Bat Out of Hell
|Bat Out of Hell|
|Studio album by Meat Loaf|
|Released||October 21, 1977|
|Recorded||1975-1976, Bearsville Studios, Woodstock, NY; Utopia Sound, Lake Hill, NY; The Hit Factory, New York, NY; House of Music, West Orange, NJ|
|Genre||Hard rock, progressive rock, rock opera, heavy metal|
|Label||Cleveland International / Epic PE-34974|
|Meat Loaf chronology|
|Singles from Bat Out of Hell|
Bat Out of Hell is the second album and major-label debut by American rock musician Meat Loaf, as well as being his first collaboration with composer Jim Steinman, released in October 1977 on Cleveland International/Epic Records. It is one of the best-selling albums in the history of recorded music, having sold a total of 43 million copies worldwide. Rolling Stone magazine ranked it at number 343 on its list of the 500 greatest albums of all time in 2003.
Its musical style is influenced by Steinman's appreciation of Richard Wagner, Phil Spector, Bruce Springsteen and The Who. Bat Out of Hell has been certified by the Recording Industry Association of America as a platinum album, fourteen times over. The album went on to become one of the most influential and iconic albums of all time and its songs have remained classic rock staples.
This album's title also became the title for two more Meat Loaf albums. Steinman produced the 1993 album, Bat Out of Hell II: Back Into Hell. Desmond Child produced the 2006 album, Bat Out of Hell III: The Monster is Loose.
The album developed from a musical, Neverland, a sci-fi update of Peter Pan, which Steinman wrote for a workshop in 1974, and performed at the Kennedy Center Music Theatre Lab in 1977. Steinman and Meat Loaf, who were touring with the National Lampoon show, felt that three songs were "exceptional" and Steinman began to develop them as part of a seven-song set they wanted to record as an album. The three songs were "Bat Out of Hell", "Heaven Can Wait" and "The Formation of the Pack", which was later retitled "All Revved Up with No Place to Go".
Bat Out of Hell is often compared to the music of Bruce Springsteen, particularly the Born to Run album. Steinman says that he finds that "puzzling, musically", although they share influences; "Springsteen was more an inspiration than an influence." A BBC article added, "that Max Weinberg and Roy Bittan from Springsteen's E Street Band played on the album only helped reinforce the comparison."
Steinman and Meat Loaf had immense difficulty finding a record company willing to sign them. According to Meat Loaf's autobiography, the band spent most of 1975 writing and recording material, and two and a half years auditioning the record and being rejected. Manager David Sonenberg jokes that they were creating record companies just so they could be rejected. They performed the album live in 1976, with Steinman on piano, Meat Loaf singing, and sometimes Ellen Foley joining them for "Paradise". Steinman says that it was a "medley of the most brutal rejections you could imagine." Meat Loaf "almost cracked" when CBS executive Clive Davis rejected the project. The singer recounts the incident in his autobiography. Not only did Davis, according to Meat Loaf, say that "actors don't make records", the executive challenged Steinman's writing abilities and knowledge of rock music:
Do you know how to write a song? Do you know anything about writing? If you're going to write for records, it goes like this: A, B, C, B, C, C. I don't know what you're doing. You're doing A, D, F, G, B, D, C. You don't know how to write a song... Have you ever listened to pop music? Have you ever heard any rock-and-roll music... You should go downstairs when you leave here... and buy some rock-and-roll records.
Meat Loaf asserts "Jim, at the time, knew every record ever made. [He] is a walking rock encyclopedia." Although Steinman laughed off the insults, the singer screamed "Fuck you, Clive!" from the street up to his building.
Todd Rundgren, however, found the album hilarious, thinking that it was a parody of Springsteen. The singer quotes him as saying: "I've got to do this album. It's just so out there." They told the producer that they had previously been signed to RCA. In one 1989 interview with Classic Rock magazine, Steinman labeled him "the only genuine genius I've ever worked with." In a 1989 interview with Redbeard for the In the Studio with Redbeard episode on the making of the album, Meat Loaf revealed that Jimmy Iovine and Andy Johns were potential candidates for producing Bat Out of Hell before being rejected by Meat and Steinman in favor of Rundgren, who Meat initially found cocky but grew to like.
