Batman (comic book)

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Batman
Cover of Batman #1 (Spring 1940).
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule Quarterly: #1-5
Bimonthly: #6-80; #254-259
Eight times a year: #81-168
Nine times a year: #169-177; #238-246
10 times a year: #178-237
Seven times a year: #247-253
11 times a year: #260-270
Monthly: #271-715 except for biweekly status for #436-439, 448-453, 464-469, 477-482, 492-497, 627-628, 643-644, 660-661, 682-683, and 691-692
Format Ongoing series
Genre
Publication date (vol. 1)
Spring 1940 – October 2011
(vol. 2)
November 2011–present
Number of issues (vol. 1): 715[1] (#1–713 plus issues numbered 0 and 1,000,000) 1 Special and 28 Annuals
(vol. 2): 39 (#1–34 plus issues numbered 0 and 23.1 through 23.4) and 2 Annuals (as of October 2014 cover date)
Main character(s) Bruce Wayne/Batman
"Batman Family"
Creative team
Writer(s) (vol. 1)
Bill Finger
Various
(vol. 2)
Scott Snyder
Penciller(s) (vol. 1)
Bob Kane
Various
(vol. 2)
Greg Capullo
Inker(s) (vol. 1)
Jerry Robinson
Various
(vol. 2)
Jonathan Glapion
Colorist(s) (vol. 1)
Adrienne Roy
Various
(vol. 2)

FCO Plascencia
Creator(s) Bob Kane
Bill Finger
Collected editions
Dark Knight Archive Volume 1 ISBN 1-56389-050-X

Batman is an ongoing comic book series featuring the DC Comics hero of the same name. The character first appeared in Detective Comics #27, published in May 1939. Batman proved to be so popular that a self-titled ongoing comic book series began publication in the spring of 1940. It was first advertised in early April 1940, one month after the first appearance of his new sidekick, Robin, the Boy Wonder.

Though the Batman comic book was initially launched as a quarterly publication, it later became a bimonthly series through the late 1950s, after which it became a monthly publication and has remained so since. The original series ended in 2011 and was relaunched with a new first issue.

Premise[edit]

The Batman saga takes place primarily in the fictional municipality of Gotham City, a city overrun with crime, graft, and corruption. Its citizens live in perpetual fear from the vast number of criminals, gangs and common thugs. In an effort to combat the cancerous infection of crime, billionaire philanthropist Bruce Wayne creates the costumed persona of the Batman to prey on the superstitious and cowardly criminals' fears. Wayne, a young socialite who witnessed his parents' murder during a mugging when he was a small child, used his trauma and vast personal wealth to travel the world and gain the skills needed to wage his war on crime. Batman utilizes his keen analytical mind and sophisticated technology and gadgetry, as well as outstanding physical agility, power and stamina to ensure that criminals never feel safe in Gotham, and are always afraid of the dark at night. In the eyes of the public, the Batman is believed to be both an urban legend and something more than human: an indeterminable black specter that represents terror. Wayne reasoned that fear was his weakness as a child, but as a man, it became his weapon.[2]

Publication history[edit]

The Golden Age and the early 1950s[edit]

The character of Batman made his first appearance in the pages of Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. In Spring of 1940, Batman #1 was published and introduced new characters into Batman's pantheon, most notably those of Catwoman and Batman's eventual nemesis, the Joker.[3] Alfred Pennyworth, the Wayne family butler, was introduced in issue #16 (April–May 1943).[4]

Editor Whitney Ellsworth assigned a Batman story to artist Dick Sprang in 1941.[5] Anticipating that Bob Kane would be drafted to serve in World War II, DC inventoried Sprang's work to safeguard against delays.[5] Sprang's first published Batman work was the Batman and Robin figures on the cover of Batman #18 (Aug.-Sept. 1943), reproduced from the art for page 13 of the later-published Detective Comics #84 (Feb. 1944).[6] Sprang's first original published Batman work, and first interior-story work, appeared in Batman #19 (Oct.-Nov. 1943), for which he drew the cover and the first three Batman stories, and penciled the fourth Batman story, inked by Norm Fallon.[7] Like all Batman artists of the time, Sprang went uncredited as a ghost artist for Kane.

