Batangas

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This article is about the Philippine province. For other uses, see Batangas (disambiguation).
"Kumintang" redirects here. For the Chinese political party, see Kuomintang.
Batangas
Province
Batangas Provincial Capitol
Batangas Provincial Capitol
Flag of Batangas
Flag
Official seal of Batangas
Seal
Map of the Philippines with Batangas highlighted
Map of the Philippines with Batangas highlighted
Coordinates: 13°50′N 121°00′E / 13.833°N 121.000°E / 13.833; 121.000Coordinates: 13°50′N 121°00′E / 13.833°N 121.000°E / 13.833; 121.000
Country Philippines
Region CALABARZON (Region IV-A)
Founded December 8, 1581
Capital Batangas City
Government
 • Type Province of the Philippines
 • Governor Vilma Santos-Recto (Liberal)
 • Vice Governor Jose Antonio Leviste II (Liberal)
Area[1]
 • Total 3,119.75 km2 (1,204.54 sq mi)
Area rank 46th out of 80
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 2,377,395
 • Rank 8th out of 80
 • Density 760/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
 • Density rank 7th out of 80
Divisions
 • Independent cities 0
 • Component cities 3
 • Municipalities 31
 • Barangays 1,078
 • Districts 1st to 4th districts of Batangas
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP code 4200 to 4234
Dialing code 43
ISO 3166 code PH-BTG
Spoken languages Batangas Tagalog
Spanish, English
Website www.batangas.gov.ph

Batangas is a first class province of the Philippines located on the southwestern part of Luzon in the CALABARZON region. Its capital is Batangas City and it is bordered by the provinces of Cavite and Laguna to the north and Quezon to the east. Across the Verde Island Passages to the south is the island of Mindoro and to the west lies the South China Sea. Poetically, Batangas is often referred to by its ancient name Kumintang.

Batangas is one of the most popular tourist destinations near Metro Manila. It is home to the famous Taal Volcano, one of the Decade Volcanoes, and Taal Heritage town, a small picturesque town that has ancestral houses and structures dating back to the 19th century. The province also has many excellent beaches and diving spots including Anilao in Mabini, Sombrero Island in Tingloy, Ligpo Island in Bauan, Matabungkay in Lian, Punta Fuego in Nasugbu, Calatagan and Laiya in San Juan.

Batangas City has the second largest international seaport in the Philippines after Metro Manila. The identification of the city as an industrial growth center in the region and being the focal point of the CALABARZON program resulted to the increasing number of business establishments in the city's Central Business District (CBD) as well as numerous industries operating at the province's industrial parks.

Etymology[edit]

The first recorded name of the province was Kumintáng, whose political centre was the present-day Balayan and was the most progressive town of the region. An eruption of the Taal Volcano destroyed a significant portion of the town, causing residents to transfer to Bonbon (now Taal), the name eventually encompassing the bounds of the modern province.

The term Batangan means a raft, the people used so that they could fish in the nearby Taal Lake. It also meant the numerous logs found in the Calumpang River, the body of water that runs through the northeastern portion of the town and assumes the shape of a tuning fork.

History[edit]

Prehistory[edit]

Long before the arrival of the Spaniards in the Philippines, large centers of population already thrived in Batangas. Native settlements lined the Pansipit River, a major waterway. The province had been trading with the Chinese since Yuan Dynasty until first phase of Ming Dynasty in the 13th and 15th century. Inhabitants of the province were also trading with Japan and India.

Archeological findings, show that even before the settlement of the Spaniards in the country, the Tagalogs, especially the Batangueños, had a very high level of civilization. This was shown by some jewelry, made from a chambered nautilus' shell, where some tiny holes were drilled by some tube. The way it was drilled shows that early Batangueños had an idea of what is beautiful.

Later, the pre-historic Batangueños was influenced by India as shown in some ancient potteries. In fact, a Buddhist image was reproduced in mould on a clay medallion in bas-relief from the Municipality of Calatagan. According to experts, the image in the pot strongly resembles the iconographic portrayal of Buddha in Siam, India and Nepal. The pot shows Buddha Amithaba in the tribhanga[3] pose inside an oval nimbus. Scholars also noted that there is a strong Mahayanic orientation in the image, since the Boddhisattva Avalokitesvara was also depicted.

One of the major archeological finds was in January 1941, where 2 crude stone figures were found in Palapat in the Municipality of Calatagan. They were later donated to the National Museum. Unfortunately, one of them was destroyed during World War II.

Eighteen years later, a grave was excavated in the nearby Punta Buaya. Once again, it showed that early Batangueños have an appreciation of art, since pieces of brain coral were carved behind the heads of the 12 remains that were found. The site was named 'Likha' (meaning 'Create'). The remains were accompanied by furniture that could be traced as early as the 14th century. Potteries, as well as bracelets, stoneware and metal objects were also found in the area, suggesting that the people who lived there had an extensive contact with people from as far as China.

The presence of dining utensils also suggested that prehistoric Batangaueños believed in the idea of life-after-death, since someone might need a plate where he would eat or chalices where he could drink. This also related the Batangueños to its neighbors in Asia, where it was a custom to bury some furniture with the dead.

Like the nearby tribes, the Batangan or the early Batangueños were non-aggressive people. Partly because most of the tribes in the immediate environs are related to them by blood. However, when there is no choice but to defend your life, Batangans would use the bakyang (bows and arrows), the bangkaw (spears) and the suwan (bolo).