Recording started in late 1975 in Bearsville Studios, Woodstock, NY. Roy Bittan and Max Weinberg, the pianist and drummer from Bruce Springsteen's E Street Band played on the album, in addition to members of Rundgren's group Utopia: Kasim Sulton, Roger Powell and John "Willie" Wilcox. Edgar Winter played the saxophone on "All Revved Up". Rundgren himself played guitar, including the "motorcycle solo" on "Bat Out of Hell". Both Steinman and Rundgren were influenced by Phil Spector and his "wall of sound". According to Meat Loaf, Rundgren put all the arrangements together because although "Jim could hear all the instruments" in his head, Steinman hummed rather than orchestrating.
When Rundgren discovered that the deal with RCA did not actually exist, Albert Grossman, who had been Bob Dylan's manager, offered to put it on his Bearsville label but needed more money. Rundgren had essentially paid for the album himself. Mo Ostin at Warner Bros. was impressed, but other senior people rejected them after they performed live. Steinman had offended them a few years earlier by auditioning with a song named "Who Needs the Young", which contains the lyric "Is there anyone left who can fuck? Screw 'em!"
Another E Street Band member, Steve Van Zandt, and Sonenberg arranged to contact Cleveland International Records, a subsidiary of Epic Records. After listening to the spoken word intro to "You Took the Words Right out of My Mouth" ("Hot Summer Night"), founder Steve Popovich accepted the album for Cleveland.
Rundgren mixed the record in one night. However, the mixes were not suitable to the extent that Meat Loaf did not want "Paradise" on the album. Jimmy Iovine, who had mixed Springsteen's Born to Run, remixed some of the tracks. After several attempts by several people, John Jansen mixed the version of "Paradise" that is on the album. According to Meat Loaf, he, Jansen, and Steinman mixed the title track.
Phil Rizzuto's baseball play-by-play call for "Paradise by the Dashboard Light" was recorded in 1976 at The Hit Factory in NYC by Rundgren, Meat Loaf, and Steinman. As an Italian Catholic, Rizzuto publicly maintained he was unaware that his contribution would be equated with sex in the finished song. However, Meat Loaf asserts that Rizzuto only claimed ignorance to stifle some criticism from a priest and was fully aware of the context of what he was recording.
This sample features the beginning of the chorus.
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Todd Rundgren acknowledges that Steinman was highly influenced by the "rural suburban teenage angst" of Bruce Springsteen. According to manager David Sonenberg, "Jim would always come up with these great titles and then he would write a song that would try to justify the greatness of the title."
The album opens with its title track, "Bat Out of Hell," taken from Steinman's Neverland musical. It is the result of Steinman's desire to write the "most extreme crash song of all time." It features a boy who is riding so fast and ecstatically that he is unable to see an obstruction until it is "way too late." The next track, "You Took the Words Right out of My Mouth," opens with spoken word, performed by Steinman and Marcia McClain, that was also taken from the Neverland musical, as were the next two tracks.
"All Revved Up with No Place to Go" describes the beginning of a relationship and also the taking of the girl's virginity:
You and me 'round about midnight
Someone's got to draw first blood [...]
Oooh I got to draw first blood.
Side two opens with "Two out of Three Ain't Bad," which was written near the end of the album's production. The song documents the break-up of a relationship where despite the fact that the man wants and needs the woman, he will never love her, however he tries to be positive and supportive in emphasizing that the two emotions of want and need are very positive and "Ain't Bad", which gives the song a sarcastic twist. A further twist is that the reason the man will never love the woman is because he already loves another woman, who broke up with him because she already loved another man. Rundgren identifies how the song was influenced by the Eagles, who were successful at the time. The producer also highlights the "underlying humor in the lyrics," citing the line "There ain't no Coupe de Ville hiding at the bottom of a Cracker Jack box." He says you could only "get away" with that lyric "in a Meat Loaf song."
