Batman in film
The fictional character Batman, a comic book superhero featured in DC Comics publications and created by Bob Kane, has appeared in various films since his inception. The character first starred in two serial films in the 1940s, Batman and Batman and Robin. The character also appeared in the 1966 film Batman, which was a feature film adaptation of the 1960s Batman TV series starring Adam West and Burt Ward, who also starred in the film. Toward the end of the 1980s, the Warner Bros. studio began producing a series of feature films starring Batman, beginning with the 1989 film Batman, directed by Tim Burton and starring Michael Keaton. Burton and Keaton returned for the 1992 sequel Batman Returns, and in 1995, Joel Schumacher directed Batman Forever with Val Kilmer as Batman. Schumacher also directed the 1997 sequel Batman & Robin, which starred George Clooney. Batman & Robin was poorly received by both critics and fans, leading to the cancellation of Batman Triumphant.
Over the course of seven years, Warner Bros. commissioned Darren Aronofsky for an adaptation of Batman: Year One and Wolfgang Petersen for Batman vs. Superman before deciding to reboot the film franchise in 2005 with Batman Begins, directed by Christopher Nolan and starring Christian Bale. Nolan returned to direct two further installments in the trilogy, The Dark Knight in 2008 and The Dark Knight Rises in 2012 with Bale reprising his role in both films. The two sequels both earned over $1 billion worldwide, making Batman the second film franchise (and one of only four, the others being Pirates of the Caribbean, the Marvel Cinematic Universe and Transformers) to have two of its films earn more than $1 billion worldwide. Ben Affleck will become the newest actor to portray Batman in 2016 with Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, a sequel to 2013's Superman reboot Man of Steel, which will put into motion a new DC shared film universe, including a much larger crossover Justice League film in 2017.
Batman has also appeared in multiple animated films, both as a starring character and as an ensemble character. While most animated films were released direct-to-video, the 1993 animated feature Batman: Mask of the Phantasm, based on the 1990s Batman: The Animated Series, was released theatrically. Having earned a total of U.S. $1,900,844,295, the Batman series is the fifth-highest-grossing film series in North America.
- 1 Early films and serials
- 2 1970s and 80s
- 3 Tim Burton/Joel Schumacher
- 4 Christopher Nolan
- 5 DC Comics' shared universe films
- 6 Animated films
- 7 Cast and characters
- 8 Reception
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Early films and serials
Batman was a 15-chapter serial film released in 1943 by Columbia Pictures. The serial starred Lewis Wilson as Batman and Douglas Croft as Robin. J. Carrol Naish played the villain, an original character named Dr. Daka. Rounding out the cast were Shirley Patterson as Linda Page (Bruce Wayne's love interest), and William Austin as Alfred. The plot is based on Batman, a US government agent, attempting to defeat the Japanese agent Dr. Daka, at the height of World War II.
The film is notable for being the first filmed appearance of Batman and for providing two core elements of the Batman mythos. The film introduced "The Bat's Cave" and the Grandfather clock entrance. The name was altered to the Batcave for the comic. William Austin, who played Alfred, had a trim physique and sported a thin mustache, while the contemporary comic book version of Alfred was overweight and clean-shaven prior to the serial's release. The comics version of Alfred was altered to match that of Austin's, and has stayed that way.
Batman and Robin (1949)
Batman and Robin was another 15-chapter serial film released in 1949 by Columbia Pictures. Robert Lowery played Batman, while Johnny Duncan played Robin. Supporting players included Jane Adams as Vicki Vale and veteran character actor Lyle Talbot as Commissioner Gordon. The plot dealt with the Dynamic Duo facing off against the Wizard, a hooded villain whose identity remains a mystery throughout the serial until the end.
Batman (also known as Batman: The Movie) is a 1966 film adaptation of the popular Batman television series, and was the first full-length theatrical adaptation of the DC Comics character. The 20th Century Fox release starred Adam West as Batman and Burt Ward as Robin, as well as Cesar Romero as the Joker, Burgess Meredith as the Penguin, Lee Meriwether as Catwoman, and Frank Gorshin as the Riddler.