Another proof of civilization from the Batangans was the presence of religion. Though it was highly superstitious, such as the use of amulet (talisman), it showed that these people believed in the presence of higher beings and other things unseen. Thus, there is a strong connection between the Batangans and nature.

Although it is widely accepted that the term Tagalog came from the word 'Taga-Ilog' o river Dwellers, (referring to the Pasig River), Wang The-Ming pointed out in his writings that Batangas was the real centre of the Tagalog Tribe, which he then identified as Ma-yi. According to this Chinese Annals, Ma-yi had its centre in the Province and extends to as far as Cavite, Laguna, Rizal, Quezon, Bataan, Bulacan, Mindoro, Marinduque, Nueva Ecija, Some parts of Zambales and Tarlac. However, many historians interchangeably use the term Tagalog and Batangueño.

Henry Otley Beyer, an American archaeologist, also showed in his studies that the early Batangueños have a special affinity with the precious stone known as the jade. In fact, the named the Late Paleolithic Period of the Philippines as the Batangas Period in recognition of the multitude of jade found in the excavated caves in the province. Beyer identified that the jade-cult reached the Province as early as 800 BC and lasted until 200 BC.

Spanish colonization[edit]

In 1570, Spanish generals Martin de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo explored the coast of Batangas on their way to Manila and came upon a Malay settlement at the mouth of Pansipit River. In 1572, the town of Taal was founded and its convent and stone church were constructed later.

Officially, the Province of Bonbon was founded by Spain in 1578, through Fr. Estaban Ortiz and Fr. Juan de Porras. It was so named after the name that was given to it by the Muslim natives who inhabited the area.

In 1581, the Spanish government abolished the Bonbon Province and created a new province which came to be known as Balayan Province. The new province was composed of the present provinces of Batangas, Mindoro, Marinduque, southeast Laguna and Camarines. After the devastating eruption of Taal Volcano in 1754, the old town of Taal,present day San Nicolas, was buried. The capital was eventually transferred to Batangas (now a city) in fear of further eruptions where it has remained to date.

The history of Batangas as a province can never be separated from the history of the Christianization of the Islands. In the same years that de Goiti and Salcedo visited the province, the Franciscan missionaries came to Taal. The place later became the first settlement of the Spaniards in Batangas and one of the earliest in the Philippines. In 1572 the Augustinians founded Taal in the place of Wawa, now San Nicolas, and from there began preaching in Balayan and in all the big settlements around the lake of Bombon (Taal). Indeed, the Augustinians did a very good job. Not only did they make Batangas the second most important religious centre of the Archipelago, they did it in a mere 10-year period. In fact, up to now, Batangas remains to be one of the most 'Christianised' and even the most 'Catholic' Province in the Philippines.

The first missionaries in the diocese were the Augustinians, and they remained until the revolution against Spain. Among the first missionaries were eminent men like Alfonso de Albuquerque, Diego Espinas, Juan de Montojo and others.

The first centers of faith were established in Taal, then in Balayan, Bauan, Lipa, Sala, Tanauan, all around the lake of Bombon (Taal).

The first missionaries were the Augustinians. And during the first ten years, the whole region around the lake of Bombon was completely Christianized. It was done through the preaching of men who had learned the first rudiments of the language of the people. At the same time they started writing manuals of devotion in Tagalog,such as novenas. What is more, they wrote the first Tagalog grammar that served other missionaries who came.

The year of foundation of important parishes follows: 1572 the Taal parish was founded by the Augustinians; 1581 the Batangas parish under Fray Diego Mexica; 1596 Bauan parish administered by the Augustinian missionaries; 1605 Lipa parish under the Augustinian administration;1774 Balayan parish was founded; 1852 Nasugbu parish; and 1868 Lemery Parish.

Nasugbu became a very important centre of trade during the Spanish occupation of the country. So important was this town that the first recorded battle between two European Forces in Asia was in Fortune Island, Nasugbu, Batangas. In the late part of the 20th Century, the inhabitants of Fortune Island discovered a sunken galleon that contained materials sold in the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade. Today, the Galleon stands majestically in the islands as a reminder of the grandeur of Batangan Past.

Batangas was also among the first of the eight Philippine provinces to revolt against Spain and also one of the provinces placed under Martial Law by Spanish Governor General Ramon Blanco on August 30, 1896. This event was given distinction when Marcela Agoncillo, also a native of the province, made the Philippine Flag. Indeed, the official Philippine flag has a sun with eight rays to represent these eight provinces.

Another notable hero from this era is Apolinario Mabini, also known as the sublime paralytic and "Brains of the Revolution".

American period[edit]

The struggles of the Batangueños did not end when the Spaniards left the Philippines. Batangas was also in the watch-list of the Americans when they occupied the Islands.

When the Americans forbade the Philippine flag from being flown anywhere in the country, Batangas was one of the places where the revolutionaries chose to propagate their propaganda. Many, especially the revolutionary artists chose Batangas as the place to perform their plays. In an incident recorded by Amelia Bonifacio in her diary, the performance of Tanikalang Ginto in the province led not only to the arrest of the company but all of the audience. Later, the play was banned from being shown anywhere in the country.

