Tan and White Basset Hound
|Nicknames||Basset, Hush Puppy|
|Country of origin||Great Britain
|Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)|
The Basset Hound is a short-legged breed of dog of the hound family, as well as one of six recognized Basset breeds in France; furthermore, Bassets are scent hounds that were originally bred for the purpose of hunting rabbits and hare. Their sense of smell for tracking is second only to that of the Bloodhound. The name Basset is derived from the French word bas, meaning "low", with the attenuating suffix -et, together meaning "rather low". Basset Hounds are usually Bicolors or Tricolors of standard hound coloration.
In this article "Basset" (with a capital B) is used to distinguish the modern breed from other basset-type dogs
- 1 Description
- 2 Health
- 3 History
- 4 Hunting with bassets
- 5 In popular culture
- 6 Civic events
- 7 Related breeds
- 8 References
- 9 External links
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2008)|
Bassets are large, short, solid and long, with curved sabre tails held high over their long backs. Everett Millais, founder of the modern Basset Hound, is quoted as saying "Oh, he's about 4 feet long and 12 inches high." in reference to his French basset. An adult dog weighs between 20 and 35 kilograms (44 and 77 lb).
This breed, like its ancestor the Bloodhound, has a hanging skin structure, which causes the face to occasionally look sad; this, for many people, adds to the breed's charm. The dewlap, seen as the loose, elastic skin around the neck, and the trailing ears which along with the Bloodhound are the longest of any breed, help trap the scent of what they are tracking. Its neck is wider than its head. This, combined with the loose skin around its face and neck means that flat collars can easily be pulled off. The looseness of the skin results in the Basset's characteristic facial wrinkles. The Basset's skull is characterised by its large Dolichocephalic nose, which is second only to the Bloodhound in scenting ability and number of olfactory receptor cells.
The Basset's short legs are due to a form of dwarfism. Their short stature can be deceiving; Bassets are long and can reach things on table tops that other dogs of similar height can not. Because Bassets are so heavy and have such short legs, they are not able to hold themselves above water for very long when swimming.
The short-haired coat of a Basset is long, smooth and soft, and sheds constantly. They are usually black, tan and white tricolors or tan and white bicolors. Some Bassets are also classified as gray or blue.
They usually have a clearly defined white blaze and a white tip to their tail, intended to aid hunters in finding their dogs when tracking through underbrush.
The Basset Hound is a friendly, outgoing, and playful dog. They can be extremely tolerant of children and other pets.
Bassets are known to be a vocal breed.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2011)|
Basset Hounds have large pendulant ears, (known as "leathers") that do not allow air to circulate inside them, like other breeds with erect or more open ears. This can result in infections and ear mites if their ears are not kept clean and dry. If their ears are allowed to dangle on the ground or in food on a daily basis, they may develop chronic and potentially fatal ear diseases. Young puppies trip over their long ears and may bite their ears accidentally if they dangle in their food. This can lead to infection if they break the skin.
The Basset Hound's short stature is due to the genetic condition Osteochondrodysplasia (meaning abnormal growth of both bone and cartilage). Dwarfism of this type in most animals is traditionally known as Achondroplasia. Basset Hounds, Dachshunds and Bulldogs are a few of the dog breeds classified as Achondroplastic. This bone growth abnormality may be a predisposing factor in the development of elbow dysplasia seen in the breed, which leads to arthritis of the elbow joint.
Because of a basset's body build, if they fall too far, they can hurt their hips, injure their spine or break a leg. Many ageing bassets have been euthanized due to such injuries. If a puppy sustains one of these injuries, the damage can be permanent.
Other health issues
In addition to ear problems, basset hounds may be susceptible to eye issues. Because of their droopy eyes, the area under the eyeball will collect dirt and become clogged with a mucus.
Bassets are bred for endurance. Being overweight leads to paralysis in Bassets.
Basset Hounds are prone to yeast infections in the folds around the mouth, where drool can collect without thoroughly drying out.
The only recent mortality and morbidity surveys of Basset Hounds are from the UK: a 1999 longevity survey with a small sample size of 10 deceased dogs and a 2004 UK Kennel Club health survey with a larger sample size of 142 deceased dogs and 226 live dogs. See Mortality and Morbidity below.
Median longevity of Basset Hounds is about 10.3 years in France and 11.3 years in the UK, which is a typical median longevity for purebred dogs and for breeds similar in size to Basset Hounds. The oldest of the 142 deceased dogs in the 2004 UK Kennel Club survey was 16.7 years. Leading causes of death in the 2004 UK Kennel Club survey were cancer (31%), old age (13%), Gastric dilatation volvulus (11%), and cardiac (8%).
Among the 226 live Basset Hounds in the 2004 UKC survey, the most-common health issues noted by owners were dermatologic (e.g., dermatitis), reproductive, musculoskeletal (e.g., arthritis and lameness), and gastrointestinal (e.g. GDV and colitis). Basset Hounds are also prone to epilepsy, glaucoma, luxating patella, thrombopathia, Von Willebrand disease, hypothyroidism, hip dysplasia, and elbow dysplasia.
