|Emperor of the Byzantine Empire|
Basil, his son Constantine, and his second wife, Empress Eudokia Ingerina.
|Full name||Basil I the Macedonian|
|Died||August 29, 886 (aged 75)|
|Successor||Leo VI the Wise|
|Issue||by Maria: Constantine
by Eudokia: Leo VI, Alexander, Stephen
Basil I, called the Macedonian (Greek: Βασίλειος ὁ Μακεδών, Basíleios hō Makedṓn; 830/835 – August 29, 886) was a Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 867 to 886. Born a simple peasant in the Byzantine theme of Macedonia, he rose in the Imperial court, and usurped the Imperial throne from Emperor Michael III (r. 842–867). Despite his humble origins, he showed great ability in running the affairs of state, leading to a revival of Imperial power and a renaissance of Byzantine art. He was perceived by the Byzantines as one of their greatest emperors, and the dynasty he founded, the Macedonian (Greek: Μακεδονική δυναστεία), ruled over what is regarded as the most glorious and prosperous era of the Byzantine Empire.
From peasant to emperor
Basil was born to peasant parents in late 811 (or sometime in the 830s in the estimation of some scholars) at Charioupolis in the Byzantine theme of Macedonia (an administrative division corresponding to the area of Adrianople in Thrace). Contemporary Byzantine Thrace was inhabited by people of Slavic, Greek and Armenian origins. Claims have been made for an Armenian, Slavic, or indeed "Armeno-Slavonic" origin for Basil I. The Irish Byzantinist John Bagnell Bury dismissed claims of him being of Slavic origin on the basis that the Arabs viewed all Macedonians as Slavs (Saqaliba), a view supported by Peter Charanis, a prominent historian who specialized in ethnic studies of the Byzantine Empire. It must also be understood that the contemporary term "Macedonian" referred to a theme (province) of that name located in western Thrace, rather than the ancient and modern region of Macedonia. The author of the only dedicated biography of Basil I in English has concluded that it is impossible to be certain what the ethnic origins of the emperor were, though Basil was definitely reliant on the support of Armenians in prominent positions within the Byzantine Empire. During his reign, an elaborate genealogy tree was produced that purported that his ancestors were not mere peasants, as everyone believed, but descendants of the Arsacid (Arshakuni) kings of Armenia and also of Constantine the Great. Members of the Macedonian dynasty would come to use this tree to claim their descent from King Tiridates III of Armenia. According to the John Julius Norwich, the native language of Basil I was Armenian, whereas in Greek, he spoke with a strong accent. However, scholarship remains divided on this issue, as claims have also been made that members of the Macedonian dynasty spoke a Slavic dialect alongside Greek.
One story asserts that he had spent a part of his childhood in captivity in Bulgaria, where his family had, allegedly, been carried off as captives of the Khan Krum (r. 803–814) in 813. Basil lived there until 836, when he and several others escaped to Byzantine-held territory in Thrace. Basil was ultimately lucky enough to enter the service of Theophilitzes, a relative of the Caesar Bardas (the uncle of Emperor Michael III), as a groom. While serving Theophilitzes, he visited the city of Patras, where he gained the favor of Danielis, a wealthy woman who took him into her household and endowed him with a fortune. He also earned the notice of Michael III by his abilities as a horse tamer and in winning a victory over a Bulgarian champion in a wrestling match; he soon became the Byzantine Emperor's companion, confidant, and bodyguard (parakoimomenos).
On Emperor Michael's orders, Basil divorced his wife Maria and married Eudokia Ingerina, Michael's favourite mistress in around 865. During an expedition against the Arabs, Basil convinced Michael III that his uncle Bardas coveted the Byzantine throne, and subsequently murdered Bardas with Michael's approval on April 21, 866. Basil then became the leading personality at court and was invested in the now vacant dignity of kaisar (caesar), before being crowned co-emperor on May 26, 866. This promotion may have included Basil's adoption by Michael III, himself a much younger man. It was commonly believed that Leo VI, Basil's successor and reputed son, was really the son of Michael. Although Basil seems to have shared this belief (and hated Leo), the subsequent promotion of Basil to caesar and then co-emperor provided the child with a legitimate and Imperial parent and secured his succession to the Byzantine throne. It is notable that when Leo was born, Michael III celebrated the event with public chariot races, whilst he pointedly instructed Basil not to presume on his new position as junior emperor.
When Michael III started to favour another courtier, Basiliskianos, Basil decided that his position was being undermined. Michael threatened to invest Basiliskianos with the Imperial title and this induced Basil to pre-empt events by organizing the assassination of Michael on the night of September 23/24, 867. Michael and Basiliskianos were insensibly drunk following a banquet at the palace of Anthimos when Basil, with a small group of companions (including his father Bardas, brother Marinos, and cousin Ayleon), gained entry. The locks to the chamber doors had been tampered with and the chamberlain had not posted guards; both victims were then put to the sword. On Michael III's death, Basil, as an already acclaimed co-emperor, automatically became the ruling basileus.