General Miguel Malvar is recognized as the last Filipino general to surrender to the United States in the Philippine-American War.Raph

Japanese occupation[edit]

After the attack in Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the Japanese switched their planes to attacking the Philippines, launching major air raids throughout the country. The bombings resulted into the destruction of the Batangas Airport located in Batangas City, of which nothing remains today.[4] Batangas was also a scene of heavy fighting between the Philippine Army Air Corps and the Japanese A6M Zero Fighter Planes. The most notable air combat battle took place at height of 3,700 metres (12,000 ft) on December 12, 1941 when 6 Filipino fighters led by Capt. Jesús Villamor engaged the numerically superior enemy of 54 Japanese bombers and fighter escorts which raided the Batangas Airfield. Thus, Capt. Jesús Villamor won the battle, suffering only one casualty, Lt. César Basa whose plane was shot down by seven intercepting enemy fighters which eventually died when he was strafed by machine gun's fire came from the A6M Zeroes.[5]

When Gen. Douglas MacArthur ordered the overall retreat of the American-Filipino Forces to Bataan in 1942, the province was ultimately abandoned and later came under direct Japanese occupation. During this time, the Imperial Japanese Army committed many crimes against civilians including the massacre of 328 people in Bauan, 320 in Taal, 300 in Cuenca, 107 in San Jose and 39 in Lucero.[6]

Liberation[edit]

Battle of Batangas
Part of World War II
Date January 31, to August 15, 1945
Location Batangas
Result Allied Victory
Belligerents
 United States  Empire of Japan
Strength
362,000 Filipino troops
30,000 Batangueño guerrillas
65,000 American troops
156,000 Japanese troops
Casualties and losses
Filipino troops
4,500 killed
14,000 wounded
Batangueño guerrillas
700 killed
2,140 wounded
American troops
2,000 killed
10,200 wounded
Japanese troops
40,000 killed
12,000 wounded
3,000 captured
XIV Corps of 158th RCT, 11th Airborne Division and 1st Cavalry Division campaign in Batangas and nearby province.

As part of the Philippines Campaign (1944–45), the liberation begun on January 31, 1945 when elements of the 11th Airborne Division under the US Eighth Army went ashore of the beaches of Nasugbu, Batangas.[7] However, Batangas was not yet the target of the invasion force but instead, most of its units switch north to capture Manila and by March 3, the capital was completely secured. XIV Corps of the US Sixth Army continued its drive south of Luzon and by March 4, the 11th Airborne Division together with 158th Regimental Combat Team (or 158th RCT) were passed under its command.[8] 158th Regimental Combat Team stationed in Nasugbu would have to secure the shores and nearby towns of Balayan and Batangas Bays while the 11th Airborne Division from the Tagaytay Ridge would attack the Japanese defenses north of Taal Lake and by then reaching the Lipa Corridor. The same that day, 158th RCT had captured the town of Balayan and by March 11 had reached Batangas City.[9] In order to secure the two bays, 158th RCT would have to capture the entire Calumpang Peninsula of the town of Mabini which was still held by some elements of the Japanese 2nd Surface Raiding Base Force. Fighting continued until March 16 when the whole peninsula was finally captured.[10] After that, 158th RCT's turn northward to meet the Japanese Fuji Force defenses at Mt. Maculot in Cuenca on March 19. Finally, 158th Regimental Combat Team capitulated on March 23 for Bicol Operations and 187th Infantry Task Force of the 11th Airborne Division was assigned to relieve their positions in the mountain. Another 11th Airborne Division task force, the 188th Infantry was ordered to dispatch their troops around Batangas City and its remaining frontiers.[11] To the northern section, 11th Airborne Division's 511 Parachute Infantry Regiment positions in Santo Tomas and Tanauan were all relieved by the 1st Cavalry Division.[12] By now, 11th Airborne Division's 187th and 188th Infantry Task Forces holding the southern sector and the 1st Infantry Division to the northern sector were on their way to secure the Lipa Corridor, the last major part of the Province of Batangas to be taken.

Lipa after being Liberated by the Allied Forces

The last major offensive for the capture of the Lipa Corridor begun when 188th Infantry Task Force from Batangas City left for Lipa on March 24.[13] The same that day, 187th Infantry Task Force launched an attack against the remaining Japanese positions in Mt. Maculot. Although still heavy fighting continued until April 17, the bulk of its forces headed also for the invasion of the Lipa Corridor. The final capture of Mt. Maculot came by April 21.[14]

188th Infantry Task Force on the other hand engaged a stiff resistance against Fuji Force's 86th Airfield Battalion on March 26. Meanwhile to the north, 1st Cavalry Division attacked the remaining Japanese defenses in towns of Santo Tomas and Tanauan and by then meeting up with the advancing 187th and 188th Infantry Task Forces from the south.[15] Lipa was captured by the 1st Cavalry Division on March 29. Fuji Force's 86th Airfield Battalion retreated and makes their last stand on Mt. Malepunyo where they were besieged by the 187th Infantry Task Force and 1st Cavalry Division from both north and south positions.