The earliest-known depictions of short-legged hunting dogs are engravings from the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. Mummified remains of short-legged dogs from that period have been uncovered in the Dog Catacombs of Saqqara, Egypt. Scent Hounds were used for hunting in both Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.
St Hubert's Hound
The basset type originated in France, and is descended from the 6th century hounds belonging to St Hubert of Belgium, which through breeding at the Benedictine Abbey of St. Hubert eventually became what is known as the St Hubert's Hound around 1000AD. St Hubert's original hounds are descended from the Laconian (Spartas) Hound, one of four groups of dogs discerned from Greek representations and descriptions. These scent hounds were described as large, slow, 'short-legged and deep mouthed' dogs with a small head, straight nose, upright ears and long neck, and either tan with white markings or black with tan markings. Laconian Hounds were reputed to not give up the scent until they found their prey. They eventually found their way to Constantinople, and from there to Europe.
The first mention of a "basset" dog appeared in La Venerie, an illustrated hunting text written by Jacques du Fouilloux in 1585. The dogs in Fouilloux's text were used to hunt foxes and badgers. It is believed that the Basset type originated as a mutation in the litters of Norman Staghounds, a descendant of the St Hubert's Hound. These precursors were most likely bred back to the St. Hubert's Hound, among other derivative French hounds. Until after the French Revolution around the year 1789, hunting from horseback was the preserve of kings, large aristocratic families and of the country squires, and for this reason short-legged dogs were highly valued for hunting on foot.
Basset type hounds became popular during the reign of Emperor Napoleon III (r. 1852-1870). In 1853, Emmanuel Fremiet, "the leading sculptor of animals in his day" exhibited bronze sculptures of Emperor Napoleon III's basset hounds at the Paris Salon. Ten years later in 1863 at the first exhibition of dogs held in Paris, basset hounds attained international attention.
The controlled breeding of the short haired basset began in France in the year 1870. From the existing Bassets, Count Le Couteulx of Canteleu fixed a utilitarian type with straight front legs known as the Chien d'Artois, whereas Mr. Louis Lane developed a more spectacular type, with crooked front legs, known as the Basset Normand. These were bred together to create the original Basset Artésien Normand.
French bassets were being imported into England at least as early as the 1870s. While some of these dogs were certainly Basset Artésien Normands, by the 1880s linebreeding had thrown back to a different heavier type. Everett Millais', who is considered to be the father of the modern Basset Hound, bred one such dog, Nicholas, to a Bloodhound bitch named Inoculation through artificial insemination in order to create a heavier basset in England in the 1890s. The litter was delivered by caesarean section, and the surviving pups were refined with French and English bassets. The first breed standard for what is now known as the Basset Hound was made in Great Britain at the end of 19th century. This standard was updated in 2010.
Hunting with bassets
The Basset Hound was bred to hunt. Its keen nose and short stature are suited to small-game hunting on foot, and it particularly enjoys running in a pack. There are a number of groups that promote hunting with bassets.
There is a variety of Basset Hound developed purely for hunting by Colonel Morrison that were admitted to the Masters of Basset Hounds Association in 1959 via an Appendix to the Stud Book. This breed differs in being straighter and longer in the leg and having shorter ears.
In popular culture
On February 27, 1928, Time magazine featured a basset hound on the front cover. The accompanying story was about the 52nd annual Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show at Madison Square Garden as if observed by the basset hound puppy.
Many cartoon dogs are based on the basset, such as Barnyard Dawg and Tex Avery's Droopy, with several Bassets appearing in animated Disney films. Syndicated comic strip Fred Basset has been a regular feature in newspapers since 1963.
Various advertising logos feature basset hounds. The logo for Hush Puppies brand shoes prominently features a basset hound whose real name is Jason. Basset hounds are occasionally referred to as "hush puppies" for that reason. A basset hound also serves as the companion to the lonely Maytag Man in Maytag appliance advertisements. Tidewater Petroleum advertised its "Flying A" gasoline using a basset hound named Axelrod.
In the early days of television, Elvis Presley sang "Hound Dog" to a basset hound named Sherlock on The Steve Allen Show on July 1, 1956. A basset called Morgan (1946–1960) was discovered by Herbie Sanford, the producer of "The Garry Moore Show," on which he appeared frequently. He was also seen on "The Jackie Gleason Show," "Captain Video" (where he played a dog from Pluto), and "The Kyle MacDonnell Show. He also appeared in a Dean Martin-Jerry Lewis movie. His last appearance was in a drama, where he co-starred with Tom Bosley. Lassie had a basset friend named Pokey early in the Lassie television series. Other TV bassets include the wisecracking Cleo from The People's Choice, Columbo's dog Dog, and the sheriff's dog called "Flash" in The Dukes of Hazzard. Henry from "Emergency!", Governor from "The Governor & J.J.", Quincey, from "Coach", Sam from "That's So Raven", Chips from "EastEnders", Arthur in "Our House" and Socrates in "Judging Amy". Fictional Dukes of Hazzard sheriff character Rosco P. Coltrane was often accompanied by his basset hound name Flash. Some artists, such as director Mamoru Oshii and webcomic artist Scott Kurtz regularly feature their pet Bassets in their work.