1970s and 80s
In the late 1970s, Batman's popularity was waning. CBS was interested in producing a Batman in Outer Space film. Producers Michael Uslan and Benjamin Melniker purchased the film rights of Batman from DC Comics on October 3, 1979. It was Uslan's wish "to make the definitive, dark, serious version of Batman, the way Bob Kane and Bill Finger had envisioned him in 1939. A creature of the night; stalking criminals in the shadows." Richard Maibaum was approached to write a script with Guy Hamilton to direct, but the two turned down the offer. Uslan was unsuccessful with pitching Batman to various movie studios because they wanted the film to be similar to the campy 1960s TV series. Columbia Pictures and United Artists were among those to turn down the film.
A disappointed Uslan then wrote a script titled Return of the Batman to give the film industry a better idea of his vision for the film. Uslan later compared its dark tone to that of The Dark Knight Returns, which his script pre-dated by six years. In November 1979, producer Jon Peters and Casablanca FilmWorks, headed by Peter Guber, joined the project. The four producers felt it was best to pattern the film's development after that of Superman (1978). Uslan, Melniker and Guber pitched Batman to Universal Pictures, but the studio turned it down. The project was publicly announced with a budget of $15 million in July 1980 at the Comic Art Convention in New York. Casablanca FilmWorks was absorbed into PolyGram Pictures in 1980. Guber and Peters left PolyGram Pictures in 1982 and took the Batman film rights with them, although PolyGram would retain at least 7.5% of the profits of said rights due to a contractual agreement. Guber and Peters immediately set up shop at Warner Bros., which finally decided to accept Batman.
Tom Mankiewicz completed a script titled The Batman in June 1983, focusing on Batman and Dick Grayson's origins, with the Joker and Rupert Thorne as villains, and Silver St. Cloud as the romantic interest. Mankiewicz took inspiration from the limited series Batman: Strange Apparitions (ISBN 1-56389-500-5), written by Steve Englehart. Comic book artist Marshall Rogers, who worked with Englehart on Strange Apparitions, was hired for concept art. The Batman was then announced in late 1983 for a mid-1985 release date on a budget of $20 million. Originally, Mankiewicz had wanted an unknown actor for Batman, William Holden for James Gordon, David Niven as Alfred Pennyworth and Peter O'Toole as the Penguin who Mankiewicz wanted to portray as a mobster with low body temperature. Holden died in 1981 and Niven in 1983, so this would never come to pass. A number of filmmakers were attached to Mankiewicz' script, including Ivan Reitman and Joe Dante. Reitman wanted to cast Bill Murray as Batman. For the role of Robin, Eddie Murphy and Michael J. Fox were candidates. Nine rewrites were performed by nine separate writers. Most of them were based on Strange Apparitions. However it was Mankiewicz's script that was still being used to guide the project.
Tim Burton/Joel Schumacher
Tim Burton took over as director of the first Batman film in 1986. Steve Englehart and Julie Hickson wrote film treatments before Sam Hamm wrote the first screenplay. Numerous A-list actors were considered for the role of Batman before Michael Keaton was cast. Keaton was a controversial choice for the role since, by 1988, he had become typecast as a comedic actor and many observers doubted he could portray a serious role. Jack Nicholson accepted the role of the Joker under strict conditions that dictated a high salary, a portion of the box office profits and his shooting schedule. Nicholson's final salary is reported to be as high as $50 million. Principal photography took place at Pinewood Studios from October 1988 to January 1989. The budget escalated from $30 million to $48 million, while the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike forced Hamm to drop out. Rewrites were performed by Warren Skaaren, Charles McKeown and Jonathan Gems. Batman received positive reviews, broke numerous box office records, and won the Academy Award for Best Art Direction. The film grossed over $400 million, and left a legacy over the modern perception of the superhero film genre.
Batman Returns (1992)
Burton originally did not want to direct a sequel because of his mixed emotions over the previous film. Sam Hamm's first script had Penguin and Catwoman searching for hidden treasure. Daniel Waters delivered a script that satisfied Burton, which convinced him to direct the film. Wesley Strick did an uncredited rewrite, deleting characterizations of Harvey Dent and Robin and rewriting the climax. Various A-list actresses lobbied hard for the role of Catwoman before Michelle Pfeiffer was cast, while Danny DeVito signed on to portray the Penguin. Filming started at Warner Bros. in Burbank, California in June 1991. Batman Returns was released with financial success, but Warner Bros. was disappointed with the film's box office run because it earned less than its predecessor. However, Batman Returns was released to generally positive reviews, although a "parental backlash" criticized the film for containing violence and sexual innuendos that were thought to be unsuitable for children. McDonald's shut down its Happy Meal tie-in for Batman Returns.