With the capture of Lipa, 1st Cavalry Division, 187th and 188th Infantry Task Forces continued their drive towards the Quezon Province. Only some elements of the 188th Infantry Task Force was left to clear the Batangas Mountains located southeast of province from the remaining Japanese defenses.[16] Throughout the battle, recognized Filipino Guerrilla fighters played an important key role in the advancement of the combined American and Philippine Commonwealth troops, providing key roads and information for the Japanese location of defenses and movements. The 11th Airborne Division and attached Filipino Guerillas had 390 casualties in which 90 of it were figured dead. The Japanese however lost 1,490 men.[17] Soon afterwards, by the end of April 1945, Batangas was liberated and fully secured for the Allied control, thus ending all the hostilities.

The establishment and founded of the military general headquarters and military camp bases of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active and built on 1942 to 1946 and the Philippine Constabulary was active and built on 1944 to 1946 in the province of Batangas in Southern Luzon. During the engagements of the Anti-Japanese Imperial Military Operations in Manila, Southern Luzon, Mindoro and Palawan from 1942 to 1945 included the City of Manila and the Provinces of Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Mindoro and Palawan and aided the local soldiers of the Philippine Constabulary, local guerrilla resistance and U.S. liberation military forces against the Japanese Imperial armed forces.

Local Filipino soldiers of the 4th, 41st, 42nd, 43rd, 45th and 46th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and 4th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was started the Battle for the Liberation of Batangas under the Southern Luzon Campaign from the Allied and Japanese forces in January to August 1945 and helping the local recognized guerrillas and American forces against the Japanese Imperial forces and ended in World War II.

Post-American period[edit]

After Douglas MacArthur made his famous landing in the Island of Leyte, he came next to the town of Nasugbu to mark the liberation of Luzon. This historic landing is remembered by the people of Batangas every last day of January, a holiday for the Nasugbugueños. And if Leyte is proud of the bronze statues of McArthur, Batangas can is also proud of their own version of that.

After the Philippines was freed from America, the Batangueños once again entered the picture. Statesmen from Batangas became famous in the government. These include the legislators Felipe Agoncillo, Galicano Apacible (who later became the Secretary of Agriculture), Ramon Diokno, Apolinario R. Apacible, Expedito Leviste, Gregorio Katigbak, Teodoro Kalaw, Claro M. Recto, and Jose Laurel.

Most of these legislators became well known not only in the country but also in the world as many of them held executive offices afterwards. some of them were even sent as Philippine Envoys to other countries.

It is also notable that when Quezon left the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation, the Japanese government in the Philippines chose the Batangueño Jose Laurel, Sr. to the de jure President of the Puppet Republic.

Recent history[edit]

The 1986 People Power Revolution in EDSA marked another time where Batangueños enter the picture. When Corazon Aquino was inaugurated as president by the bloodless revolution, the Batangueño Salvador Laurel is no less than her Vice-President.

She also appointed Renato de Villa as the Chief of Constabulary and Director-General of the Integrated National Police, and later the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. It was under his leadership that the Military remained loyal to Aquino despite the many coup d'etat attempts of Gregorio Honasan. He was also one of the influences behind the Second People Power in 2001.

During the Presidency of Joseph Estrada, he also chose four Batangueños to be his closest advisers. The group was composed of Domingo Panganiban (Department of Agriculture), Benjamin Diokno (Department of Budget and Management), Dong Apacible (Legislative Liaison), Tony "Lepili" Leviste (Board of Investments Governor), and Ped Faytaren (Economic Intelligence Chief). This is not to mention Dennis Hernandez, special assistant to Alfredo Lim of the Department of Interior and Local Government. During the Estrada Impeachment trial, Hernando Perez, a known lawyer from Batangas City served as private prosecutor.

The Second People Power in 2001 also became an important event for the Batangueños. After Joseph Estrada was thrown off from power, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo replaced him and chose De Villa as her executive Secretary. He was replaced by Eduardo Ermita, another Batangueño, whom she first appointed as Secretary of the Department National Defence.

Three other Batangueños were in the Original the Arroyo Cabinet namely, Noel Cabrera from the Office of the Press Secretary, Renato Corona who was the Presidential Spokesman then later became a Supreme Court Justice, and Hernando Perez who was the Secretary of the Department of Justice.

Leandro Mendoza, who was also chief of the Philippine National Police, was appointed Secretary of the Department of Transportation and Communication upon his retirement, while Lauro Baja, former Undersecretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs was appointed the Philippine Envoy to the United Nations.

Since June 29, 2010, President-elect Aquino, at that time, appoint Br. Armin Luistro FSC as the Secretary of the Department of Education.

Geography[edit]

Physical[edit]

Batangas is a combination of plains and mountains, including the world's smallest volcano, Mt. Taal, with an elevation of 600 metres (2,000 ft), located in the middle of the Taal Lake. Other important peaks are Mt. Makulot with an elevation of 830 metres (2,720 ft), Mt. Talamitan with 700 metres (2,300 ft), Mt. Pico de Loro with 664 metres (2,178 ft), Mt. Batulao with 811 metres (2,661 ft), Mt. Manabo with 830 metres (2,720 ft), and Mt. Daguldol with 672 metres (2,205 ft).

The Municipality of Nasugbu is the home of the plantation of Central Azucarera Don Pedro, the Philippines' largest producer of sugar and other sugarcane products.

Batangas also has many islands, including Tingloy, Verde Island(Isla Verde), Fortune Island of Nasugbu.

