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Batiniyya was originally introduced by Abu’l-Khāttāb Muhammad ibn Abu Zaynab al-Asadī, and later developed by Maymūn al-Qāddāh and his son ʿAbd Allāh ibn Maymūn for the interpretation of Qur'an. It might sometimes be employed as a pejorative term to refer to those movements, such as Alevism, Ismailism, and often Sufism, which distinguish between an inner, esoteric (Batini) level of meaning in the Quran, in addition to the outer exoteric Zahiri meaning. Batini ta’wil is the name given to the exegesis of the esoteric knowledge which rests with the Imam, or with the Shaykh/Pir in Sufism.
According to Ismā‘īlīsm, Allah has sent "seven" great prophets known as “Nātıq” (Spoken) in order to disseminate and improve his Dīn of Islam. All of these great prophets has also one assistant known as “Sāmad (Silent) Imām”. At the end of each seven “Sāmad” silsila, one great “Nātıq” (Spoken) has ben sent in order to reimprove the Dīn of Islam. After Adam and his son Seth, and after six “Nātıq” (Spoken) – “Sāmad” (Silent) silsila (Noah–Shem), (Abraham–Ishmael), (Moses–Aaron), (Jesus–Simeon), (Muhammad bin ʿAbd Allāh–Ali ibn Abu Tālib); the silsila of “Nātıqs and Sāmads have been completed with (Muhammad bin Ismā‘īl as-ṣaghīr (Maymûn’ûl-Qaddāh)–ʿAbd Allāh Ibn-i Maymûn and his sons).
- Bektashi Order, another group focusing on Batin and Zahir
- Esoteric interpretation of the Quran
- Encyclopedia Iranica, "ABU’L-ḴAṬṬĀB ASADĪ"
- Encyclopedia Iranica, "ḴAṬṬĀBIYA"
- Encyclopedia Iranica, "ʿABDALLĀH B. MAYMŪN AL-QADDĀḤ"
- Encyclopedia Iranica, "BĀṬENĪYA"
- Encyclopedia Iranica, DAWR (1)
- Öz, Mustafa, Mezhepler Tarihi ve Terimleri Sözlüğü (The History of madh'habs and its terminology dictionary), Ensar Yayıncılık, İstanbul, 2011. (This is the name of the trainer of Muhammed bin Ismā‘īl ibn Jā’far. He had established the principles of the Batiniyya Madh'hab, later.)
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