Darughachi

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A darugha from the Horde in a Rus' city.

Darughachi, which originally designated officials in the Mongol Empire in charge of taxes and administration in a certain province, is the plural form of the Mongolian word darugha.[1] They were sometimes referred to as governors.[2] The term corresponds to the Persian داروغه darougheh[3] and the Turkic basqaq (also spelled baskak) and to da lu hua ch'i (達魯花赤) in Chinese.

The Turkic term basqaq does not appear in Mongolian sources.[4] In Russian sources, the darughachi were almost always referred to as baskaki. [5] They appear in the thirteenth-century soon after the Mongol Conquest but were withdrawn by 1328 and the Grand Prince of Vladimir (usually the Prince of Moscow) became the khan's tax collector and imperial son in law (kürgen), entrusted with gathering the dan' or tribute from the Rus' principalities for the Golden Horde.[6]

In the 13th century, chiefs of Mongol darughas were stationed in Vladimir[7] and Baghdad.[8]

Beginning in 1259, Darughachi were stationed in Goryeo. In Goryeo, the term was understood as Darugha + Achi, where achi meant sir or lord. The term survives to this day as "ajeocci" which means uncle, just as "achi" continues to mean "uncle" in modern Mongolian. government officials from the 1300s to the early 1900s were called Byeoseul-achi, another Mongolianism surviving in Korea. The last Darughachi in Korea was Yi Ja-chun, the Yuan viceroy of Wonsan, who surrendered to Choe Yeong in 1354. Yi Ja-chun's son, Yi Seonggye, the former Mongol military officer, founded the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) based on Confucian Philosophy and Mongol Military organization.

After 1921 the word darga (boss) (Khalkha pronunciation of darugha) replaced the aristocratic noyan as the term for high-level officials in Mongolia.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Britnell, R.H. (1997). Pragmatic literacy, East and West, 1200-1330. The Boydell Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-85115-695-8. Retrieved June 13, 2011. 
  2. ^ Elizabeth Endicott-West, Mongolian Rule in China, Local Administration in the Yuan Dynasty (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989); Idem, " Imperial Governance in Yuan Times," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 46.2 (1986): 523-549.
  3. ^ Dehkhoda Persian dictionary: داروغه . [ غ َ / غ ِ ] (ترکی - مغولی ، اِ) رئیس شبگردان . سرپاسبانان . داروغه که در زبان مغولی به معنی «رئیس » است یک اصطلاح عمومی اداری است [1]
  4. ^ Donald Ostrowski - The "tamma" and the Dual-Administrative Structure of the Mongol Empire, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 61,
  5. ^ See for example the reference to one under the year 1269 in A. N. Nasonov, ed., Novgorodskaia Pervaia Letopis Starshego i Mladshego Izvodov (Moscow and Leningrad: AN SSSR, 1950), 319.
  6. ^ Charles J. Halperin, Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History(Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987); Donald Ostrowski, Muscovy and the Mongols: Cross-Cultural Influences on the Steppe Frontier, 1304-1589 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
  7. ^ Henry Hoyle Howorth-History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century. Part 2., p.128
  8. ^ Judith G. Kolbas-The Mongols in Iran: Chingiz Khan to Uljaytu, 1220-1309, p.156
  9. ^ C.P.Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia, p.412