||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (September 2013)|
||This article needs attention from an expert in Linguistics. (July 2012)|
|Native speakers||(no estimate available)|
|Writing system||Latin (Tagalog or Filipino alphabet);
Batangas Tagalog (more properly Batangan and Batangenyo) is a dialect of the Tagalog language spoken primarily in the province of Batangas, Philippines and in portions of Quezon, Laguna and on Mindoro island. It is characterized by a strong accent and a vocabulary and grammar closely related to ancient Tagalog. It is not customary, in colloquial Batangan, to speak Taglish (or infuse English terms, as in Manila Tagalog).
The most recognizable difference is the use of the passive imperfect in place of the present progressive tense. In Manila, this is done by inserting the infix -um- after the first syllable and repeating the first syllable. In the Batangan dialect, this form is created by adding the prefix na- to the word:
|Root word||kain (to eat)||kain (to eat)||tawag (to call)||tawag (to call)|
This conjugation is odd, because it would be the passive past to Manileños. The answer to Nasaan si Pedro? (Where is Peter?) is Nakain ng isda! (He's eating a fish!). To those unfamiliar with this usage, the statement might mean "He was eaten by a fish!"; however, a Batangueño can distinguish between the two apparently-identical forms.
Another difference between Batangan and Manila Tagalog is the use of the verb ending -i instead of -an mo, especially in the imperative. This only occurs when the verb stands alone in a sentence or is the last word in the phrase. When another word follows, Batangueños would not use the -an form.
- Example 1
- Person A: Meron pong nakatok sa pintô
- Person B: Abá'y, buksi! (Then open it!)
- Person A: Merong kumakatok sa pintô (Someone is knocking at the door.)
- Person B: Abá'y, buksán mo! (Then you go open it!)
This uses the absolute degree of an adjective, not heard elsewhere. It is the rough equivalent to -issimo or -issima in Italian, and is missing from other Tagalog dialects. This is done with the prefix pagka-:
- Example 1
- Pagkaganda palá ng anák ng mag-asawang aré, ah! (Pagkaganda palá ng anák ng mag-asawang iré, ah! The child of this couple is indeed beautiful!)
- Example 2
- Pagkatagal mo ga. (You take so long.)
Another notable characteristic of the Batangan dialect is the dual-number pronouns, referring to two things (as opposed to plural, which can be two or more). Although it has not disappeared in some other areas, this form is rarely used in the Manila dialect.
- Example 1
- Batangan Tagalog: Kita na! (Let's go!)
- Manila Tagalog: Tayo na! (Let's go! Literally, "Let us...")
- Example 2
- Batangan Tagalog: Buksán mo nga ang telebisyón nata. (Please turn our television on.)
- Manila Tagalog: Buksán mo nga ang telebisyón natin.
Intonation tends to rise, particularly in the expression of deep emotion.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2013)|
Another notable difference is the closed syllable, which has disappeared from the Manila dialect. The town of Tanauan is pronounced tan-'a-wan, although it would be pronounced ta-'na-wan by other Tagalog speakers. This is also true of words such as matamis (pronounced matam-is). Because Batangan is more closely related to ancient Tagalog, the merger of the phonemes e and i and the phonemes o and u are prevalent; e and o are allophones of i and u, respectively, in Tagalog.
Prevalent in Batangan but missing from other dialects are the sounds ei and ow. Unlike their English counterparts, these diphthongs are sounded primarily on the first vowel and only rapidly on the second; this is similar to the e in the Spanish word educación and the first o in the Italian word Antonio.
Locative adjectives are iré or aré (this) and rine or dine (here). Vocabulary is also divergent. Batangueño has several translations of the word "fall", depending on how a person falls. They may have nádulas (slipped), nagtingkuró (lost their balance) or nagsungabâ (fallen on their face.)
People from Manila may ask why a student came home early when school is in session. The student would answer, May pasok, pero waláng klase; the student would go to school to have their attendance checked, but there are no classes.
To the confusion of other Tagalog speakers, Batangueños use the phrase Hindî pô akó nagyayabang! to mean "I am not telling a lie!"; Manileños would say Hindî pô akó nagsisinungaling! To them, the former statement means "I am not bragging!"
A panday is a handyman in Batangas and a smith in Manila. An apáw is "mute" ("overflow" in Manila [ápaw]; "mute" is pipí). An exclamation of disbelief is anlaah! roughly, a shorter translation of walâ iyán ("that's nothing" or "false") in Manila Tagalog.
The Batangas dialect is also known for the particle eh. While it is used throughout the province, some variations exist (such as ala eh). This particle has no intrinsic meaning; its closest equivalent in English is in the conversational context of "Well,...". In other cases it can show that the preceding word is the cause of something, much as kasi would be used.
Like most Southeast Asians and Filipinos, Batangueños use honorifics to convey respect (even to strangers). Honorifics are used more by the Batangueños than other Tagalog speakers.
Although they have largely disappeared from Manila usage,[dubious ] Batangueños still use plural pronouns to express politeness (comparable to vous in French, usted in Spanish and Sie in German). This is normally used to show respect to one in authority, either by age or position.
Second-person plural is used to show respect to older people or those in authority, but with an affinity with the speaker. It is primarily used with grandparents, friends of parents, relatives holding high positions or religious leaders, and is similar to the use of vosotros[where?] during the Middle Ages. For strangers, third-person plural is used.
- Example 1
Someone is knocking at the door, and you want to know who they are.
- Manila Tagalog: Sino iyán?
- Batangan Tagalog: Sino hô silá? ("Who are they?")
- Example 2
When seeing an older person who is family friend, the greeting will normally be:
- Manila Tagalog: Kumusta na pô? (the particle pô signifies respect)
- Batangan Tagalog: Kamusta na hô kayó? or Kamusta na hô sila? (kayó and silá are the plural second- and third-person personal pronouns, respectively)
The plural is not limited to those of lower ranks; those in authority are also expected to use this pluralisation with the first-person plural inclusive Tayo, which acts as the majestic plural. The Batangueños use the inclusive pronoun, commonly for government officials or those with authority over a territory (such as a priest or bishop).
This form is used by doctors or nurses when talking to patients. A doctor from the province will rarely ask someone how he is feeling; rather, he will ask "How are we feeling?".
Although pô and opò show respect, Batangueños replace these with hô and ohò (a typical Batangueño morphophonemic change). However, Batangueños understand the use of pô and opò (the more-common variant in other Tagalog-speaking regions).