Villains which debuted during this early era included the Mad Hatter in issue #49 (October 1948)[8] and Killer Moth in issue #63 (February 1951).[9] In 1953, Sheldon Moldoff became another one of the primary Batman ghost artists who, along with Win Mortimer and Dick Sprang, drew stories credited to Bob Kane, following Kane's style and under Kane's supervision.[10] Bill Finger and Moldoff introduced Ace the Bat-Hound in #92 (June 1955).[11]

The Silver Age[edit]

The early part of the era known to comics fans and historians as the Silver Age of Comic Books saw the Batman title dabble in science fiction.[12] New characters introduced included Mr. Freeze[13] and Betty Kane, the original Bat-Girl.[14]

In 1964, Julius Schwartz was made responsible for reviving the faded Batman titles. He jettisoned the sillier aspects that had crept into the series such as Ace the Bathound and Bat-Mite and gave the character a "New Look" that premiered in Detective Comics #327 (May 1964).[15][16] Schwartz's first issue of the Batman title was #164 (June 1964).[17] The Riddler returned after an eighteen-year absence in #171 (May 1965).[18] Among the new villains introduced during this period was Poison Ivy in #181 (June 1966).[19] In the 1960s, Batman comics were affected by the popular Batman television series, with campy stories based on the tongue-in-cheek premise of the series. After the Batman television program's influence had died down, writer Frank Robbins and artist Irv Novick sent Dick Grayson off to attend college and moved Batman out of Wayne Manor in issue #217 (December 1969).[20]

The 1970s[edit]

In 1971, writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams came aboard the title and re-infused it with the darker tones of the 1940s.[21] O'Neil and Adams introduced a new villain named Ra's al Ghul,[22][23] and would also revitalize the Joker by bringing him back to his roots as a homicidal maniac who murders people on a whim.[24][25] Batman #237 (December 1971) featured a metafictional story by O'Neil and Adams which featured several comics creators appearing in the story and interacting with Batman and Robin at the Rutland Halloween Parade in Rutland, Vermont.[26] O'Neil said his work on the Batman series was "simply to take it back to where it started. I went to the DC library and read some of the early stories. I tried to get a sense of what Kane and Finger were after."[27] Comics historian Les Daniels observed that "O'Neil's interpretation of Batman as a vengeful obsessive-compulsive, which he modestly describes as a return to the roots, was actually an act of creative imagination that has influenced every subsequent version of the Dark Knight."[28] The title became a 100 Page Super Spectacular for issues #254 (January–February 1974) to #261 (March–April 1975).[29] The series reached its 300th issue with a June 1978 cover date and featured a story by writer David Vern Reed and artists Walt Simonson and Dick Giordano.[30][31] Len Wein became the writer of the series with issue #307 (January 1979) and in his first issue, created Wayne Foundation executive Lucius Fox,[32] later portrayed by Morgan Freeman in the movies Batman Begins, The Dark Knight, and The Dark Knight Rises. Julius Schwartz ended his tenure as editor of the series with issue #309 (March 1979).[17]

The 1980s[edit]

Writer Gerry Conway and artist Don Newton introduced Jason Todd in Batman #357 (March 1983).[33] Todd would assume the costumed identity of Robin in issue #368 (February 1984).[34][35] Writer Doug Moench began his run on the title with issue #360[36] and he and artist Tom Mandrake created the Black Mask character in Batman #386 (August 1985).[37] Moench's longtime collaborator, artist Paul Gulacy made his DC Comics debut with a two-part story in issues #393 and #394.[38][39] The title reached its 400th issue in October 1986 and featured work by several popular comics artists and included an introduction by novelist Stephen King.[31][40]

