San Sebastian Church (Manila)

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For other uses, see St. Sebastian's Church.
Basilica Minore de San Sebastian
Basilica de San Sebastian, Manila, Philippines.jpg
Basic information
Location Quiapo, Manila, Philippines
Geographic coordinates 14°35′59″N 120°59′21″E / 14.59972°N 120.98917°E / 14.59972; 120.98917
Affiliation Roman Catholic
Year consecrated 1891
Ecclesiastical or organizational status Minor basilica
Status active
Architectural description
Architect(s) Genaro Palacios
Architectural type Basilica
Architectural style Neo-Gothic
Groundbreaking 1888
Completed 1891
Specifications
Materials steel, mixed sand, gravel & cement

The Basilica Minore de San Sebastian, better known as San Sebastian Church, is a Roman Catholic minor basilica in Manila, Philippines and the seat of the Parish of San Sebastian.

Completed in 1891, San Sebastian Church is noted for its architectural features. an example of the revival of Gothic architecture in the Philippines, it is the only all-steel church or basilica in asia,[1][2] and claimed as the only prefabricated steel church in the world.[3] In 2006, San Sebastian Church was included in the Tentative List for possible designation as a World Heritage Site. It was designated as a National Historical Landmark by the Philippine government in 1973.[4]

San Sebastian Church is under the care of The Order of the Augustinian Recollects, who also operate a college adjacent to the basilica. It is located at Plaza del Carmen, at the eastern end of Claro M. Recto Street, in Quiapo, Manila.[5]

History[edit]

The twin spires of San Sebastian Church

In 1621, Don Bernardino Castillo, a generous patron and a devotee of the Christian martyr Saint Sebastian, donated the land upon which the church stands now. The original church, made of wood, burned in 1651 during a Chinese uprising. The succeeding structures, which were built of brick, were destroyed by fire and earthquakes in 1859, 1863, and 1880.[5]

In the 1880s, Esteban Martínez, the parish priest of the ruined church, approached the Spanish architect, Genaro Palacios, with a plan to build a fire and earthquake-resistant structure made entirely of steel. Palacios completed a design that fused Earthquake Baroque with the Neo-Gothic style.[5] His final design was said to have been inspired by the famed Gothic Burgos Cathedral in Burgos, Spain.[5]

Construction[edit]

The prefabricated steel sections that would compose the church were manufactured in Binche, Belgium.[1] according to the historian Ambeth Ocampo, the knockdown steel parts were ordered from the Societe anonyme des Enterprises de Travaux Publiques in Brussels.[6] In all, 52 tonnes (51 long tons; 57 short tons) of prefabricated steel sections were transported in eight separate shipments from Belgium to the Philippines, the first shipment arriving in 1888.[5] Belgian engineers supervised the assembly of the church, the first column of which was erected on September 11, 1890.[7] The walls were filled with mixed sand, gravel and cement.[4] The stained glass windows were imported from the Henri Oidtmann Company, a German stained glass firm, while local artisans assisted in applying the finishing touches of the steel church.[1]

The church was raised to the status of a minor basilica by Pope Leo XIII on June 24, 1890.[4] Upon its completion the following year, on August 16, 1891, Basilica Minore de San Sebastian was consecrated by the archbishop of Manila, Bernardo Nozaleda.[4]

According to the late Fr. Jesus Pastor Paloma, OAR, the structure was also supposed to have a prefabricated retablo'' altar but the ship transporting it from Belgium capsized during a storm and could not be retrieved thus a wooden altar was locally fabricated in its stead. He also stated that the bottom part of the structure was designed to resemble a hull of a ship so it would just sway during an earthquake.

Gustave Eiffel's role[edit]

Gustave Eiffel may have been involved in the design of San Sebastian Church.

It has long been reputed that Gustave Eiffel, the French engineer behind the Eiffel Tower and the steel structure within the Statue of Liberty, was involved in the design and construction of San Sebastian Church.[2][6][8]

The connection between Eiffel and San Sebastian Church was reportedly confirmed by historian Ambeth Ocampo while doing research in Paris.[8] Ocampo also published a report saying that, the prominent architect I.M. Pei had visited Manila in the 1970s to confirm reports he had heard that Eiffel had designed an all-steel church in Asia. When Pei inspected San Sebastián Church, he reportedly pronounced that the metal fixtures and overall structure were indeed designed by Eiffel.[6]

The official catalogues of Eiffel makes definite reference to the design and exportation of a church in Manila in 1875, thirteen years before construction of San Sebastian Church actually began.[6] If true, this would still not preclude the possibility that Eiffel had designed the metal structure of the church, with Palacios completing the actual design of the entire church.[6]