Batman Forever (1995)
Although Batman Returns was a financial success, Warner Bros. felt the film should have made more money. The studio decided to change the direction of the Batman film series to be more mainstream. Joel Schumacher replaced Tim Burton as director, while Burton decided to stay on as producer. However, Michael Keaton did not like the new direction the film series was heading in, and was replaced by Val Kilmer as Batman. Chris O'Donnell was introduced as Robin, Jim Carrey starred as The Riddler, while Tommy Lee Jones starred as Two-Face. Filming started in September 1994, and Schumacher encountered problems communicating with Kilmer and Jones. Batman Forever was released on June 16, 1995 with financial success, earning over $350 million worldwide and three Academy Award nominations, but the film was met with mixed reviews from critics.
Batman & Robin (1997)
After the release of Batman Forever, Warner Bros. started development on Batman & Robin, commissioning it on fast track for an adamant June 1997 release. Val Kilmer did not return, because of scheduling conflicts with The Saint, and was replaced by George Clooney. Arnold Schwarzenegger starred as Mr. Freeze, while Uma Thurman starred as Poison Ivy and Alicia Silverstone starred as Batgirl. Chris O'Donnell reprised his role as Robin. Principal photography began in September 1996 and finished in January 1997, two weeks ahead of the shooting schedule. Batman & Robin was released on June 20, 1997, and received primarily negative reviews. Observers criticized the film for its toyetic and campy approach, and for homosexual innuendos added by Schumacher. Still, the film was a financial success, but remains to be the least commercially successful live-action Batman film ever. Batman & Robin received numerous nominations at the Razzie Awards and ranks among the worst rated superhero films of all time.
Proposals for fifth film
During the filming of Batman & Robin, Warner Bros. was impressed with the dailies, prompting them to immediately hire Joel Schumacher to reprise his directing duties for a third film. Writer Akiva Goldsman, who worked on Batman Forever and Batman & Robin, turned down the chance to write the script. In late 1996, Warner Bros. and Schumacher hired Mark Protosevich to write the script for a fifth Batman film. A projected mid-1999 release date was announced. Titled Batman Triumphant, Protosevich's script had the Scarecrow as the main villain and the Joker would return as a hallucination in Batman's mind caused by the Scarecrow's fear toxin. Harley Quinn appeared as a supporting character, written as the Joker's daughter trying to kill Batman to avenge her father's death. George Clooney, Chris O'Donnell and Alicia Silverstone were set to reprise the roles of Batman, Robin, and Batgirl. Schumacher had also approached Nicolas Cage for the role of Scarecrow. However, when Batman & Robin received negative reviews and failed to outgross any of its predecessors, Warner Bros. was unsure of their plans for Batman Triumphant. The studio decided it was best to consider a live-action Batman Beyond film and an adaptation of Frank Miller's Batman: Year One. Warner Bros. would then greenlight whichever idea suited them the most. Schumacher felt he "owe[d] the Batman culture a real Batman movie. I would go back to the basics and make a dark portrayal of the Dark Knight." He approached Warner Bros. to do Batman: Year One in mid-1998.
Despite Warner Bros. and Schumacher's interest with Year One, Lee Shapiro, a comic book fan, and Stephen Wise pitched the studio with a script titled Batman: DarKnight in mid-1998. DarKnight had Bruce Wayne giving up his crime fighting career, and Dick Grayson attending Gotham University. Dr. Jonathan Crane uses his position as professor of psychology at Gotham University and as head psychiatrist at Arkham Asylum to conduct his experiments into fear (this element would later appear in Batman Begins). During a vengeful confrontation with a colleague, Dr. Kirk Langstrom, Crane unknowingly initiates Kirk's transformation into the creature known as Man-Bat. Citizens of Gotham believe Man-Bat's nightly activities to be Batman's "bloodthirsty" return. Bruce becomes Batman "to clear his name," and solve the mystery of Man-Bat. Kirk struggles with his "man-vs.-monster" syndrome, as he longs to both reunite with his wife and get revenge on Crane, while Crane exacts revenge on those responsible for his dismissal from both Arkham and the university while encountering truths about his past. Warner Bros. decided not to move forward with the project, and passed on Batman: DarKnight in favor of Year One and Batman Beyond.
