Batman Returns

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For the video game based on the film, see Batman Returns (video game).
Batman Returns
Batman returns poster2.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Tim Burton
Produced by Tim Burton
Denise Di Novi
Screenplay by Daniel Waters
Story by Sam Hamm
Daniel Waters
Based on Batman 
by Bob Kane
Starring Michael Keaton
Danny DeVito
Michelle Pfeiffer
Christopher Walken
Pat Hingle
Michael Gough
Music by Danny Elfman
Cinematography Stefan Czapsky
Edited by Chris Lebenzon
Bob Badami
Production
company
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release dates
  • June 19, 1992 (1992-06-19) (United States)
Running time 126 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $80 million[1]
Box office $266,822,354[2]

Batman Returns is a 1992 American superhero film, directed and produced by Tim Burton, based upon the Batman character appearing in magazines published by DC Comics. It is the second installment of Warner Bros.' initial Batman film series, with Michael Keaton reprising the title role of Bruce Wayne/Batman. The film introduces the characters of Max Shreck (Christopher Walken), a business tycoon who teams up with the Penguin (Danny DeVito) to take over Gotham City, as well as the character of Catwoman (Michelle Pfeiffer).

Burton originally did not want to direct another Batman film because of his mixed emotions toward the previous film in 1989. Daniel Waters delivered a script that satisfied Burton; Wesley Strick did an uncredited rewrite, removing the characters of Harvey Dent and Robin and rewriting the climax. Before Pfeiffer's casting, Demi Moore and Nicole Kidman were each offered the role of Catwoman, but both of them turned it down. Filming of Batman Returns started in Burbank, California in June 1991.

Batman Returns was released on June 19, 1992, and was a critical and financial success. The film's budget was an estimated $80 million, while it earned $45,687,710 in the United States during its opening weekend (June 19–21, 1992), grossing $266,822,354 worldwide. The film was nominated for Academy Awards for Best Visual Effects and Best Makeup, as well as winning the Saturn Award for Best Makeup. It was also nominated for a Saturn Award in the categories of Best Fantasy Film, Best Director for Burton, Best Supporting Actor for DeVito and Best Costume.

Plot[edit]

One dark winter's night, a hideously deformed child is born to aristocratic Tucker and Esther Cobblepot, members of Gotham City's high society. Hating their son on sight, they lock him in a cage and throw him alive into the sewers. However, a flock of penguins living in the sewers rescue him and raise him. 33 years later, the child becomes the Penguin. He kidnaps businessman Max Shreck, blackmailing him into helping him become a citizen of Gotham using evidence of his corporate crimes. Meanwhile, Max discovers that his secretary, Selina Kyle, has found out he is planning to build a power plant which will drain Gotham of its electricity. Max pushes her out of a window, ensuring that she will not tell anyone. However, a flock of alley cats lick her corpse, reviving her. She returns home, suffers a mental breakdown and makes a homemade black vinyl catsuit and becomes a costumed vigilante named "Catwoman".

Penguin sends one of his costumed henchman to kidnap the mayor's baby while he "saves" him, becoming a hero to the people of Gotham. However, billionaire Bruce Wayne is suspicious of the Penguin and discovers that he is the leader of the Red Triangle Circus Gang who commits crimes throughout Gotham. As Batman, Bruce decides to protect Gotham from the gang. After Penguin discovers that his parents are dead and his name is Oswald Cobblepot, Max decides to make Penguin the mayor of Gotham because the current mayor will not approve of Max's power plant. To do this, the Penguin has the Red Triangle Circus Gang create a riot, causing the citizens to lose all faith in the mayor, but Batman stops it. During the riot, Catwoman vandalizes Shreck's Department Store to gain revenge on Max. When Batman and Penguin confront each other, she intervenes before the store blows up. Penguin escapes as Catwoman fights Batman. Batman pushes her off a rooftop, but a litter box on a truck saves her.