The sixth track, "Paradise by the Dashboard Light", is an epic story about teen romance and sex. A duet between Meat Loaf and Ellen Foley, the couple reminisce about driving to a secluded spot, at which he plans to have sex. They "make out" heavily in the middle instrumental section, described in metaphor in a baseball commentary by New York Yankees announcer Phil Rizzuto. However, she stops him just before they have sex, insisting that he first proclaim that he will "love her forever." He swears to love her until the end of time. The final part of the song displays the couple in an acrimonious relationship, in which they are "praying for the end of time" because "if I got to spend another minute with you I don't think that I can really survive." Whereas the title track is the "ultimate car crash song," this, according to the writer, is the "ultimate car sex song." It epitomizes the album's, as Ellen Foley describes, "pre-pubescent sexual mentality."
The seventh and final track, "For Crying Out Loud", is a more sedate love song. It recounts the positive changes that a girl has made to the singer's life, which had "reached the bottom". The song also incorporates some sexual innuendo with the line "And can't you see my faded Levi's bursting apart."
Comparing the album to Steinman's late-60s musical The Dream Engine, Classic Rock magazine says that Steinman's imagery is "revved up and testosterone-fueled. Songs like "Paradise by the Dashboard Light," "Two out of Three Ain't Bad" and "For Crying Out Loud" echoed the textbook teenage view of sex and life: irrepressible physical urges and unrealistic romantic longing."
Steinman's songs for Bat Out of Hell are personal but not autobiographical:
I never thought of them as personal songs in terms of my own life but they were personality songs. They were all about my obsessions and images. None of them takes place in a normal world. They all take play in extreme world. Very operatic ... they were all heightened. They don't take place in normal reality.
For example, citing the narrative of "Paradise," Rundgren jokes that he can't imagine Steinman being at a lakeside with the most beautiful girl in school, but he can imagine Steinman imagining it.
Steinman is credited with the album cover concept, which was illustrated by Richard Corben. The cover depicts a motorcycle, ridden by a long-haired man, bursting out of the ground in a graveyard. In the background, a large bat perches atop a mausoleum that towers above the rest of the tombstones. In 2001, Q magazine listed the cover as number 71 in its list of "The Hundred Best Record Covers of All Time."
Steinman had wanted equal billing with Meat Loaf on the album's title. He wanted it to be called "Jim Steinman presents..." or "Jim and Meat," or vice versa. For marketing reasons, the record company wished to make 'Meat Loaf' the recognizable name. As a compromise, the words "Songs by Jim Steinman" appear relatively prominently on the cover. The singer believes that this was probably the beginning of their "ambivalent relationship."
Near by the land of the Sciapodes there is a marsh, from the borders whereof the unwashed Socrates evokes the souls of men. Pisander came one day to see his soul, which he had left there when still alive. He offered a little victim, a camel, slit his throat and, following the example of Odysseus, stepped one pace backwards. Then that bat of a Chaerephon came up from hell to drink the camel's blood.
Steinman registered "Bat Out of Hell" as a trademark in 1995, and sought to prevent Meat Loaf from using the title. In 2006, however, the singer sought to cancel Steinman's trademark and use the title for Bat Out of Hell III: The Monster Is Loose.
In the film The Rocky Horror Picture show, Eddie, the character played by Meat Loaf, is killed and then served as dinner. As the meal is rolled out, audience members traditionally yell out, "Here comes Meat Loaf like a bat out of hell." (The phrase "Let me sleep on it", from "Paradise By The Dashboard Light", is yelled out at another point.)
|Rolling Stone||mixed |
|Robert Christgau||C− |
Bat Out of Hell was released by Cleveland International on October 21, 1977. Cleveland International's parent label was Epic Records, where almost everyone hated it. Steve Popovich, the head of Cleveland International Records, was relentless in his efforts to get Epic and all of CBS Records and radio on board. In 1993, Steinman reflected that the album is "timeless in that it didn't fit into any trend. It's never been a part of what's going on. You could release that record at any time and it would be out of place."