Batman: Year One and Batman Beyond
By September 2000 Warner Bros. was developing a live action screen adaptation of Batman Beyond, written by Paul Dini, Neal Stephenson and Boaz Yakin, with the possibility of Yakin directing, as well as an adaptation of Frank Miller's 1987 comic book story arc Batman: Year One. Despite interest from Schumacher, Darren Aronofsky was hired to direct and co-write with Miller, whom he previously collaborated with on an unproduced script for Ronin. Yakin developed one draft of the Batman Beyond screenplay with the writers but soon lost interest, and Warner Bros. abandoned Batman Beyond almost instantly in favor of Batman: Year One. Aronofsky and Miller intended to reboot the Batman franchise, "it's somewhat based on the comic book," Aronofsky said. "Toss out everything you can imagine about Batman! Everything! We're starting completely anew." Regular Aronofsky collaborator, Matthew Libatique, was set as cinematographer, and Christian Bale had been approached for the role of Batman. Coincidentally, Bale would be cast in the role for Batman Begins. At the same time, Warner Bros. was moving forward on a Catwoman spin-off. However, by June 2002, the studio decided to move forward on Batman vs. Superman and abandon Year One.
Batman vs. Superman
Warner Bros. abandoned J. J. Abrams' script for Superman: Flyby, which had been greenlighted with McG to direct. When McG dropped out in favor of Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle, Warner Bros. approached Wolfgang Petersen to direct Superman: Flyby, however, in August 2001, Andrew Kevin Walker pitched Warner Bros. an idea titled Batman vs Superman, attaching Petersen as director. Superman: Flyby was put on hold, and Akiva Goldsman was hired to rewrite Walker's Batman vs. Superman.
Goldsman's draft, dated June 21, 2002, had Bruce Wayne going through a mental breakdown after his five-year retirement from crime fighting. Dick Grayson, Alfred Pennyworth and Commissioner Gordon are all dead, but Bruce finds some solace in his fiancée, Elizabeth Miller. Meanwhile, Clark Kent is struggling because of a recent divorce from Lois Lane. Clark and Bruce are close friends, and Clark is Bruce's best man. After the Joker kills Elizabeth on their honeymoon, Bruce swears revenge, while Clark tries to hold him back. Bruce blames Clark for her death, and the two go against one another. Ultimately, Lex Luthor is revealed to have masterminded the entire plot to get Batman and Superman to destroy each other. The two decide to team up and stop Luthor. Christian Bale, who would play the character in Christopher Nolan's Batman film trilogy, was simultaneously approached to portray Batman for Darren Aronofsky's Batman: Year One, while Josh Hartnett was offered the role of Superman.
Filming was to start in early 2003, with plans for a five- to six-month shoot. The release date was set for the summer of 2004. However, Warner Bros. canceled development to focus on individual Superman and Batman projects after Abrams submitted another draft for Superman: Flyby. According to Petersen "[Warner Bros.' chief] Alan Horn was so torn, because it's such a fascinating concept to do a Batman versus Superman film." In the opening scene of I Am Legend, a billboard displays the Superman symbol within the Batman symbol in Times Square. It is meant as an in-joke by the film's writer, Akiva Goldsman, who also wrote the script for Batman vs. Superman.
Batman Begins (2005)
Following a rejected Batman origin story reboot Joss Whedon pitched in December 2002, Warner Bros. hired Christopher Nolan and David S. Goyer to script Batman Begins. The duo aimed for a darker and more realistic tone, with humanity and realism being the basis of the film. The film was primarily shot in the United Kingdom and Chicago, and relied on traditional stunts and scale models with minimal use of computer-generated imagery. Christian Bale starred as Batman, Liam Neeson starred as Ra's al Ghul, and Cillian Murphy as The Scarecrow. Katie Holmes also starred in the movie as Bruce's love interest, Rachel Dawes, a role created for the film. Alfred was played by Michael Caine and Jim Gordon was portrayed by Gary Oldman. A new Batmobile (called the Tumbler) and a more mobile Batsuit were both created specifically for the film.