The next day, Penguin and Catwoman collaborate on a plan to kill Batman. Meanwhile, Bruce and Selina develop a romantic relationship. Penguin and Catwoman kidnap the Ice Princess, an actress chosen to turn on the Gotham City Christmas Tree Lights, framing Batman. Batman finds her but Catwoman takes her to a rooftop where the Penguin releases a swarm of flying bats which make the Princess retreat backwards, falling off, making her death seem like Batman's fault. Catwoman rejects the Penguin's advances, prompting him to try killing her. Batman enters the Batmobile and discovers that Penguin has control over it, due to a device Penguin's gang installed. The Penguin takes it on a devastating rampage, but Batman regains control over it, escaping death.

Batman, having recorded the Penguin's plans during the rampage, plays it during the Penguin's election speech, turning the people against him. Enraged, Penguin kidnaps all the first-born sons of Gotham, including Max Shreck. Batman saves all the babies, forcing the Penguin to execute an alternate plan to destroy the entire city with his penguin army. However, Batman foils the plan by luring the penguins back to the Penguin's sewer base. He briefly battles the Penguin, then pushes him into sewer water. Catwoman tries to kill Max, but Batman stops her and reveals himself as Bruce. Max shoots Batman, knocking him out. Catwoman claims that she has six of her nine lives left, although Max shoots her four times, leaving her with two lives. Catwoman kisses Max with an electrical taser between their lips and breaks an electric wire, creating an explosion which kills Max but Batman cannot find Selina's corpse. The Penguin emerges from the water, but chokes on his own blood from internal injuries from the fall and falls to the ground, dead. His emperor penguins hold a funeral for their former boss and drag his corpse into the sewer water, his resting place.

Afterwards, Alfred drives Bruce home. Suddenly, Bruce spots Selina's shadow in an alley. He investigates the area, only finding her black cat Miss Kitty, taking her with him before exchanging Christmas wishes with Alfred. The Batsignal lights up in the night sky and Catwoman rises up into the foreground and stares at it, confirming that she is alive.

Cast[edit]

"Max Shreck" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Max Schreck.

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

After the success of Batman, Warner Bros. was hoping for a sequel to start filming in May 1990 at Pinewood Studios. They spent $250,000 storing the sets from the first film. Tim Burton had mixed emotions about directing another film in the franchise after his experiences with the previous film. "I will return if the sequel offers something new and exciting", he said in 1989. "Otherwise it's a most-dumbfounded idea."[3] Burton decided to direct Edward Scissorhands for 20th Century Fox. Meanwhile, Sam Hamm from the previous film delivered the first two drafts of the script, while Bob Kane was brought back as a creative consultant.[4] Hamm's script had Penguin and Catwoman going after hidden treasure.[5]

Burton was impressed with Daniel Waters' work on Heathers; Burton originally brought Waters aboard on a sequel to Beetlejuice. Warner Bros. then granted Burton a large amount of creative control, demoting producers Jon Peters and Peter Guber to executive producers. Dissatisfied with the Hamm script, Burton commissioned a rewrite from Waters.[4][6][7] Waters "came up with a social satire that had an evil mogul backing a bid for the Mayor's office by the Penguin", Waters reported. "I wanted to show that the true villains of our world don't necessarily wear costumes."[5] The subplot of Penguin running for Mayor came from the 1960s TV series episodes "Hizzoner the Penguin" and "Dizzoner the Penguin".[5] Waters wrote a total of five drafts.[7]

On the characterization of Catwoman, Waters explained "Sam Hamm went back to the way comic books in general treat women, like fetishy sexual fantasy. I wanted to start off just at the lowest point in society, a very beaten down secretary."[6] Harvey Dent appeared in early drafts of the script, but was deleted. His disfiguring appearance of Two-Face would have appeared in the climax when Catwoman kisses him with a taser to the face, which was replaced with Max Shreck. Waters quoted, "Sam Hamm definitely planned that. I flirted with it, having Harvey start to come back and have one scene of him where he flips a coin and it's the good side of the coin, deciding not to do anything, so you had to wait for the next movie."[6] In early scripts Max Shreck was the "golden boy" of the Cobblepot family, whereas Penguin was the deformed outsider. It turned out that Shreck would be the Penguin's long-lost brother.[8] Max Shreck was also a reference to actor Max Schreck, known for his role as Count Orlok in Nosferatu.[7]