Flora and fauna[edit]

Although attached to the big Island of Luzon, Batangas boasts flora and fauna that is distinctively theirs. The malabayabas, or Philippine Teak, can be found nowhere else but in Batangas while the endangered flying fox, civet cats, and thousands of bhramini kyte thrive there without fear. Batangas is also home to the kabag (Haplonycteris fischeri), one of the world's smallest fruit bats. In the Municipality of Nasugbu, wild deer still inhabit the remote areas of Baranggay Looc, Papaya, Bulihan and Dayap. But though Batangas has these land flying mammals, marine wildlife remains the province's crowning glory. In fact, in the second half of 2006, scientists from the United States discovered that the Sulu-Sulawesi Triangle has its centre at the Isla Verde Passage, a part of the province. According to this study, made by the American Marine Biologist Dr. Kent Carpentier, Batangas' Seas host more than half of the world's species of coral. It is also home to dolphins and, once in a while, a passage of the world's biggest fish: the whale shark or the butanding, as the locals call it. The Municipality of San Juan, as a matter of fact, has a resident marine turtle or pawikan. Pawikans like Olive Ridley sea turtle, leather back sea turtle and green sea turtle were also prevalent in the Municipality of Nasugbu up to the present.

Subdivisions[edit]

Political map of Batangas

Batangas is subdivided into 31 municipalities and 3 cities.

City or
Municipality
District No. of
Barangays
Population
(2010)[18]
Area
(km²)[19]
Pop. density
(per km²)
Batangas City
II
105
305,607
282.96
1080
Lipa City
IV
72
283,468
209.40
1353.7
Tanauan City
III
48
152,393
107.16
1422.1
Agoncillo
III
21
35,794
49.96
716.5
Alitagtag
III
19
23,649
24.76
955.1
Balayan
I
48
81,805
108.73
752.4
Balete
III
13
20,214
25.00
808.6
Bauan
II
40
81,351
53.31
1526
Calaca
I
40
70,521
114.58
615.5
Calatagan
I
25
51,997
112.00
464.3
Cuenca
III
21
31,236
58.18
536.9
Ibaan
IV
26
48,482
68.99
702.7
Laurel
III
21
35,674
71.29
500.4
Lemery
I
46
81,825
109.80
745.2
Lian
I
19
45,943
76.80
598.2
Lobo
II
26
37,070
175.03
211.8
Mabini
II
34
44,391
44.47
998.2
Malvar
III
15
45,952
33.00
1392.5
Mataasnakahoy
III
16
27,177
22.10
1229.7
Nasugbu
I
43
122,483
278.51
439.8
Padre Garcia
IV
18
44,877
41.51
1081.1
Rosario
IV
48
105,561
226.88
465.3
San Jose
IV
33
68,517
53.29
1285.7
San Juan
IV
42
94,291
273.40
344.9
San Luis
II
26
30,701
42.56
721.4
San Nicolas
III
18
20,599
14.37
1433.5
San Pascual
II
29
59,598
50.70
1175.5
Santa Teresita
III
17
17,415
16.30
1068.4
Santo Tomas
III
30
124,740
95.41
1307.4
Taal
I
42
51,503
29.76
1730.6
Talisay
III
21
39,600
28.20
1404.3
Taysan
IV
20
35,357
93.62
377.7
Tingloy
II
15
16,870
33.07
510.1
Tuy
I
22
40,734
94.65
430.4

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Batangas
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1990 1,476,783 —    
1995 1,658,567 +2.20%
2000 1,905,348 +3.02%
2007 2,245,869 +2.29%
2010 2,377,395 +2.09%
Source: National Statistics Office[2]
Main article: Tagalog Batangas

In the recent years, waves of migration from the Visayas had brought significant number of Visayans to the province. There are also a few who can speak Spanish, since Batangas was an important centre during the colonial period.

Batangas also has one of the highest literacy rates in the country at 96.5%, wherein the males have a slightly higher literacy rate at 97.1% than females with 95.9%.Combined average of literacy is 96%.

Language[edit]

The dialect of Tagalog spoken in the province closely resembles the Old Tagalog spoken before the arrival of the Spanish. Hence the Summer Institute of Linguistics [1] called this province the heartland of the Tagalog Language. A strong presence of the Tagalog culture is clearly visible to the present day.

Linguistically Batangueños are also known for their unique affectation of often placing the particles eh or ga (equivalent to the particle ba in Filipino), usually as a marker of stress on the sentence, at the end of their spoken sentences or speech; for example: "Ay, oo, eh!" ("Aye, yes, indeed!"). Some even prolong the particle 'eh' into 'ala eh', though it really has no meaning in itself.

Although much can be said about the way a Batangueño speaks his or her Tagalog, the high literacy of the locals means English is also widely spoken in the province. Spanish is also understood to some extent. In fact, towns such as Nasugbu, Taal and Lemery still have significant Spanish-speaking minorities. Visayan is also spoken by a significant minority due to the influx of migration from the Southern Philippines

Religion[edit]

Batangas has Abrahamic religions like Roman Catholicism, the major religion, and Islam, which can be found in Balayan, Lipa, Batangas City and other parts. Jews are 0.02% of the population.

Economy[edit]

Products[edit]

Batangas also has other industries. Batangas is known for its fan knife, called balisong by the natives. This industry has become so famous that an urban legend exists about every Batangueño carrying a balisong everywhere they go.