Features[edit]

San Sebastian Church has two openwork towers and steel vaulting. From its floor, the basilica's nave rises 12 meters (39 ft) to the dome, and 32 meters (105 ft) to the tip of the spires.[4]

The interior of the church incorporates groined vaults in the Gothic architecture style permitting very ample illumination from lateral windows.[1] The steel columns, walls and ceiling were painted by Lorenzo Rocha and his students to give the appearance of marble and jasper.[1] Trompe l'oeil paintings were used to decorate the interiors of the church.[6] True to the Gothic revival spirit of the church are its confessionals, pulpit, altars and five retablos designed by Lorenzo Guerrero[9] and Rocha. The sculptor Eusebio Garcia carved the statues of holy men and women.[10] Six holy water fonts were constructed for the church, each crafted from marble obtained from Romblon.[11]

above the main altar is an image of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, given to the church by Carmelite sisters from Mexico City in 1617[citation needed].[4] The image withstood all the earthquakes and fires which had destroyed previous incarnations of San Sebastian Church, but its ivory head was stolen in 1975.[4]

Preservation[edit]

In recent years, San Sebastian Church has encountered threats to its structural integrity. The steel structure has been beset by rust and corrosion, to which the sea breezes from nearby Manila Bay contribute.[8] In 1998, it was placed on the biennial watchlist of the 100 Most Endangered Sites by the World Monuments Fund, though it was not retained in the subsequent watchlists.[12]

San Sebastian Church was a declared National Historical Landmark by President Ferdinand Marcos through Presidential Decree No. 260 in 1973.[1] State funding was accorded to the church through the National Historical Institute which undertook restoration in 1982. The Recollect community has likewise expended funds for the church's maintenance and restoration.[1]

On May 16, 2006, San Sebastian Church was included in the Tentative List for possible designation as a World Heritage Site, on account of its architectural and historical heritage.[1]

The church is currently undergoing restoration but the cost of restoration according to former parish priest Fr. Rommel Rubia, OAR would be equal to six new structures of the same type. He also said that it is difficult for the European restorers they have consulted to have it restored since the original steel materials used in the 1890s have deteriorated due to rust caused by its proximity to the sea and injecting concrete within the steel beams would not be a solution. They have suggested that it would be a more practical solution to tear down the original structure, preserve it and construct a replica of it which would cost less.

Gallery[edit]

Only Steel Church in Asia
Only Steel Church in Asia
Only Steel Church in Asia
Only Steel Church in Asia

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "World Heritage: San Sebastian Church". Tentative List for the World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  2. ^ a b Layug, p. 88. "The basilica is the first and only all-steel church in Asia, the second in the world after the Eiffel Tower of Paris (French engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiffel himself is also rumored to have been involved in the basilica's construction) "
  3. ^ Francis Doral, ed. (2005). Insight Guides: Philippines. Singapore: Discovery Channel & APA Publications GmbH & Co. Verlag KG. p. 152. "Near where Recto avenue becomes Mendiola Street is San Sebastian Church, reputedly the only prefabricated steel church in the world." 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Layug, p. 88
  5. ^ a b c d e Layug, p. 87
  6. ^ a b c d e f Findelle de Jesus. "The San Sebastian Church -- Gustave Eiffel's Church in the Philippines". artes de las Filipinas: a Website in Honor of Philippine arts and antiquities. artes de las Filipinas. Archived from the original on 22 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  7. ^ Layug, p. 87-88
  8. ^ a b c Howie Severino (2006-05-30). "an Eiffel in Quiapo". Howie Severino's Sidetrip. GMa Network. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  9. ^ Trota José, Regalado; Pacific asia Museum (1990). Images of Faith: Religious Ivory Carvings from the Philippines. Pacific asia Museum. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-877921-03-2. Retrieved 2008-04-26. 
  10. ^ Layug, pp. 88-89.
  11. ^ Institute of Science and Technology (1919). "The Philippine Journal of Science". The Philippine Journal of Science (Science and Technology Information Institute): 88. Retrieved 2008-04-26. 
  12. ^ "WMF Past Watch Sites". World Monuments Fund. Archived from the original on 7 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 

References[edit]

  • Layug, Benjamin Locsin (2007). a Tourist Guide to Notable Philippine Churches. Pasig City, Philippines: New Day Publishers. pp. 87–89. ISBN 971-8521-10-0. 
  • "World Heritage: San Sebastian Church". Tentative List for the World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 

External links[edit]