Burton hired Wesley Strick to do an uncredited rewrite. Strick recalled, "When I was hired to write Batman Returns (Batman II at the time), the big problem of the script was Penguin's lack of a 'master plan'."[9] Warner Bros. presented Strick with warming, or freezing Gotham City, a plot point they would later use in Batman & Robin. Strick gained inspiration from a Moses parallel that had Penguin killing the firstborn sons of Gotham. A similar notion was used when the Penguin's parents threw him into a river as a baby.[9] Robin appeared in the script, but was deleted because Waters felt the film had too many characters. Waters called Robin "the most worthless character in the world, especially with [Batman as] the loner of loners." Robin started out as a juvenile gang leader, who becomes an ally to Batman. Robin was later changed to a black teenage garage mechanic.[6] Waters explained, "He's wearing this old-fashioned garage mechanic uniform and it has an 'R' on it. He drives the Batmobile, which I notice they used in the third film!"[6] Marlon Wayans was cast, and signed for a sequel. The actor had attended a wardrobe fitting, but it was decided to save the character for a third installment.[10]

Michael Keaton returned after a significant increase in his salary at $10 million. Annette Bening was cast as Catwoman after Burton saw her performance in The Grifters, but she dropped out due to pregnancy.[5][11] Raquel Welch, Jennifer Jason Leigh, Madonna, Ellen Barkin, Cher, Bridget Fonda and Susan Sarandon were then in competition for the role.[4][12] Sean Young, who was originally choice for Vicki Vale in the previous film, believed the role should have gone to her. Young visited production offices dressed in a homemade Catwoman costume, demanding an audition.[13] Burton was unfamiliar with Michelle Pfeiffer's work, but was convinced to cast her after one meeting.[14] Pfeiffer received a $3 million salary, $2 million more than Bening, and a percentage of the box office.[5] The actress undertook kickboxing lessons for the role.[15] Kathy Long served as Pfeiffer's body double. On Danny DeVito's casting, Waters explained, "I kind of knew that DeVito was going to play The Penguin. We didn't really officially cast it, but for a short nasty little guy, it's a short list. I ended up writing the character for Danny DeVito."[6]

Filming[edit]

Gotham City Square set built inside Studio 16 on Warner Bros. Studios.

In early 1991, two of Hollywood's largest sound stages (Stage 16 at Warner Bros. and Stage 12 at Universal Studios) were being prepared for the filming of Batman Returns.[5] Filming started in June 1991.[14] Stage 16 held Gotham Plaza, based on Rockefeller Center. Universal's Stage 12 housed Penguin's underground lair. A half-a-million gallon tank filled with water was used.[5] Burton wanted to make sure that the penguins felt comfortable.[14] Eight other locations on the Warner Bros. lot were used, over 50% of their property was occupied by Gotham City sets.[5]

Animal rights groups started protesting the film after finding out that penguins would have rockets strapped on their backs. Richard Hill, the curator of the penguins, explained that Warner Bros. was very helpful in making sure the penguins were comfortable.[16] "On the flight over the plane was refrigerated down to 45 degrees", recalls Hill. "In Hollywood, they were given a refrigerated trailer, their own swimming pool, half-a-ton of ice each day, and they had fresh fish delivered daily straight from the docks. Even though it was 100 degrees outside, the entire set was refrigerated down to 35 degrees."[16]

Warner Bros. devoted a large amount of secrecy for Batman Returns. The art department was required to keep their office blinds pulled down. Cast and crew had to have photo ID badges with the movie's fake working title Dictel to go anywhere near the sets.[17] Kevin Costner was refused a chance to visit the set. An entertainment magazine leaked the first photos of Danny DeVito as the Penguin; in response Warner Bros. employed a private investigator to track down the accomplice.[5] $65 million was spent during the production of Batman Returns, while $15 million was used for marketing, coming to a total cost of $80 million.[1] The final shot of Catwoman looking at the Bat-Signal was completed during post-production and was not part of the shooting script. After Batman Returns was completed Warner Bros. felt it was best for Catwoman to survive, saving more characterizations in a future installment. Pfeiffer was unavailable and a body double was chosen.[4]