Due to the events of the Crisis on Infinite Earths, the continuity of DC Comics was altered. Established characters were given the opportunity to be reintroduced in new ways. While the Batman series was not rebooted, writer Frank Miller, who had previously worked on the limited series The Dark Knight Returns, and artist David Mazzucchelli retold the character's origin story for the new continuity in the monthly pages of Batman issues 404–407 (February–May 1987). The story, Batman: Year One, garnered high critical acclaim for its realistic interpretation of Batman's genesis, and its accessibility to new readers who had never followed Batman before.[41] IGN Comics ranked Batman: Year One at the top of a list of the 25 greatest Batman graphic novels, saying that "no other book before or since has quite captured the realism, the grit and the humanity of Gordon and Batman so perfectly."[42] Notable comic book creators Greg Rucka, Jeph Loeb, and Judd Winick have cited Year One as their favorite Batman story.[43] Following "Year One", writer Max Allan Collins and artist Chris Warner crafted a new origin for Jason Todd.[44] Jim Starlin became the writer of Batman and one of his first storylines for the title was "Ten Nights of The Beast"[45] in issues #417 – 420 (March – June 1988) which introduced the KGBeast. During Starlin's tenure on the title, DC Comics was becoming aware of the fanbase's growing disdain for the character of Jason Todd, Following a cliffhanger in which the character's life hangs in the balance, DC set up a 900 number hotline which gave callers the ability to vote for or against Jason Todd's death. The kill option won by a narrow majority, and the following month the character was shown dying from wounds inflicted in the previous issue's cliffhanger. The story, entitled "A Death in the Family," received high media exposure due to the shocking nature in which a familiar character's life had ended.[46] Writer Marv Wolfman and artist Pat Broderick created Tim Drake in issue #436 in the "Batman: Year Three" story[47] and the character became the third version of Robin in the "A Lonely Place of Dying" storyline culminating in issue #442.[48]

1990s[edit]

Partially impacted by the tone of Tim Burton's 1989 film Batman, the comics of the 1990s took a darker tone. The Tim Drake version of Robin was given a new costume designed by Neal Adams in issue #457 (December 1990) in a story by Alan Grant and Norm Breyfogle.[49] The main writers of the Batman franchise in the 1990s were Grant, Doug Moench,[36] and Chuck Dixon. Moench and Dixon masterminded the Knightfall crossover arc, which saw Batman's back being broken by the super strong villain Bane.[50] A new character, Jean-Paul Valley, takes up the Batman mantle in Bruce Wayne's absence. Valley is driven mad with power, and Wayne forcefully reclaims it after his recovery.[51]

The Batman titles in 1999 were dominated by the large crossover "No Man's Land", which sees Gotham City ravaged by a large earthquake, leading to the U.S. government's order to evacuate the city and abandoning and isolating those who choose to remain behind.[52] Writer Greg Rucka adapted the story into a prose novel published in 2000.[53]

2000s[edit]

2000–2003[edit]

After the conclusion to "No Man's Land" and Greg Rucka's move to Detective, the Batman title was handled for seven issues by writer Larry Hama and artist Scott McDaniel. At issue #582, Ed Brubaker became the writer of the series and kept a trend of gritty crime drama that included more grounded villains such as the Penguin, Brubaker's new villain Zeiss, and Deadshot.[54] Brubaker's run received a short interruption with an arc title "Officer Down", which depicted Commissioner Gordon being shot in the line of duty and ultimately retiring from the Gotham police force. From there, writer Brian K. Vaughan did a three-issue arc that focused on Batman's created crime persona Matches Malone before Brubaker returned. The next crossover, masterminded by Brubaker and Rucka and titled "Bruce Wayne: Murderer?" saw Bruce Wayne framed for the murder of his girlfriend and nearly abandoning his civilian identity altogether.

For the #600 issue, the series moved into the next phase of Wayne's frame-up[55] and featured three backup stories, which were presented as lost issues never before published from iconic eras in Batman's history. "Mystery of the Black Bat" is presented in the style of Dick Sprang[56] and "Joker Tips His Hat!" is an homage to the 1960s stories by artists such as Gil Kane and Carmine Infantino.[57] "The Dark, Groovy, Solid, Far-out, Right-on, and Completely With-it Knight Returns" is a humorous spin on Batman's character trying to update himself into the eighties, and featured stand-up comedian Patton Oswalt's comic writing debut.[58] After the frame-up story concluded, Brubaker closed his run with two issues co-written with Geoff Johns.[59][60]

2003–2006[edit]

Writer Jeph Loeb and artist Jim Lee crafted a year-long story which began with issue #608,[61] The "Hush" storyline was a murder mystery that delved through numerous periods in Batman's history. Introducing a new character that was the story's namesake, as well as redefining the Riddler, healing Harvey Dent, and calling into question the events surrounding Jason Todd's death, Following the conclusion of Hush, the creative team of the Vertigo series 100 Bullets came aboard for a six-issue arc titled "Broken City".[62] Writer Judd Winick became the ongoing writer for the series and in a story titled "Under the Hood", explained that Jason Todd had actually returned from the dead long ago, and became an anti-hero in Gotham under the guise of the Red Hood.[63]