Response to the album was slow. Steinman asserts that it was "underpromoted", having a reputation of being "damaged goods because it had been walked around to so many places." Due to the enthusiastic response to the music videos from the record Australia and England were the first to develop interest. The BBC television programme Old Grey Whistle Test aired a clip of the live band performing the nine-minute title track. According to Classic Rock, response was so overwhelming, that they screened it again the following week. They later invited the band to perform "Paradise" live. "As a result, in the UK Bat became an unfashionable, uncool, non-radio record that became a 'must-have' for everyone who heard it, whether they 'got' Steinman's unique perspective or not."
The album was not an immediate hit; it was more of a growing one. Bat Out of Hell still sells about 200,000 copies per year and has sold an estimated 43 million copies worldwide, 14 million in the United States alone, over 1.7 million albums in Australia (even re-entering charts on June 2007, at #34 on the ARIAs) becoming the second best-selling album there behind John Farnham's Whispering Jack, with 1.73 million copies. It stayed on the United Kingdom charts for 474 weeks, a feat surpassed only by the 478 weeks of Fleetwood Mac's Rumours. In 1989, Kerrang! magazine listed the album at No. 38 among the "100 Greatest Heavy Metal Albums of All Time". In 2003, the album was ranked number 343 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. In 2006 it was voted number nine in a poll conducted by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation to discover Australia's most popular album. In November 2007, Meat Loaf was awarded the Classic Album award in Classic Rock's Classic Rock Roll Of Honour.
Reviews were initially mixed, but have since become much more positive. Rolling Stone calls the songs "swell, but... entirely mannered and derivative." The arrangements "aren't bad", although the musicians are commended. The review ends with the assertion that the "principals have some growing to do." Contemporary reviews are more positive, however. Allmusic declares "this is Grand Guignol pop—epic, gothic, operatic, and silly, and it's appealing because of all of this." They acknowledge that Steinman is "a composer without peer, simply because nobody else wanted to make mini-epics like this." Rundgren's production is applauded, as is the wit in the music and lyrics. "It may elevate adolescent passion to operatic dimensions, and that's certainly silly, but it's hard not to marvel at the skill behind this grandly silly, irresistible album."
Also, Meat Loaf revealed on In the Studio with Redbeard that he was not well received early on in the tour when he was opening for Cheap Trick. In the same interview, Meat Loaf revealed that when he played at a CBS Records convention in 1978, record executives and superstar Billy Joel (who was in the audience) gave Meat Loaf a standing ovation for his performance after a haunting performance of the closing track "For Crying Out Loud" was the turning point in the album's success in the US.
Dispute between Cleveland International and Sony Records 
In 1995, Cleveland International sued Sony for unpaid royalties from sales of the album. Under the terms of the 1998 settlement agreement ending the suit, Sony agreed to include the Cleveland International logo on all future releases of the album. In 2002, Stephen Popovich, founder of Cleveland International and the owner of the rights to its name, sued Sony, alleging that Sony had failed to include the Cleveland International logo on some copies of the album and on some compilations Sony released that included songs from the album. On May 31, 2005, the federal district court in Cleveland, Ohio, entered judgment against Sony pursuant to a jury verdict in favor of Popovich and awarded Popovich more than US$5,000,000 in damages for Sony's breach of the 1998 settlement agreement. On November 21, 2007, the federal appellate court in Cincinnati, Ohio, affirmed the judgment of the trial court.
Track listing 
All songs written and composed by Jim Steinman.
|1.||"Bat Out of Hell"||9:56|
|2.||"You Took the Words Right Out of My Mouth (Hot Summer Night)" (intro spoken by Steinman and Marcia McClain)||5:04|
|3.||"Heaven Can Wait"||4:38|
|4.||"All Revved Up with No Place to Go"||4:19|
|5.||"Two Out of Three Ain't Bad"||5:23|
|6.||"Paradise by the Dashboard Light" (duet with Ellen Foley)
|7.||"For Crying Out Loud"||8:45|
The album also exists in numerous other formats and rereleases, including a Super Audio CD version, a twenty-fifth anniversary edition (2001 – Epic/Legacy #62171) with two bonus tracks ("Great Boléros of Fire (live intro)" [3:54] and "Bat Out of Hell (live)" [11:10], and a Bat Out of Hell: Revamped release (1993) featuring the bonus song "Dead Ringer for Love".