Pineapples are also common in the province. Aside from the fruit, the leaves are also useful that it becomes an industry of its own. In the Municipality of Taal, pineapple leaves are being processed to be a kind of cloth known as the gusi. This is further processed to become the Barong Tagalog, the National Costume of the Philippines. In fact, the Barong Tagalog that was used by the heads of states in the last Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation in 1995 was from Batangas. Princess Diana Spencer was also known to possess a scarf made of gusi.

Batangas is also known for its livestock industry. Cattle from Batangas is widely sought throughout the country. In fact, the term Bakang Batangas (Batangas Cow) is actually synonymous to the country's best species of cattle. Indeed, the cattle industry in Batangas is so famous, that every Saturday is an auction day in the Municipalities of San Juan, Bauan and widely known and famous Padre Garcia every Thursday and Friday.

Being near the sea, it is only expected that fishing plays a very important part of the Batangan Economy. Although the tuna industry in the country is mainly centered in General Santos, Batangas is also known for the smaller species of the said fish. The locals even have their own names for the said fish. Some of them include the term, Tambakol,yellow-finned Berberabe, tambakulis, Tulingan, Bonito and another species also called Bonito but actually the Gymnosarda unicolor. There is also an important industry for the Tanigue.

Aside from the South China Sea, Taal Lake also provides a source of fresh water fishes to the country. The lake is home to Sardinella tawilis or simply tawilis, a species of freshwater sardine that is endemic to the lake. Taal Lake also provides farmed Chanos chanos or bangus. There is also a good volume of Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Oreochromis aureus, both locally called tilapia. It is ecologically important to note that neither bangus nor tilapia are native to the lake. Thus they are considered invasive species to the lake.

As mentioned in the section of culture, Batangueños are indeed fond of drinking. This is of no surprise as it lies in what is called the coconut belt that is the raw material for the local liqueurs, the lambanog (with 90% proof) and the tuba (which is made of 5.68% alcohol and 13% sugar).

Sugar is also a major industry. As a matter of fact, after the Hacienda Luisita, the country's former largest sugar producer, was broken-up for land reform, the Municipality of Nasugbu has been the home of the current largest sugar producing company, the Central Azucarera Don Pedro. This also means that Batangas is also a home for a wide industry of sweets. Rice cakes are also a strong industry.

Although Batangas has already lost its distinction as Asia's largest producer of coffee, this industry is still thriving, especially with the boost of coffee shops all over the country,one of which is Cafe de Lipa.

Blankets and mosquito nets are also widely available anywhere in the province. If you are lucky enough, you can buy it from peddlers.

Saplot Batangenyo,Batangas novelty shirts, “For the first time, the Batangueños had something they can wear and show off a shirt that they can show the world who they are, that they are Batangueños through and through, and they are proud of it, That’s because we define the message ourselves. The goal was to have religious, intelligent ridiculous, and gross message presented with class and style.(likhang sining ng Emmanuel's tatakan @ibp.)

And as the mythology of the Philippines say that from the bamboo came men and women, Batangueños learned to make a living out of it. Some towns (those that are adjacent to Laguna) have a very prosperous bamboo based industry. Here, you can see houses that are made of bamboo, furniture made of bamboo, and even food cooked in bamboo. Natives say that food cooked in bamboo has an added scent and flavour.

But if the locals cook in bamboos, some also eat bamboos. Baby bamboos to be exact. In these towns also, labong or the baby bamboo is cooked with coconut milk or even with other ingredients to make a truly Batangas delicacy.

One must also remember that the Capital City of Batangas hosts the second most important international seaport in the Island of Luzon. Next only to that of Manila International Port, Batangas International Port is a primary entry point of goods not only coming from the Southern part of the country but from everywhere in the world.

Culture[edit]

Way of life[edit]

Maria Kalaw Katigbak, a Filipino historian, was quoted to call the Batangueños the Super-Tagalogs. One particular custom in the Batangan culture is the so-called Matanda sa Dugo (lit. older by blood) practice wherein one gives respect not because of age but of consanguinity. During the early times, the custom of having very large families are very common. Thus, it may be expected that the someone's uncle could be of the same age, or even younger than himself. In this case, the older one would call the younger one in an honorary title (such as tiyo or simply kuya if they can no longer establish the relationship), not the other way around. This often draws confusion to those from other provinces who are not accustomed to such practices. This practice exists until today.

Batangueños are very regionalistic. When one learns that a person in the room is also from Batangas, expect them to be together until the end of the event. It is also expected that those in office would favour their fellow Batangueños as long as the rules could allow it. Thus the running joke, the Batangas Mafia came to existence.

They also tend to live in a large extended family. It is but common that a piece of land remains undivided until the family connection becomes to far-off related. Marriages between relatives of the fifth generation is still restrained in the Batangan culture even if Philippine laws allow it.

Most Batangueños are either farmers or fishers who sell their own products in the market. Although most of them have also finished a degree, a lot of the people prefer to not use what they have studied and put up their own small businesses instead. This is perhaps due to the subconscious idea that he who has no land to cultivate or trade to make is a lazy person.

