oxygen Steelmaking cost model showing typical cost structure for liquid steel