After the Infinite Crisis series, all the regular monthly titles of the DC Universe jumped forward in time by one year, depicting the characters in radically different situations and environments then they were in the preceding issues. "Face the Face", was written by James Robinson and saw Batman returning from a year-long overseas journey that retraced the steps he took after initially leaving Gotham City in his youth and featured the return of James Gordon to the role of Gotham City Police Commissioner.[64]

2006–2009[edit]

Grant Morrison began his long-form Batman narrative in issue #655.[65] The first story, "Batman and Son," reveals that Wayne is the father of a child named Damian, and attempts to steer the child away from the machinations of his mother, Talia al Ghul.[66] From there, Morrison began an arc that saw an evil influential organization known as the Black Glove attempt to destroy everything Batman is and what he stands for. This culminated in the storyline Batman R.I.P., where the Black Glove initially succeeds in doing so, but is thwarted by Bruce Wayne's ability to preserve his sane mind while an erratic, alternate personality takes over.[67] After stopping the Black Glove, Morrison moved Batman into his event series Final Crisis, where Batman appears to be killed by Darkseid.[68] In actuality, he was transported to the distant past and stranded there.[69] Neil Gaiman wrote issue #686, which was the first part of a story titled Whatever Happened to the Caped Crusader? It served as a quasi-send off to a generation of Batman stories, much the same way as Alan Moore's Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow? did for Superman, and continued into an issue of Detective Comics.[70]

After this, the main Batman series went on hiatus while the Battle for the Cowl mini-series would have Dick Grayson assume the role of Batman in the wake of Bruce Wayne's disappearance from the present-day DC Universe.[71] Grant Morrison stayed involved in writing Batman, but moved to a new series titled Batman and Robin, which followed the exploits of Grayson as Batman and Damian Wayne as the new Robin.[65] Writer Judd Winick temporarily returned to the title for Grayson's first solo arc as Batman,[72] before handing the writing and art duties off to Tony Daniel.[73]

2010s[edit]

Batman
Cover for Batman (vol. 2) #1.
Story by Scott Snyder. Art by Greg Capullo and Jonathan Glapion.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule Monthly
Format Ongoing
Genre
Publication date November 2011 – present
Number of issues 39 (#1–34 plus issues numbered 0 and 23.1 through 23.4) and 2 Annuals (as of October 2014 cover date)
Main character(s) Bruce Wayne/Batman
Creative team
Writer(s) Scott Snyder
Penciller(s) Greg Capullo
Inker(s) Jonathan Glapion
Colorist(s) FCO Plascencia
Creator(s) Scott Snyder
Greg Capullo

Daniel remained the main writer on the series until issue #699. The title reached a milestone with the publication of Batman #700 (August 2010), which saw the return of Grant Morrison to the title and a collaboration with an art team that consisted of Daniel, Frank Quitely, Andy Kubert, and David Finch. The separate stories tied together to illustrate that the legacy of Batman is unending, and will survive into the furthest reaches of time.[74] Morrison stayed on as writer on the series through issue #702, while simultaneously writing the Batman and Robin series and the The Return of Bruce Wayne mini-series.[65] Tony Daniel resumed writing and art duties with issue #704.[75] Even after Bruce Wayne's return, Dick Grayson remained the star of this title through its final year, as well as being the main character in Batman and Robin and Detective Comics. Bruce Wayne starred in two new titles, Batman Incorporated and Batman: The Dark Knight.[76]

On June 1, 2011, it was announced that all series taking place within the shared DC Universe would be either canceled or relaunched with new #1 issues, after a new continuity was created in the wake of the Flashpoint event. Batman was no exception, and the first issue of the new series was released on September 21, 2011.