Sales and Certifications 
|Australia (ARIA)||24× Platinum||1,200,000^|
|Canada (Music Canada)||2× Diamond||2,000,000^|
|New Zealand (RIANZ)||17× Platinum||255,000^|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||7× Platinum||3,038,397|
|United States (RIAA)||14× Platinum||14,000,000^|
*sales figures based on certification alone
- Track numbers indicate that a musician only plays the instrument so noted on that specific track.
- Ken Ascher – string arrangements (tracks 3, 5)
- Steve Margoshes – orchestra arrangement (track 7)
- Meat Loaf – lead vocals, backing vocals (track 6), percussion (track 2)
- Todd Rundgren – guitar (tracks 1, 2, 4–6), percussion (tracks 1, 2), keyboards (track 1), backing vocals (tracks 1–3, 5, 6)
- Kasim Sulton – bass guitar (tracks 1, 2, 4–7), backing vocals (track 1)
- Roy Bittan – piano, keyboards (tracks 1, 2, 6)
- Steve Margoshes – piano (track 7)
- Cheryl Hardwick – piano (track 7)
- Jim Steinman – keyboards (tracks 1, 2, 6), percussion (tracks 1, 2), "lascivious effects" (track 6), dialogue intro (track 2)
- Roger Powell – synthesizer (tracks 1, 2, 5, 6)
- Edgar Winter – saxophone (tracks 2, 4, 6)
- Max Weinberg – drums (tracks 1, 2, 6)
- John "Willie" Wilcox – drums (tracks 4, 5, 7)
- Marcia McClain – dialogue intro (track 2)
- Phil "Scooter" Rizzuto – play-by-play (track 6)
- Ellen Foley – featured vocal (track 6), backing vocals (tracks 1, 2, 4, 6)
- Rory Dodd – backing vocals (all except track 4)
- Gene Orloff – concert master (track 7)
- Members of New York Philharmonic and Philadelphia Orchestra – orchestra (track 7)
See also 
- List of best-selling albums worldwide
- List of best-selling albums in the United States
- List of best-selling albums in Australia
- List of diamond-certified albums in Canada
- Allmusic Review
- "DAS Communications' Artists Dominate Global Music Charts". Reuters. 2009-06-16.
- loaf&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2011&sort=Artist&perPage=25 "RIAA Database, Bat Out of Hell". Retrieved 2011-02-11.
- "Neverland". jimsteinman.com. Archived from the original on 15 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- "The Power Of Rock 'n Roll". Gallery magazine. May, 1978. Archived from the original on 3 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
- Hotten, Jon. "Bat Out Of Hell – The Story Behind The Album (page 2)". Classic Rock. Archived from the original on 16 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
- "Sold on Song Top 100: Bat Out Of Hell". BBC Radio 2. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
- Loaf, Meat; David Dalton (2000). To Hell and Back: An Autobiography. London: Virgin Publishing. pp. 118–9. ISBN 0-7535-0443-X.
- David Sonenberg (1999). Classic Albums: Meat Loaf Bat Out of Hell (DVD). Image Entertainment. Dir: Bob Smeaton
- Jim Steinman (1999). Classic Albums: Meat Loaf Bat Out of Hell (DVD). Image Entertainment.
- Clive Davis, as recalled by Meat Loaf, in Meat Loaf/Dalton, pg. 117.
- Meat Loaf/Dalton, pg. 117.
- Dansby, Andrew (August 27, 2010). "In defense of: Bat Out of Hell". 29-95.com. Retrieved 1 April 2012. "I thought it was a parody of Bruce Springsteen. Oddly enough the world took it seriously. There’s this big, fat, operatic guy doing totally over the top, over-wrought, drawn-out songs. All this bombast. It was like Bruce Springsteen squared. I was just chuckling the whole time, and I’m still chuckling. I can’t believe the world took it seriously."