Bassets in film include Fred, the companion of Cledus in the 1977 movie Smokey and the Bandit and its two sequels. A basset, Gabriel, appears as Batou's basset hound in Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence. Gabriel is in fact director Mamoru Oshii's real life pet, and is included in many of his films including the 2001's Avalon. In a scene most likely referencing Smokey and the Bandit, a truck driver has a Basset Hound beside him in American Pie 2. Basset Hounds are featured prominently in off-beat roles as well—one gets hit by a car and survives in The Rage: Carrie 2, and in the film Monkeybone a basset has its own nightmarish dream sequence. In The Cassandra Crossing a basset is airlifted by helicopter off a doomed train allowing officials to identify a deadly plague (and thus becomes one of the few survivors of the all-star cast disaster film). Finally, bassets appear in such other mainstream films as The Lost Treasure of Sawtooth Island (where it prominently appears alongside star Ernest Borgnine on the film poster/DVD cover), An American Werewolf in Paris, Nanny McPhee, Spider-Man 2, Kit Kittredge: An American Girl and The Smurfs.
In the US, Basset Hound picnics and "waddles" are traditions in many regions and draw impressive crowds and participations from hundreds or even thousands of Bassets and their owners. Most events are held to raise funds for local and regional Basset rescue groups.
- Basset Fauve de Bretagne
- Basset Bleu de Gascogne
- Basset Artesien Normand
- Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen
- Grand Basset Griffon Vendéen
- Hart, Ernest H. This Is the Basset Hound, T.F.H. Books, 1974. ISBN 0-87666-241-6
- Liebers, Arthur; Hardy, Dorothy. How to Raise and Train a Basset Hound, T.F.H. Publications, Jersey City, NJ, 1959.
- [dead link]
- "Care of a Basset Hound". Delsharlabassethounds.com. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- "Histopathologic study of long-bone growth plates confirms the basset hound as an osteochondrodysplastic breed" Can J Vet Res. 2007 January; 71(1): 66–69.
- Jones T, Hunt R. The musculoskeletal system: In: Jones T, Hunt R, eds. Veterinary Pathology, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1979:1175-1176.
- Willis MB. Inheritance of specific skeletal and structural defects. In: Willis MB, eds. Genetics of the Dog. 1st ed. Great Britain: Howell Book House; 1989:119-120.
- "Elbow Dysplasia (Ununited Anconeal Process)". Genetic Welfare Problems of Companion Animals. ufaw.org.uk: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- "Breed Longevity Data". Users.pullman.com. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Michell, A. R., 1999. Longevity of British breeds of dog and its relationships with sex, size, cardiovascular variables and disease. Veterinary Record 145:625-629.
- "Purebred Dog Health Survey Results". Thekennelclub.org. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Leroy, G. G.; Phocas, F.; Hedan, B.; Verrier, E.; Rognon, X. (2015). "Inbreeding impact on litter size and survival in selected canine breeds". The Veterinary Journal 203: 74. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.11.008.
- "Breed Weight and Lifepsan". Users.pullman.com. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- M. Zedda, P. Manca, V. Chisu, S. Gadau, G. Lepore, A. Genovese, V. Farina (2006) "Ancient Pompeian Dogs – Morphological and Morphometric Evidence for Different Canine Populations, Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia", Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C 35 (5), 319-324.
- "Pictures: Millions of Puppy Mummies in Egypt Labyrinth". National Geographic. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Bloodhounds. Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- "Dogs in Rome and Greece". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Fusco, Peter and H. W. Janson, editors, The Romantics to Rodin, Los Angeles County Museum of Art 1980 p. 272
- Leighton, Robert (1907). The New Book of the Dog. Cassell and Company, Limited. ISBN 978-1-151-75332-8.
- Breed standard, Basset Artésien Normand (DOC file)[dead link]
- "Basset Hounds: Basset Hound Dog Forums - The Early History of the Basset Hound in England, 1874-1921". Basset.net. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- "STANDARD OF THE BREED BASSETHOUND WITH COMMENTS BY IVA ČERNOHUBOVÁ". Bohemia-horrido.com. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Breed standard, Basset Hound 2010 (DOC file)[dead link]
- All About Dogs. Orbis Publishing Limited. 1974. ISBN 0-85613-033-8.
- "TIME Magazine Cover: Baby Basset Hound - Feb. 27, 1928". TIME.com. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- "Jason's Hush Puppies Scrapbook". Arnold-family.net. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Basset Hound.|