Design and effects[edit]

Bo Welch, Burton's collaborator on Beetlejuice and Edward Scissorhands, replaced Anton Furst as production designer, since Furst was unable to return for the sequel due to contractual obligations.[18] Welch blended "Fascist architecture with World's fair architecture" for Gotham City.[19] He also studied Russian architecture and German Expressionism. An iron maiden was used for Bruce Wayne's entry into the Batcave.[20] Stan Winston, who worked with Burton on Edward Scissorhands, designed Danny DeVito's prosthetic makeup, which took two hours to apply.[1] DeVito had to put a combination of mouthwash and red/green food coloring in his mouth "to create a grotesque texture of some weird ooze."[21]

Michelle Pfeiffer as Catwoman

More than 60 Catsuits were designed in the six-month shoot at $1,000 each.[22] The Batsuit was updated, which was made out of a thinner, slightly more flexible foam rubber material than the suit from Batman. DeVito was uncomfortable with his costume, but this made it easy for him to get into character. J. P. Morgan's wardrobe was used for inspiration on Max Shreck's costume design.[23]

The bats were entirely composed of computer-generated imagery since it was decided directing real bats on set would be problematic.[5] The Penguin's "bird army" was a combination of CGI, robotic creatures, men in suits and even real penguins.[14] Robotic penguin puppets were commissioned by Stan Winston. In total 30 African penguins and 12 king penguins were used.[24] A miniature effect was used for the exteriors of the Cobblepot Mansion in the opening scene and for Wayne Manor. The same method was used for the Bat Ski-boat and the exterior shots of the Gotham Zoo.[25]

Music[edit]

Danny Elfman had great enthusiasm for returning because "I didn't have to prove myself from the first film. I remember Jon Peters was very skeptical at first to hire me."[26] Elfman's work schedule was 12 hours a day, 7 days a week. "When completing this movie I realized it was something of a film score and an opera. It was 95 minutes long, twice the amount of the average of film score."[26] Burton allowed Elfman to be more artistic with the sequel score, such as the "scraping" on violins for the cat themes. The musician co-orchestrated "Face to Face", which was written and performed by Siouxsie and the Banshees. The song can be heard in one scene during the film and during the end credits.[26]

Release[edit]

Box office[edit]

Batman Returns was released in America on June 19, 1992, earning $45.69 million in 2,644 theaters on its opening weekend.[27] This was the highest opening weekend in 1992 and the highest opening weekend of any film up to that point.[28] The film went on to gross $162.83 million in North America, and $104 million in foreign countries, coming to a worldwide total of $266.83 million.[27] Batman Returns was the third highest grossing film in America of 1992,[28] and sixth highest in worldwide totals.[29] The film was declared a financial success, but Warner Bros. felt the film should have been more successful.

Critical reception[edit]

Much like its predecessor, the film received primarily positive reception from critics. Based on 66 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, 81% of critics gave the film positive reviews, with the consensus: "Director Tim Burton's dark, brooding atmosphere, Michael Keaton's work as the tormented hero, and the flawless casting of Danny DeVito as The Penguin and Christopher Walken as, well, Christopher Walken, make the sequel better than the first."[30]

Janet Maslin in The New York Times thought that "Mr. Burton creates a wicked world of misfits, all of them rendered with the mixture of horror, sympathy and playfulness that has become this director's hallmark." She described Michael Keaton as showing "appropriate earnestness", Danny DeVito as "conveying verve", Christopher Walken as "wonderfully debonair", Michelle Pfeiffer as "captivating... fierce, seductive", Bo Welch's production design as "dazzling", Stefan Czapsky's cinematography as "crisp", and Daniel Waters's screenplay as "sharp."[31]

