Battagram

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Battagram
Battagram is located in Pakistan
Battagram
Battagram
Coordinates: 34°41′N 73°1′E / 34.683°N 73.017°E / 34.683; 73.017Coordinates: 34°41′N 73°1′E / 34.683°N 73.017°E / 34.683; 73.017
Province Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa
District Battagram
Elevation 1,038 m (3,406 ft)

Battagram (Urdu: بٹگرام‎) is the capital city of Battagram District in Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa Province of Pakistan. It is located at 34°41'N 73°1'E and has an altitude of 1038 metres (3408 feet).. [1] The schools are being built with the help of several NGOs and foreign funds to improve the literacy rate of the people.[2]

History[edit]

Alexander period[edit]

Alexander the Great conquered and established his rule over a large part of northern India, including the Battagram area. In the year 327 B.C. Alexander handed the area over to the Indian king Abisares.

Hindu Shahi dynasty[edit]

In the 2nd century CE, a mythical Hindu king Raja Risalu, son of Raja Salbahan of Sialkot, brought the area under his control. The local people consider him as their hero and, even today, parents tell their children the stories of Raja Risalu and his wife Rani Konklan on winter nights. When a Chinese pilgrim, Hiun-Tsang, visited this area, it was under the control of Durlabhavardhana, the ruler of Kashmir.

In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

The Turkish Shahi and Hindu Shahi Dynasties ruled Battagram one after another. Among the Hindu Shahi dynasty rulers, Raja Jayapala is the best known. Mehmood of Ghazni defeated Raja Jayapala during his first Indian campaign. However, there is no historical evidence that Mehmood of Ghazni ever visited or passed through Battagram. After the fall of Hindu Shahi dynasty, in the 11th century, the Kashmiris took control of this area under the leadership of Kalashan (1063 to 1089). From 1112 to 1120, King Susala ruled this area. In the 12th century, Asalat Khan captured this area but soon after Mohammad of Ghor's death the Kashmiris once again regained control of Battagram and other areas of present.

Turks[edit]

In 1399, the Muslim warrior Timur, on his return to Kabul, stationed his Turk soldiers in Hazara Khyber Pakhtunkhwa . Battgram was a part of that area). Taimur left his soldiers to protect the important route between Kabul and Kashmir. By 1472, Prince Shahab-ud-Din came from Kabul and established his rule over the region. Prince Shahab-ud-Din, a Karlugh Turks of central Asian origin a descendant of Amir Taimur, founded the state and named it Pakhli Sarkar and chose the village of Gulibagh as his capital.

During the period of Mughal rule, local Turkish chiefs acknowledged Mughal authority. In fact, Mansehra (Pakhli) provided the main route to Kashmir and was the most commonly used route for Emperor Akbar to travel to Kashmir.

Turkish rule came to an end due to the increased aggression of the Pukhtoons (pahtan, Yousufzai, swatis) and their allied forces. In the beginning of the 18th century (1700-1750) the Pukhtoons (Yousufzai), who were ruling on the Swat state, in order to bring people of this region under the control of Swat's ruler, attacked, in collusion with Syed Jalal Baba in 1703. Syed Jalal Shah was the son in law of the last ruler of Turkic dynasty, Sultan Mehmud Khurd. During the absence of the Sultan Syed Jalal Shah (Jalal Baba) took advantage of the situation, conspired with Pukhtoons (pahtan, Yousufzai, swatis), invited them to attack Pakhli Sarkar and succeeded to overthrow the Turkish rulers from the Sarkar. Thus Pukhtoons ousted the Turks and captured this area. Most of the inhabitants (i.e. Mountianians (gujr), Hindus and Turks) were killed in the battle as they were incompetent and untrained and also having less resources to defend, while on other hand Pukhtoons (pahtan, Yousufzai) were stronger and trained soldiers of the Swat, some of them were sheltered in Mansehra and Kohistan regions, while some of the people sought mercy from the Ruler upon the conditions that; firstly, they shall not have ownership of their properties, as whole of the territory ( including forests, agriculture land and houses whither demolished or not during the war shall be the property of the Ruler and secondly, they shall remain obedient to Pukhtoons (Pahtan) generals and their descendents. The ruler of Swat granted whole of the Battagram to his noble generals who participated in the war (invasion). Most of the soldiers including Commanders, Generals and other officers along with their families started living there, while a few returned to Swat. With the passage of time more people are migrated from Swat as today and they built it again and developed mills, agriculture and also planted different fruits [i.e. peach, apple, orange and palm (alo bukhara)] gardens in the green and fertilized land of Battagram. Rice crops were first time introduced by them.

Sikhs and British[edit]

After end of Durranis, the battagram came under Sikh rule. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Battagram District. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. Sikh rule came to an end in 1818. Almost at the same time the entire Hazara, including Battagram came under British rule. The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Battagram District.

Earthquake 2005[edit]

Battagram was one of the areas affected by the earthquake of October 8, 2005[3] when more than 4,500 people were killed and approximately 35,000 were injured. Many residents of the area were rendered homeless and without shelter. Since October 8, 2005, the NGOs and the governmental organization ERRA have been engaged in reconstruction work but as of 2009, the reconstruction work is not completed. In some cases residents have rebuilt houses themselves.

Climate[edit]

Battagram features a typical version of a humid subtropical climate, with warm and dry springs, hot and humid summers accompanied by brief but cool winters. Winters occur from December to February, with temperatures variable by location, generally with dense fog in the mornings and sunny afternoons. In the village, temperatures stay mild, with sparse snowfall over the highest elevations points on nearby hill stations.

Languages[edit]

Languages of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Pushto is the main language as 93 percent people speak as mother tongue while gujru and kohistani languages are also sponken in mountains.

Administration[edit]

Battagram District is divided into two tehsils the proper Battagram and Allai (which comprising Banna, Bateela, Batkul, Biari, Jambera, Pashto, Rashang and Sakargah). Proper Battagram main city being a tehsil and district headquarters, is also one of 20 Union Councils of the District of Battagram.[4]

The Battagram tehsil is subdivided into 12 Union Councils these are:[5]

Union Councils Union Councils
Ajmera Banian
Battagram Batamori
Gijbroi Kuza Banda
Paimal Sharif Peshora
Rajdahri Shumlai
Thakot Trand

Villages[edit]

1. Phagora ( which is also known as Phaagoraey), is one of the most pupolated village of District Battagram, it is situated in the east-south of the district. Phagora is also famous for woods as forest is spread over 50 percent region of this village. Woods are hugely supplied to Ajmera, Chapergram, Battagram city and desshan Villages. Literacy rate is not good as it need to be, especilly female. Most of the people are stick with Tableghi Jummat, and Deeni Madaaris. Despite the people are tablighi and molvees yet they are reluctant on female education. Consequently, Professionals are very less, for instance; only two Lawyers, two Doctors (MBBS) and five Engineers (software, I.T, electronics etc.), interestingly all of them except one Doctor became such professionals in in this last decade, as before 2005 there were neither engineer nor lawyer, only one MBBS.

2. Nilishang, this is famaous for its natural scene and Gujrs as the most of the people are descendants of mountianians, only 30 to 40 percent

See also[edit]

References[edit]