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From a prominent Jewish family, Henriques was educated at Harrow School and University College, Oxford. After serving with distinction in the Tank Corps during World War I, he married Rose Loewe in 1916, and they worked together throughout their marriage. In addition to writing reforms to religious Jewish ceremonies, Henriques set up boys' clubs for deprived Jewish children. The boys received education, vocational training, recreation and holidays in the country. Henrinques's attitude to the care of less fortunate children was one of understanding through love and kindness. In this way he anticipated today's attitude to the social welfare of children. From 1923 until 1950, he would frequently send deprived, sick or merely tired children to his country home at Linslade in Buckinghamshire for rest and recuperation.
Basil Henriques was the author of several books, mostly concerned with the care of youth, including:
- (1945) What is Judaism.
- (1950) The indiscretions of a magistrate.
- (1951) Fratres: club boys in uniform, an anthology.
- (1955) The home-menders: the prevention of unhappiness in children.
He also wrote the Foreword to Enid Blyton's novel The Six Bad Boys (1951), which relates the bad consequences of family breakdown for six boys, culminating in their appearing in a children's court for theft. Henriques, in his Foreword, praises Blyton for her treatment of this subject, and stresses the negative effects of broken homes on children.