The New 52[edit]

DC Comics relaunched Batman with issue #1 in September 2011, written by Scott Snyder and drawn by Greg Capullo, as part of DC's company-wide title relaunch, The New 52.[77][78] As with all of the books associated with the DC relaunch, Bruce Wayne appears to be about five years younger than the previous incarnation of the character. Superheroes at large have appeared only in the past five years, and are viewed with, at best, suspicion, and, at worst, outright hostility. All of the characters that have served as Robin, except Stephanie Brown, have been accounted for as still having served at Batman's side in the new continuity. The stories build on recent developments, with most of the character's previous history remaining intact, and Bruce Wayne is again the only Batman, with Dick Grayson having returned to his role as Nightwing.[79]

The first story arc of the title, "The Court of Owls", focuses on Batman's discovery of a secret society in Gotham City that he had never known about before, dating back to the time of Gotham's founding and his ancestor Alan Wayne, and his battles against the Talons, the agents of the Court of Owls.[80] This led to the first major New 52 crossover, "Night of the Owls".[81] The finale of the story sees Thomas Wayne Jr. as the head Talon of the Court of Owls in Gotham.[82]

The second arc was named "Death of the Family", a name-play on the "Batman: A Death in the Family". It picked up on the cliffhanger involving the Joker from Tony Daniel's run on Detective Comics.[83]

Talon, a spin-off of the "Court of Owls" storyline, launched in September 2012 and focuses on a rogue Talon from the Court.[84]

After a storyline involving Clayface and a one shot dealing with the aftermath of "Death of the Family", Snyder's next arc was "Batman: Zero Year". This follows up on Batman #0 and retells how Bruce Wayne became Batman, not done since Frank Miller's "Batman: Year One".

Maturity of content[edit]

The first stories appearing in the Batman comic were written by Bill Finger and illustrated by Bob Kane, though Finger went uncredited for years thereafter. These early stories depicted a vengeful Batman, not hesitant to kill when he saw it as a necessary sacrifice. In one of the early stories, he is depicted using a gun to stop a group of giant assailants. The Joker, a psychopath who is notorious for using a special toxin that kills and mutilates his victims, remains one of the most prolific and notorious Batman villains created in this time period. Following the desire of creator Jerry Robinson that the Joker not be a character who gets away with murder, for many years the Joker was changed from cold-blooded murderer to playful trickster. Later, during the Silver Age, this type of super-villain changed from disturbing psychological assaults to the use of amusing gimmicks.

Typically, the primary challenges that the Batman faced in this era were derived from villains who were purely evil; however, by the 1970s, the motivations of these characters, including obsessive compulsion, child abuse and environmental fanaticism, were being explored more thoroughly. Batman himself also underwent a transformation and became a much less one-dimensional character, struggling with deeply rooted internal conflicts. Although not canonical, Frank Miller's The Dark Knight Returns introduced a significant evolution of the Batman's character in his eponymous series; he became uncompromising and relentless in his struggle to revitalize Gotham. The Batman often exhibited behavior that Gotham's elite labeled as excessively violent as well as antisocial tendencies. This aspect of the Batman's personality was also toned down considerably in the wake of the DC-wide crossover Infinite Crisis, wherein Batman experienced a nervous breakdown and reconsidered his philosophy and approaches to his relationships. Currently, the Batman's attributes and personality are said to have been greatly influenced by the traditional characterization by Dennis O'Neil and Neal Adams' portrayals during the 1970s, although hints of the Miller interpretation appear in certain aspects of his character.

Annuals[edit]

The Batman series has had annuals published beginning in 1961. Seven issues of Batman Annual were published from 1961 – Summer 1964.[85] An additional 17 issues were published from 1982 to 2000 and the numbering continued from the 1961 series.[86] Four more annuals were published from 2006 to 2011, again with the numbering continued from the previous series.[87] In 2012, a new annual series was begun with a #1 issue.[88]

Significant issues[edit]

First appearances[edit]

Appearance Issue Number Month/Year
The Joker #1 Spring 1940
Catwoman as "The Cat" #1 Spring 1940
Gotham City (by name) #4 Winter 1941
Batmobile #5 Spring 1941
Alfred Pennyworth #16 April–May 1943
The Mad Hatter #49 October–November 1948
Vicki Vale #49 October–November 1948
Deadshot #59 June–July 1950
Killer Moth #63 February–March 1951
Mr. Freeze as "Mr. Zero" #121 February 1959
Batgirl (Betty Kane) #139 April 1961
Poison Ivy #181 June 1966
Ra's al Ghul #232 June 1971
Lucius Fox #307 January 1979
The Snowman #337 July 1981
Harvey Bullock #361 June 1983
Black Mask #386 August 1985
Holly Robinson #404 February 1987
Sarah Essen Gordon #405 March 1987
KGBeast #417 March 1988
Tim Drake (later Robin III) #436 August 1989
Shondra Kinsolving #486 February 1992
Cassandra Cain (later Batgirl IV) #567 July 1999
David Cain #567 July 1999
Hush #609 January 2003
Red Hood (Jason Todd) #635 December 2004
Damian Wayne #655 September 2006
Terry McGinnis #700 June 2010

Collected editions[edit]

See also Batman reprint collections

Batman only[edit]

Batman (collected with Detective Comics)[edit]

Batman-wide crossovers[edit]

These are crossovers that include most – if not all – of the Batman related titles published at the time.