Basil I inaugurated a new age in the history of the Byzantine Empire, associated with the dynasty which he founded, the so-called "Macedonian dynasty". This dynasty oversaw a period of territorial expansion, during which Byzantium was the strongest power in Europe and the eastern Mediterranean.
It is remarkable that Basil I became an effective and respected monarch, ruling for 19 years, despite being a man with no formal education and no military or administrative experience. Moreover, he had been the boon companion of a debauched monarch and had achieved power through a series of calculated murders. That there was little political reaction to the murder of Michael III is probably due to his unpopularity with the bureaucrats of Constantinople because of his disinterest in the administrative duties of the Imperial office. Also, Michael's public displays of impiety had alienated the Byzantine populace in general. Once in power Basil soon showed that he intended to rule effectively and as early as his coronation he displayed an overt religiosity by formally dedicating his crown to Christ. He maintained a reputation for conventional piety and orthodoxy throughout his reign.
To secure his family on the throne, Basil I raised his eldest son Constantine (in 869) and his second son Leo (in 870) to the position of co-emperor.
Because of the great legislative work which Basil I undertook, he is often called the "second Justinian." Basil's laws were collected in the Basilika, consisting of sixty books, and smaller legal manuals known as the Eisagoge. Leo VI was responsible for completing these legal works. The Basilika remained the law of the Byzantine Empire down to its conquest by the Ottomans. Ironically, this codification of laws seems to have begun under the direction of the caesar Bardas who was murdered by Basil. Basil's financial administration was prudent. Consciously desiring to emulate Emperor Justinian I (r. 527–565), Basil also initiated an extensive building program in Constantinople, crowned by the construction of the Nea Ekklesia cathedral.
His ecclesiastical policy was marked by good relations with Rome. One of his first acts was to exile the Patriarch of Constantinople, Photios, and restore his rival Ignatios, whose claims were supported by Pope Adrian II. However, Basil had no intention of yielding to Rome beyond a certain point. The decision of Boris I of Bulgaria to align the new Bulgarian Church with Constantinople was a great blow to Rome, which had hoped to secure it for herself. But on the death of Ignatios in 877, Photios became patriarch again, and there was a virtual, though not a formal, breach with Rome. This was a watershed event in conflicts that led to the Great Schism that ultimately produced the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church as separate ecclesiastical entities.
Emperor Basil's reign was marked by the troublesome ongoing war with the heretical Paulicians, centered on Tephrike on the upper Euphrates, who rebelled, allied with the Arabs, and raided as far as Nicaea, sacking Ephesus. Basil's general, Christopher, defeated the Paulicians in 872, and the death of their leader, Chrysocheir, led to the definite subjection of their state. There was the usual frontier warfare with the Arabs in Asia Minor, which led to little concrete gain, but the Empire's eastern frontier was strengthened. The island of Cyprus was recovered, but retained for only seven years.
Basil was the first Byzantine emperor since Constans II (r. 641–668) to pursue an active policy to restore the Empire's power in the West. Basil allied with Holy Roman Emperor Louis II (r. 850–875) against the Arabs and sent a fleet of 139 ships to clear the Adriatic Sea of their raids. With Byzantine help, Louis II captured Bari from the Arabs in 871. The city eventually became Byzantine territory in 876. However, the Byzantine position on Sicily deteriorated, and Syracuse fell to the Emirate of Sicily in 878. This was ultimately Basil's fault as he had diverted a relief fleet from Sicily to haul marble for a church instead. Although most of Sicily was lost, the general Nikephoros Phokas (the Elder) succeeded in taking Taranto and much of Calabria in 880. The successes in the Italian peninsula opened a new period of Byzantine domination there. Above all, the Byzantines were beginning to establish a strong presence in the Mediterranean Sea, and especially the Adriatic.
Last years and succession
Basil's spirits declined in 879, when his eldest and favorite son Constantine died. Basil now raised his youngest son, Alexander, to the rank of co-emperor. Basil disliked the bookish Leo, on occasion physically beating him; he probably suspected Leo of being the son of Michael III. In his later years, Basil's relationship with Leo was clouded by the suspicion that the latter might wish to avenge the murder of Michael III. Leo was eventually imprisoned by Basil after the detection of a suspected plot, but the imprisonment resulted in public rioting; Basil threatened to blind Leo but was dissuaded by Patriarch Photios. Leo was eventually released after the passage of three years. Basil died on August 29, 886 from a fever contracted after a serious hunting accident when his belt was caught in the antlers of a deer, and he was allegedly dragged 16 miles through the woods. He was saved by an attendant who cut him loose with a knife, but he suspected the attendant of trying to assassinate him and had the man executed shortly before he himself died.
One of the first acts of Leo VI as ruling emperor was to rebury, with great ceremony, the remains of Michael III in the Imperial Mausoleum within the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. This did much to confirm in public opinion the view that Leo considered himself to have been Michael's son.