- Meat Loaf/Dalton pg 121–2.
- Meat Loaf/Dalton pg 123–4.
- Meat Loaf/Dalton pg 125–8.
- Hotten, Jon. "Bat Out Of Hell – The Story Behind The Album (page 3)". Classic Rock. Archived from the original on 16 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
- Pearlman, Jeff (August 29, 2007). "Phil and Meat Loaf will always have "Paradise"". ESPN. Retrieved 2009-08-28.
- Todd Rundgren (1999). Classic Albums: Meat Loaf Bat Out of Hell (DVD). Image Entertainment.
- "NEVERLAND by Jim Steinman". jimsteinman.com. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
- Ellen Foley (1999). Classic Albums: Meat Loaf Bat Out of Hell (DVD). Image Entertainment.
- O'Connor, Mickey (2001-03-19). "London's Q magazine picked these; what are yours?". ew.com (Entertainment Weekly). Retrieved 2007-08-18.
- Meat Loaf/Dalton, pp. 124–5
- "The four meanings of an Arabic word". Language Log. 2006-06-19. Archived from the original on 1 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-18.
- Butler, Susan (2006-06-05). "Meat Loaf Sues Over 'Bat Out Of Hell'". Billboard. Retrieved 2006-09-25.
- "MEAT LOAF BATTLES FOR BAT OUT OF HELL TRADEMARK". contactmusic.com. 2006-06-06. Retrieved 2006-11-14.
- Rolling Stone Review Archived October 2, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Robert Christgau Review
- Jim Steinman (1993). Back Into Hell: Meat Loaf & Jim Steinman interview (DVD). Virgin Records.
- "Label Blew Meat Loaf's biggest". Jim Steinman. 2007-02-28. Archived from the original on 22 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-06.
- "Meatloaf sues former collaborator Steinman over Bat Out of Hell". Reuters/VNU. 2006-06-08. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- "RIAA Top 100 Albums". riaa.com. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- "Sydney Herald: Music Australia loved". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2007-07-12. Archived from the original on 9 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- Dale, David (2013-01-10). "THE TRIBAL MIND ARCHIVE 2013: The music Australia loved". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2013-04-14.
- White, Dave. "12 Days of Christmas Past Classic Rock Holiday History". About.com:Classic Rock. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- Betts, Graham (2005). Complete UK Hit Albums 1956–2005. London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-720532-5.
- Hotten, Jon (21 January 1989). "Meat Loaf 'Bat Out of Hell'". Kerrang! 222. London, UK: Spotlight Publications Ltd.
- "The RS 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. 2003-11-18. Archived from the original on 24 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- "My Favourite Album Top 100". Abc.com.au. Archived from the original on 18 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-20.
- Barton, Geoff (2007-11-06). "Oh, what a night!". Classic Rock. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
- Marsh, Dave (1977-12-15). "Album Reviews: Meat Loaf, Bat Out Of Hell". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on October 2, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Bat Out of Hell". Allmusic. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
- "Sony sued in Meat Loaf logo row". BBC News. 2007-11-23. Archived from the original on 25 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-23.
- "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 2011 Albums". Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
- "Canadian album certifications – Meat Loaf – Bat Out of Hell". Music Canada. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
- "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Meat Loaf; 'Bat Out of Hell')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
- Scapolo, Dean (2007). The Complete New Zealand Music Charts 1966-2006. Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. ISBN 978-1-877443-00-8.
- "British album certifications – Meat Loaf – Bat Out of Hell". British Phonographic Industry. Enter Bat Out of Hell in the field Search. Select Title in the field Search by. Select album in the field By Format. Click Go
- Jones, Alan (5 March 2012). Official Chart Analysis: Sande thrives in Scotland, Ed Sheeran album tops 1m sales in UK. Music Week. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- "American album certifications – Meat Loaf – Bat Out of Hell". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved June 30, 2012. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
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