Peter Travers in Rolling Stone wrote: "Burton uses the summer's most explosively entertaining movie to lead us back into the liberating darkness of dreams." He praised the performances: "Pfeiffer gives this feminist avenger a tough core of intelligence and wit; she's a classic dazzler... Michael Keaton's manic-depressive hero remains a remarkably rich creation. And Danny DeVito's mutant Penguin—a balloon-bellied Richard III with a kingdom of sewer freaks—is as hilariously warped as Jack Nicholson's Joker and even quicker with the quips."[32]

Desson Howe in The Washington Post wrote: "Director Burton not only re-creates his one-of-a-kind atmosphere, he one-ups it, even two-ups it. He's best at evoking the psycho-murky worlds in which his characters reside. The Penguin holds court in a penguin-crowded, Phantom of the Opera-like sewer home. Keaton hides in a castlelike mansion, which perfectly mirrors its owner's inner remoteness. Comic strip purists will probably never be happy with a Batman movie. But Returns comes closer than ever to Bob Kane's dark, original strip, which began in 1939." He described Walken as "engaging", DeVito as "exquisite" and Pfeiffer as "deliciously purry."[33]

Todd McCarthy in Variety wrote that "the real accomplishment of the film lies in the amazing physical realization of an imaginative universe. Where Burton's ideas end and those of his collaborators begin is impossible to know, but the result is a seamless, utterly consistent universe full of nasty notions about societal deterioration, greed and other base impulses." He praised the contributions of Stan Winston, Danny Elfman, Bo Welch and cinematographer Stefan Czapsky, and in terms of performances, opined that "the deck is stacked entirely in favor of the villains", calling DeVito "fascinating" and Pfeiffer "very tasty."[34]

Conversely, Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film two stars, writing: "I give the movie a negative review, and yet I don't think it's a bad movie; it's more misguided, made with great creativity, but denying us what we more or less deserve from a Batman story. No matter how hard you try, superheroes and film noir don't go together; the very essence of noir is that there are no more heroes." He compared the Penguin negatively with the Joker of the first film, writing that "the Penguin is a curiously meager and depressing creature; I pitied him, but did not fear him or find him funny. The genius of Danny DeVito is all but swallowed up in the paraphernalia of the role."[35]

A "parental backlash" criticized Batman Returns with violence and sexual references that were unsuitable for children. McDonald's shut down their Happy Meal tie-in for the film.[36] Burton responded, "I like Batman Returns better than the first one. There was this big backlash that it was too dark, but I found this movie much less dark."[14]

Jonathan Rosenbaum called DeVito "a pale substitute for Jack Nicholson from the first film" and felt that "there's no suspense in Batman Returns whatsoever".[37] Batman comic book writer/artist Matt Wagner was quoted as saying: "I hated how Batman Returns made Batman little more than just another costumed creep, little better than the villains he's pursuing. Additionally, Burton is so blatantly not an action director. That aspect of both his films just sucked."[38]

Ty Burr in Entertainment Weekly gave the film a B-; he wrote that "Burton still hasn't figured out how to tell a coherent story: He's more interested in fashioning pretty beads than in putting them on a string.... Yet for all the wintry weirdness, there's more going on under the surface of this movie than in the original. No wonder some people felt burned by Batman Returns: Tim Burton just may have created the first blockbuster art film."[39]

Batman Returns was also criticized for allegedly having anti-Semitic overtones, with the Penguin embodying negative Jewish stereotypes.[40]

Awards and nominations[edit]