With non-Batman titles[edit]

  • A Lonely Place of Dying: collects Batman #440 – 442 and The New Titans #60 – 61, 116 pages, February 1990, ISBN 978-0930289638

References[edit]

  1. ^ Batman at the Grand Comics Database
  2. ^ Waid, Mark; Kubert, Andy. "The Origin of Batman". DC Comics. Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2012. 
  3. ^ Wallace, Daniel; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1940s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. "The first issue of Batman's self-titled comic written by Bill Finger and drawn by Bob Kane, represented a milestone in more ways than one. With Robin now a partner to the Caped Crusader, villains needed to rise to the challenge, and this issue introduced two future legends: the Joker and Catwoman." 
  4. ^ Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 44: "Batman and Robin got some help in their crusade against crime with the arrival of butler Alfred in a thirteen-page back-up story by writer Don Cameron and artist Bob Kane."
  5. ^ a b Desris, Joe (1994). Batman Archives, Vol. 3. DC Comics. p. 223. ISBN 1-56389-099-2. 
  6. ^ Verified by Sprang at Batman #18 (Aug.-Sept. 1943) and Detective Comics #84 (Feb. 1944) at the Grand Comics Database
  7. ^ Verified by Sprang at Batman #19 (Oct.-Nov. 1943) at the Grand Comics Database
  8. ^ Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 59: "Inspired by Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland, the Mad Hatter joined the other costumed freaks of Gotham City on his debut in October's Batman #49"
  9. ^ Irvine, Alex "1950s" in Dolan, p. 66: "Batman #63 kicked off with the origin story of a new Batman villain: the Killer Moth."
  10. ^ Morris, Brian K. (June 2006). "Maybe I Was Just Loyal Longtime Batman artist Sheldon Moldoff talks about Bob Kane and other phenomena". Alter Ego (TwoMorrows Publishing) 3 (59): 14–23. 
  11. ^ Irvine "1950s" in Dolan, p. 77: "Once Superman had a dog, Batman got one too, in "Ace, the Bat-Hound!" In the story by writer Bill Finger and artist Sheldon Moldoff, Batman and Robin found a German Shepherd called Ace."
  12. ^ Irvine "1950s" in Dolan, p. 88: "Throughout 1958 Batman encountered aliens from different planets and dimensions."
  13. ^ Irvine "1950s" in Dolan, p. 92: "The Dynamic Duo battled the frosty foe Mr. Zero in a story written by Dave Wood and with art by Sheldon Moldoff in Batman #121...The 1960s Batman TV series, starring Adam West, included the character of Mr. Zero but renamed him Mr. Freeze. Later comic book incarnations of the ice-cold villain would adopt the new name."
  14. ^ McAvennie, Michael "1960s" in Dolan, p. 102: "Young Betty Kane assumed the costumed identity of Bat-Girl in this tale by writer Bill Finger and artist Sheldon Moldoff."
  15. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 110: "The Dark Knight received a much-needed face lift from new Batman editor Julius Schwartz, writer John Broome, and artist Carmine Infantino. With sales at an all-time low and threatening the cancellation of one of DC's flagship titles, their overhaul was a lifesaving success for DC and its beloved Batman."
  16. ^ Ro, Ronin (2004). Tales To Astonish: Jack Kirby, Stan Lee, And The American Comic Book Revolution. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 89–90. ISBN 1582343454. "There was a point when DC actually gave thought to canceling Batman...in his spacious office, facing [Julius] Schwartz and [Carmine] Infantino, [Irwin] Donenfeld told them, 'Gentlemen, you two guys are going to take over Batman. The book is dying. I'll give you six months. If you don't bring it back, we'll kill it off." 
  17. ^ a b Julius Schwartz' run on Batman at the Grand Comics Database
  18. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 114: "Nearly eighteen years had passed since the Riddler last tried to stump Batman and Robin. Therefore, when writer Gardner Fox and artist Sheldon Moldoff released Edward Nigma, the villain insisted that he had reformed."
  19. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 118: "Poison Ivy first cropped up to plague Gotham City in issue #181 of Batman. Scripter Robert Kanigher and artist Sheldon Moldoff came up with a villain who would blossom into one of Batman's greatest foes."