Batangueños are known for being religious, where devotees pay respect in such way that they make rituals, such as dances and chants (Luwa) to please them, one of these is the Passion in which it is a common sight to hear these chants during the Lenten season, a religious act still practice today. During the month of May the people of Bauan and Alitagtag celebrate the feast day of the Mahal na Poon ng Sta. Cruz, a ritual dance called the Subli is made to respect to the Poon. In the town of Taal they celebrate the feast day of the Our Lady of Caysasay and San Martin de Tours a two-day celebration where procession from the shine of the Virgin towards the Pansipit River where the fluvial procession and another procession towards the Basilica are made in honored of the Virgin Mary. Fiestas in other towns usually start in the month of May and last up to the first day of June, usually the plaza near the church becomes the center of attraction.

Since Batangas has long been declared a tourism area by late President Ferdinand Marcos, people from other places could find a very hospitable culture in the Batangueños. They will feed you more than the usual with the food they eat. Actually, these folks would appreciate it greatly if they see that you are trying to be one of them.

Mythology and literature[edit]

Scholars also identified that the ancient Batangueños, like the rest of the Tagalog Tribe, worship the Supreme Creator, known as Bathala. Lesser gods like Mayari, the goddess of the Moon and her brother Apolake, god of the sun, were also present. And although people would not easily connect it with mythology, the Northeast Monsoon is still called Amihan, while the Southwest Monsoon is called Habagat.

For literature, Padre Vicente Garcia came to be known when he wrote an essay to defend José Rizal's Noli Me Tangere.

In 2004, the Province of Batangas gave its Son Domingo Landicho (familiarly called Inggo be Batangueños) the Dangal ng Batangas Award (Pride of Batangas) for being the Peoples' Poet. He, together with Ambassador Lauro Baja, former Executive secretary Renato de Villa, Current Executive Secretary Eduardo Ermita, Supreme Court Justice Renato Corona, and Transport Secretary Leandro Mendoza received the award in a ceremony which highlighted the celebration of the 423rd year of the founding of the Province.

Music[edit]

for full discussion.

Batangueños have always been visible in the Philippine music scene, whether it is in the field of traditional music, popular music or even popular music.

Musicologists identified Batangas as the origin of the kumintang, and ancient war song, which later evolved to become the signature of Filipino love songs the kundiman. From the ancient kumintang, another vocal music emerged, identified as the awit. The huluna, a psalm-like lullaby, is also famous in some towns, especially Bauan.

During the Lenten Season, the Christian passion-narrative, called Pasyon by the natives, is but expected in every corners of the province. In fact according to scholars, the very first printed version of the pasyon was authored by a layman from Rosario named Gaspar Aquino de Belen. Although de Belen's version was printed in 1702, it is still debated whether there were earlier versions.

Debates may also be done while singing. While those from the Province of Bulacan are known for their Balagtasan (a form of debate done in poetry), Batangueños are famous for the duplo (a sung debate where each lines of the verse must be octosyllabic) and the karagatan (a sung dabate where each lines of the verse must be dodecasyllabic.) The latter, whose literal meaning is "ocean", got its name from the opening lines. Always, the karagatan is opened by saying some verses that alludes the depth of the sea and comparing it to the difficulty of joining the debate. And as mentioned above, the debate must be sung.

Batangas is also the origin of the Balitao (although Cebuanos may argue.) Aside from being a form of vocal music, the Balitao is also a form of dance music. The Balitao, together with the Subli is the most famous form of dance native to Batangas.

In the field of serious music, no one can underestimate the contribution of Batangas. Batangas is the birthplace of the famous Filipino soprano Conching Rosal, dubbed as the First Lady of the Philippine Operatic Stage. Lorenzo Ilustre, a local composer, also became famous for his wide array of religious and liturgical music.

The well-known Conductor and Violinist Oscar Yatco was born in Tanuan, Batangas on November 23, 1931 to a family of music lovers and musicians.His career in music is multifaceted, having served as conductor, concert master, professor and music consultant for local orchestras such as the Manila Symphony Orchestra, the Cultural Center of the Philippine Philharmonic Orchestra; and overseas National Theater Orchestra, Wagner Festival Orchestra and State Academy of Music in Hannover, Germany.

On the other hand, the Maestro of Philippine Music, Ryan Cayabyab is no less than a Batangueño, whose mother Celerina Pujante was in her own right a well sought operatic soprano in the 1950s, about the same time as Conching Rosal. Cayabyab composed almost every kind of music, from popular to heavy classical. He also won the Onnasis Awards for best score for theatre. Aside from that, he also composed music for Katy! at Rama at Sita, two of the Philippines most famous Tagalog musicals.

Ogie Alcasid, known to fans as Mr. Composer, also hails from this province. A former member of the De La Salle University - Kundirana, he became one the Philippines' composer of popular music. He's composed for almost every major figure of Philippine popular music, aside from singing some of his compositions himself.

Also, aside from being politicians, the Laurel Family is a well known patron of the arts in the province. Hence there was no doubt that an entire generation of them (pioneered by Cocoy and followed by Franco and now by Denise became known in the industry. In the moment, Franco, together with his wife Ayen holds the copyright of Rama at Sita, a Filipino musical based on India's Ramayana.

Architecture and sculpture[edit]

Basilica de San Martin in Taal

As shown in its ancient churches, Batangas is home to some of the best architectures of the country. Along with Vigan, Ilocos Sur, Batangas has the best preserved colonial architectures. This is very evident when one visits the Municipality of Taal.