Awarding Body Award Nominee Result
Academy Awards Best Visual Effects Michael L. Fink, Craig Barron, John Bruno, Dennis Skotak nomination
Best Makeup Ve Neill, Ronnie Specter, Stan Winston nomination
British Academy Film Awards (BAFTAs) Best Makeup Artist Ve Neill, Stan Winston nomination
Best Special Effects Michael L. Fink, Craig Barron, John Bruno, Dennis Skotak nomination
BMI Film & TV Awards BMI Film Music Award Danny Elfman Won
Golden Raspberry Awards (Razzies) Worst Supporting Actor Danny DeVito nomination
Hugo Awards Best Dramatic Presentation nomination
MTV Movie Awards Best Kiss Michael Keaton, Michelle Pfeiffer nomination
Best Villain Danny DeVito nomination
Most Desirable Female Michelle Pfeiffer nomination
Saturn Awards Best Fantasy Film nomination
Best Director Tim Burton nomination
Best Supporting Actor Danny DeVito nomination
Best Make-Up Stan Winston, Ve Neill Won
Best Costumes Bob Ringwood, Mary E. Vogt, Vin Burnham nomination

American Film Institute recognition:

Legacy[edit]

"After the traumas of the Batman Returns she has amnesia, and she doesn't really remember why she has all these bullet holes in her body, so she goes to relax in Oasisburg. What Gotham City is to New York, Oasisburg is to Las Vegas–Los Angeles–Palm Springs. [It's a] resort area in the middle of the desert. It's run by superheroes, and the movie has great fun at making fun at the whole male superhero mythos. Then they end up being not very good at all deep down, and she's got to go back to that whole Catwoman thing."

—Daniel Waters on his script for Catwoman[6]

Batman Returns was the last film in the Batman film series that featured Tim Burton and Michael Keaton as director and leading actor, respectively. With the following film, Batman Forever, Warner Bros. decided to go in a "lighter" direction to be more mainstream in the process of a family film. Burton was asked to restrict himself to the role of producer and approved of Joel Schumacher as director.[42] With Warner Bros. moving on development for Batman Forever in June 1993, a Catwoman spin-off was announced. Michelle Pfeiffer was to reprise her role, with the character not to appear in Forever because of "her own little movie".[43]