  20. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 135: "When Dick Grayson moved out of Wayne Manor to begin college, writer Frank Robbins and artist Irv Novick orchestrated a chain reaction of events that forever altered Batman's personality."
  21. ^ Greenberger, Robert; Manning, Matthew K. (2009). The Batman Vault: A Museum-in-a-Book with Rare Collectibles from the Batcave. Running Press. p. 26. ISBN 0-7624-3663-8. "Editor Julius Schwartz had decided to darken the character's world to further distance him from the camp environment created by the 1966 ABC show. Bringing in the talented O'Neil as well as the innovative Frank Robbins and showcasing the art of rising star Neal Adams...Schwartz pointed Batman in a new and darker direction, a path the character still continues on to this day." 
  22. ^ O'Neil, Dennis (w), Adams, Neal (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "Daughter of the Demon" Batman 232 (June 1971)
  23. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 145: "Writer Denny O'Neil once stated that he and artist Neal Adams 'set out to consciously and deliberately to create a villain...so exotic and mysterious that neither we nor Batman were sure what to expect.' Who they came up with was arguably Batman's most cunning adversary: the global eco-terrorist named Ra's al Ghul."
  24. ^ Greenberger and Manning, p. 161 and 163 "In 1973, O'Neil alongside frequent collaborator Neal Adams forged the landmark 'The Joker's Five-Way Revenge' in Batman #251, in which the Clown Prince of Crime returned to his murderous ways, killing his victims with his trademark Joker venom and taking much delight from their sufferings."
  25. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 156 "After decades as an irritating prankster, Batman's greatest enemy re-established himself as a homicidal harlequin in this issue...this classic tale by writer Denny O'Neil and artist Neal Adams introduced a dynamic that remains to this day: the Joker's dependence on Batman as his only worthy opponent."
  26. ^ Larnick, Eric (October 30, 2010). "The Rutland Halloween Parade: Where Marvel and DC First Collided". ComicsAlliance. Archived from the original on December 5, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011. "Dick Grayson attends the parade with his friends – comic book creators Alan Weiss, Bernie Wrightson and Gerry Conway. Batman's fight spills into Tom Fagan's mansion, where Denny O'Neil, Len Wein and Mark Hanerfeld are in attendance." 
  27. ^ Pearson, Roberta E.; Uricchio, William (1991). "Notes from the Batcave: An Interview with Dennis O'Neil". The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 0415903475. 
  28. ^ Daniels, Les (1995). "Revamping the Classics The Old Guard Gets a New Look". DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favorite Comic Book Heroes. Bulfinch. p. 157. ISBN 0821220764. 
  29. ^ Batman #254–261 at the Grand Comics Database
  30. ^ Reed, David Vern (w), Simonson, Walt (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "The Last Batman Story --?" Batman 300 (June 1978)
  31. ^ a b Trumbull, John (December 2013). "A New Beginning...And a Probable End Batman #300 and #400". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (69): 49–53. 
  32. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 180 "Batman #307 (January 1979) Writer Len Wein and artist John Calnan introduced Bruce Wayne's new executive, Lucius Fox, in this issue of Batman."
  33. ^ Manning, Matthew K. "1980s" in Dolan, p. 201: "Jason Todd first appeared in a circus scene in the pages of Batman #357, written by Gerry Conway and illustrated by Don Newton."
  34. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 207: "Jason Todd was proving himself as Batman's new partner in his war on crime...Dick [Grayson] then graciously passed the mantle of Robin to Jason, who eagerly adopted it."
  35. ^ Moench, Doug (w), Newton, Don (p), Alcala, Alfredo (i). "A Revenge of Rainbows" Batman 368 (February 1984)
  36. ^ a b Doug Moench's run on Batman at the Grand Comics Database
  37. ^ Wallace, Dan (2008). "Black Mask". In Dougall, Alastair. The DC Comics Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersley. p. 52. ISBN 0-7566-4119-5. 
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External links[edit]