Though not as popular as the carving industry of Laguna, Batangas is still famous for the sculptures engraved on the countless furniture that came from their Province. Often, altar tables coming from Batangas was called the "friars' choice" because of its delicate beauty.

According to Milagros Covarubias-Jamir, another Filipino scholar, the furniture that came from Batangas during the colonial times was comparable to the beautiful furniture from China. The built of the furniture was so exquisite, nails of glues was never used. Still, the Batangueños knew how to maximize the use of hardwoods. As a result, furniture made about a hundred years ago are still found in many old churches and houses even today.

Museums[edit]

  • Museo ng Katipunan: Barangay Bulaklakan, Lipa
  • Apolinario Mabini Shrine: Marcela Agoncillo Historical Landmark, Barangay Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas
  • Miguel Malvar Hospital: Leon Apacible Historical Landmark, Sto. Tomas, Batangas
  • Museo ng Batangas at Aklatang Panlalawigan: includes the Dr. Jose P. Laurel Library, Tanauan, Batangas

Government[edit]

The Provincial Capitol Hall of Batangas

Together with the provinces in the Island of Panay, Ilocos Sur and Pampanga, Batangas was one of the earliest province established by the Spaniards who settled in the country. It was headed by Martin de Goiti and since then it became one of the most important centres of the Philippines, not only the Tagalogs. Batangas first came to be known as Bonbon. It was named after the mystical and fascinating Taal Lake, which was also originally called Bonbon. Some of the earliest settlements in Batangas were established at the vicinity of Taal Lake. In 1534, Batangas became the first practically organized province in Luzon. Balayan was the capital of the province for 135 years from 1597-1732. In 1732, it was moved to Taal, then the flourishing and most progressive town in the province it wasn't until 1754 that the capital was destroyed by the Great Taal Eruption of 1754. It was in 1889 that the capital was moved to the present, Batangas City.

Batangas is also known in the Philippine History as the "Cradle of Noble Heroes", giving homage not only to the heroes it produced but the statesmen that came to lead the country. Among the Batangas politicians are Teodoro M. Kalaw, Apolinario Mabini, Jose Laurel, Claro M. Recto, Felipe Agoncillo and Don Apolinario Apacible

Current officials[edit]

Representation Name Name Name
First District Roman H. Rosales Ramon C. Bausas
Second District Mario Vittorio A. Mariño Dexter R. Buted Amelia E. Alvarez
Third District Alfredo C. Corona Divina G. Balba
Fourth District Rowena S. Africa Amado Carlos A. Bolilia, IV Mabelle D. Virtusio
Philippine Councilors League President Kathleen C. Briones
Liga ng Mga Barangay President Herminigildo J. Dolor
  • Elected Representatives
    • 1st District: Elenita Milagros R. Ermita-Buhain
    • 2nd District: Raneo E. Abu
    • 3rd District: Nelson P. Collantes
    • 4th District: Mark Llandro L. Mendoza

List of former governors[edit]

Main article: Governor of Batangas

Developments[edit]

Batangas Port and STAR[edit]

The Batangas Seaport Terminal, a modern passenger terminal, is owned by the province of Batangas.
The STAR Tollway that connects the Municipality of Santo Tomas to Batangas City

Batangas City is the principal port for ferry access to Mindoro, Tablas, Romblon, and other islands. Montenegro Lines is the largest of a number of passenger shipping companies operating out of Batangas. Condensate tankers offload at Batangas in sizeable quantity.

On January 19, 2008, Phase 2 of the Batangas City International Container Port was opened by the Philippines President, and is operated by the Philippine Ports Authority).

On the same day, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo also inspected a major road project in Southern Tagalog. She then inspected the P1.5-billion, 19.74 kilometer Southern Tagalog Arterial Road (STAR Tollway), Stage II-Phase 1 connecting Lipa and Batangas and the South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) road widening, expansion and the STAR Tollway development projects in Batangas.[20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities". 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  3. ^ tribhanga
  4. ^ Batangas Airport in Brgy. Alaingilan destroyed after Japanese air raids
  5. ^ Lt. César Basa's actions at the Japanese Air Raids in the Batangas Airfield
  6. ^ Christine Sherman, M.J. Thurman, War Crimes, Japan's World War II, p.136
  7. ^ Usage of US Landing Craft during the Pacific Theater of World War II
  8. ^ 158th RCT and 11th Airborne Division came under the command of XIV Corps of the US Sixth Army
  9. ^ 158th RCT's invasion of Balayan and Batangas city
  10. ^ 158th RCT's drive towards Calumpang Peninsula against the 2nd Surface Raiding Base Force
  11. ^ Disengage of 158th RCT for Bicol Operations and placement of the 11th Airborne Division
  12. ^ 1st Cavalry Division relieved 511th Parachute Infantry Regiment
  13. ^ 188th Infantry Task Force left for Lipa Corridor
  14. ^ Final Capture of Mt. Maculot
  15. ^ Fuji Force's 86th Airfield Battalion encirclement
  16. ^ 1st Cavalry Division, 187th and 188th Infantry Task Force drive in Southern Luzon
  17. ^ Casualties after the fight in Batangas
  18. ^ "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  19. ^ "Province: BATANGAS". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 6 November 2013. 
  20. ^ Abs-Cbn Interactive, President Arroyo inaugurates Batangas port project

External links[edit]