Burton became attached as director, while producer Denise Di Novi and writer Daniel Waters also returned to the Catwoman spin-off with Burton.[44] In January 1994, Burton was unsure of his plans to direct Catwoman or an adaptation of The Fall of the House of Usher.[45] On June 6, 1995, Waters turned in his Catwoman script to Warner Bros., the same day Batman Forever was released. Burton was still being courted to direct. Waters joked, "turning it in the day Batman Forever opened may not have been my best logistical move, in that it's the celebration of the fun-for-the-whole-family Batman. Catwoman is definitely not a fun-for-the-whole-family script."[6] The film labored in development hell for years, with Pfeiffer getting replaced by Ashley Judd. The film ended up becoming the critically panned Catwoman (2004) starring Halle Berry.[46][47]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Brian D. Johnson (June 22, 1992). "Batman's Return", Maclean's. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  2. ^ "Batman Returns (1992)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 23, 2012. 
  3. ^ Alan Jones (November 1989). "Batman in Production", Cinefantastique, pp. 75—88. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  4. ^ a b c d Tim Burton, Sam Hamm, Denise Di Novi, Daniel Waters, Shadows of the Bat: The Cinematic Saga of the Dark Knight—The Dark Side of the Knight, 2005, Warner Home Video
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Jeffrey Resner (August 1992). "Three Go Mad in Gotham", Empire, pp. 39—46. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Judy Sloane (August 1995). "Daniel Waters on Writing", Film Review, pp. 67—69. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  7. ^ a b c Ken Hanke (1999). "Batman on Burton's Terms". Tim Burton: An Unauthorized Biography of the Filmmaker. Renaissance Books. pp. 117–122. ISBN 1-58063-162-2. 
  8. ^ Daniel Waters, Alex Ross, Batman Returns: Villains, 2005, Warner Home Video
  9. ^ a b David Hughes (2003). "Batman". Comic Book Movies. Virgin Books. pp. 33–46. ISBN 0-7535-0767-6. 
  10. ^ Nathan Rabin (February 25, 1998). "Wayans world". The A.V. Club. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  11. ^ "'Batman 3'". Entertainment Weekly. October 1, 1993. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2008. 
  12. ^ Broeske, Pat H.; Thompson, Anne (August 9, 1991). "Big-Game Hunting". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  13. ^ Gerosa, Melina (January 30, 2007). "Odd Woman Out". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved April 17, 2012. 
  14. ^ a b c d e Mark Salisbury; Tim Burton (2006). "Batman Returns". Burton on Burton. Faber and Faber. pp. 102–114. ISBN 0-571-22926-3. 
  15. ^ Broeske, Pat H. (June 12, 1992). "Flashes: Kicking, The Habit". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  16. ^ a b Owain Yolland (August 1992). "Two minutes, Mr Penguin", Empire, pp. 89—90. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  17. ^ Steve Daly (June 19, 1992). "Sets Appeal: Designing Batman Returns". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  18. ^ "When hell burst through the pavement and grew: Anton Furst conjured up Batman's Gotham City. In England he was a creator of dreams. But in Hollywood his dreams ended. Simon Garfield reports". The Independent. Retrieved October 1, 2014. 
  19. ^ Judy Sloane (August 1995). "Bo Welch Interview", Film Review, pp. 66. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  20. ^ Bo Welch, Tim Burton, Gotham City Revisited: The Production Design of Batman Returns, 2005, Warner Home Video
  21. ^ Danny DeVito, Stan Winston, Making-Up the Penguin, 2005, Warner Home Video
  22. ^ Tim Fennell (August 1992). "The Catsuit", Empire, pp. 47—49. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  23. ^ Bob Ringwood, Michelle Pfeiffer, Sleek, Sexy and Sinister: The Costumes of Batman Returns, 2005, Warner Home Video
  24. ^ Stan Winston, Assembling the Arctic Army, 2005, Warner Home Video
  25. ^ Stan Winston, Mike Fink, Bats, Mattes and Dark Knights: The Visual Effects of Batman Returns, 2005, Warner Home Video
  26. ^ a b c Danny Elfman, Inside the Elfman Studios: The Music of Batman Returns, 2005, Warner Home Video
  27. ^ a b "Batman Returns (1992)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  28. ^ a b "1992 Yearly Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  29. ^ "1992 Worldwide Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  30. ^ "Batman Returns". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 7, 2013. 
  31. ^ Janet Maslin (June 19, 1992). "Movie Review—Batman Returns". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved November 17, 2009. 
  32. ^ Peter Travers (February 7, 2001). "Batman Returns". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on November 4, 2007. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  33. ^ Desson Howe (June 19, 1992). "Batman Returns". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  34. ^ Todd McCarthy (June 15, 1992). "Batman Returns". Variety. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  35. ^ "Batman". Roger Ebert. Archived from the original on August 7, 2008. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  36. ^ Olly Richards (September 1992). "Trouble in Gotham", Empire, pp. 21—23. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  37. ^ Jonathan Rosenbaum (June 19, 1992). "Batman". Chicago Reader. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  38. ^ Bill "Jett" Ramey (September 30, 2006). "Interview: Matt Wagner". Batman-on-Film. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  39. ^ Burr, Ty (October 23, 1992). "Video Review: Batman Returns". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved April 17, 2012. 
  40. ^ Roiphe, Rebecca; Cooper, Daniel (July 7, 1992). "'Batman' allegory disturbing". The Gainesville Sun. Retrieved April 24, 2013. 
  41. ^ a b "Nomination list for AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains". AFI.com. Retrieved January 7, 2012. 
  42. ^ "'Batman 3'". Entertainment Weekly. October 1, 1993. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2008. 
  43. ^ Michael Fleming (June 17, 1993). "Dish". Variety. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  44. ^ Michael Fleming (July 22, 1993). "Another life at WB for Catwoman and Burton?". Variety. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  45. ^ Michael Fleming (January 13, 1994). "Seagal on the pulpit may be too much for WB". Variety. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  46. ^ Michael Fleming (April 2, 2001). "WB: Judd purr-fect as Cat". Variety. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  47. ^ "Catwoman". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on August 14, 2008. Retrieved August 15, 2008. 

External links[edit]

Film analysis[edit]