The mother of Basil is unknown, but his father was:
- Bardas/Konstantinos of Macedonia.
By his first wife Maria, Basil I had several children, including:
- Anastasia, who married the general Christopher.
- Constantine (circa 865 – September 3, 879), co-emperor to Basil from January 6, 868 to his death. According to George Alexandrovič Ostrogorsky, Constantine was betrothed to Ermengard of Provence, daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Louis II and Engelberga in 869. The marital contract was broken in 871 when relations between Basil and Louis broke down.
By his second wife, Eudokia Ingerina, Basil I officially had the following children:
- Leo VI, who succeeded as Byzantine emperor and may actually have been the son of Michael III.
- Stephen I, Patriarch of Constantinople, who may also have been a son of Michael III.
- Alexander, who succeeded as Byzantine emperor in 912.
- Anna Porphyrogenita, a nun at the convent of St. Euphemia in Petrion.
- Helena Porphyrogenita, a nun at the convent of St. Euphemia in Petrion.
- Maria Porphyrogenita, a mother of nuns at the convent of St. Euphemia in Petrion.
- Harry Turtledove, a historian noted for his alternate historical works, has written several series set in a place called Videssos, which is a thinly disguised Byzantine Empire. The Tale of Krispos trilogy – Krispos Rising (1991), Krispos of Videssos (1991), and Krispos the Emperor (1994) – are fictionalized tellings of the rise of Basil and his sons.
- Stephen Lawhead's book, Byzantium (1996), uses the succession of the Basil I as seed for the conspiracy which occupies most of the novel.
- Treadgold 1997, p. 455.
- Vasiliev 1928–1935, p. 301.
- Tobias 2007, p. 20. Tobias is referring to the writings of Hamza al Isfahani, a 10th-century Arab scholar.
- Finlay 1853, p. 213.
- Bury 1912, p. 165.
- Charanis 1963, pp. 34–35.
- Tobias 2007, p. 264
- Treadgold 1997, p. 457; Vogt & Hausherr 1932, p. 44.
- John Julius Norwich,A Short History of Byzantium (New York, 1997), p. 214,
- Shea, p. 56.
- Chisholm 1911.
- Gregory 2010, p. 242.
- Treadgold 1997, p. 453.
- Finlay 1853, pp. 180–181. A man named John of Chaldia killed Michael III, cutting off both the Emperor's hands before returning to stab him in the heart.
- Treadgold 1997, pp. 453–455.
- Finlay 1853, pp. 214–215.
- Finlay 1853, pp. 221–226.
- Jenkins 1987, p. 191.
- Jenkins 1987, pp. 185–187.
- Jenkins 1987, pp. 196–197.
- Treadgold 1997, p. 461.
- Finlay 1853, p. 241.
- Bury, John Bagnell (1912). A History of the Eastern Roman Empire from the Fall of Irene to the Accession of Basil I (A.D. 802–867). London, United Kingdom: Macmillan and Company.
- Charanis, Peter (1963). The Armenians in the Byzantine Empire. Lisbon, Portugal: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian.
- Finlay, George (1853). History of the Byzantine Empire from DCCXVI to MLVII. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons.
- Gregory, Timothy E. (2010). A History of Byzantium. Malden, Massachusetts and West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-8471-X.
- Jenkins, Romilly (1987). Byzantium: The Imperial Centuries, AD 610–1071. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-6667-4.
- Kazhdan, Alexander Petrovich, ed. (1991). Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York, New York and Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
- Shea, J. (1997) Macedonia and Greece: The Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation, McFarland. ISBN 0786402288
- Tobias, Norman (2007). Basil I, Founder of the Macedonian Dynasty: A Study of the Political and Military History of the Byzantine Empire in the Ninth Century. Lewiston, New York: The Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 0-7734-5405-5.
- Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.
- Vasiliev, Alexander Alexandrovich (1928–1935). History of the Byzantine Empire. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-80925-0.
- Vogt, Albert; Hausherr, Isidorous, eds. (1932). "Oraison funèbre de Basile I par son fils Léon VI le Sage". Orientalia Christiana Periodica (in French) (Rome, Italy: Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum) 26 (77): 39–78.
- Mango, Cyril (1973). "Eudocia Ingerina, the Normans, and the Macedonian Dynasty". Zbornik Radova Vizantoloskog Instituta. 14-15: 17–27.
- Media related to Basil I at Wikimedia Commons
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Basil I.". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. This cites other sources:
- Vita Basilii, by his grandson Constantine VII (bk. v. of the Continuation of Theophanes, ed. Bonn).
- Genesius (ed. Bonn).
- Vita Euthymii, ed. De Boor (Berlin, 1888).
- Finlay, History of Greece, vol. ii. (Oxford, 1877).
- Gibbon, Decline and Fall, vols. v. and vi. (ed. Bury, London, 1898).
- Hergenröther, Photius, Patriarch von Constantinopel, vol. ii. (Regensburg, 1867).
Basil IBorn: c. 811 Died: 29 August 886