Batman Begins was both critically and commercially successful. The film opened on June 15, 2005, in the United States and Canada in 3,858 theaters. It grossed $48 million in its opening weekend, eventually grossing over $372 million worldwide. The film received an 85% overall approval rating from Rotten Tomatoes. Critics noted that fear was a common motif throughout the film, and remarked that it had a darker tone compared with previous Batman films. The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Cinematography and for three BAFTA awards. It was also listed at No. 81 on Empire's "500 Greatest Movies of All Time" and has maintained a standing on IMDb.com's "Top 250".
The Dark Knight (2008)
Christopher Nolan reprised his duties as director, and brought his brother, Jonathan, to co-write the script for the second installment. The Dark Knight featured Christian Bale reprising his role as Batman/Bruce Wayne, Heath Ledger as The Joker, and Aaron Eckhart as Harvey Dent / Two-Face. Principal photography began in April 2007 in Chicago and concluded in November. Other locations included Pinewood Studios, Ministry of Sound in London and Hong Kong. On January 22, 2008, after he had completed filming The Dark Knight, Ledger died from a bad combination of prescription medication. Warner Bros. had created a viral marketing campaign for The Dark Knight, developing promotional websites and trailers highlighting screen shots of Ledger as the Joker, but after Ledger's death, the studio refocused its promotional campaign.
The film received broad critical acclaim, and set numerous records during its theatrical run. With over $1 billion in revenue worldwide, it is the sixteenth-highest-grossing film of all time, unadjusted for inflation. The film received eight Academy Award nominations; it won the award for Best Sound Editing and Ledger was posthumously awarded Best Supporting Actor.
The Dark Knight Rises (2012)
Nolan wanted the story for the third and final installment to keep him emotionally invested. "On a more superficial level, I have to ask the question," he reasoned, "how many good third movies in a franchise can people name?" He returned out of finding a necessary way to continue the story, but feared midway through filming he would find a sequel redundant. The Dark Knight Rises is intended to complete Nolan's Batman trilogy. By December 2008, Nolan completed a rough story outline, before he committed himself to Inception. In February 2010, work on the screenplay was commencing with David S. Goyer and Jonathan Nolan. When Goyer left to work on the Superman reboot, Jonathan was writing the script based on the story by his brother and Goyer. Tom Hardy was cast as Bane and Anne Hathaway plays Selina Kyle. Joseph Gordon-Levitt was cast as John Blake, and Marion Cotillard was cast as Miranda Tate. Filming began in May 2011 and concluded in November. Nolan chose not to film in 3-D but, by focusing on improving image quality and scale using the IMAX format, hoped to push technological boundaries while nevertheless making the style of the film consistent with the previous two. Nolan had several meetings with IMAX Vice-President David Keighley to work on the logistics of projecting films in digital IMAX venues. The Dark Knight Rises featured more scenes shot in IMAX than The Dark Knight. Cinematographer Wally Pfister expressed interest in shooting the film entirely in IMAX.
Upon release, The Dark Knight Rises received a positive critical response and was successful at the box office, going on to outgross its predecessor and become the tenth-highest-grossing film of all time grossing over $1.08 billion. However, unlike its predecessors, the film was not nominated for any Oscars during its year of eligibility at the 85th Academy Awards, much to the surprise of film industry insiders.
Proposed Justice League film
Justice League: Mortal
In February 2007, during pre-production for The Dark Knight, Warner Bros. hired husband and wife screenwriting duo Michelle and Kieran Mulroney to script a Justice League film featuring a younger Batman in a separate franchise. George Miller was hired to direct the following September, with Armie Hammer cast as Batman a month later and Teresa Palmer as Talia al Ghul. Filming had nearly commenced for at Fox Studios Australia in Sydney, but was pushed back over the Writer's Guild of America strike, and once more when the Australian Film Commission denied Warner Bros. a 45 percent tax rebate over lack of Australian actors in the film. Production offices were moved to Vancouver Film Studios in Canada for an expected July 2008 start and a planned summer 2009 theatrical release date, but Warner Bros. ultimately canceled Justice League following the success of The Dark Knight. Hammer's option on his contract lapsed and the studio was more willing to proceed with Christopher Nolan to finish his trilogy separately with The Dark Knight Rises.
Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016)
On June 13, 2013, a source from Warner Bros. told The Wrap that they were discussing the possibilities with mention of more Man of Steel films as well as a Superman/Batman film, Wonder Woman, and Aquaman. Warner Bros. announced that Superman and Batman would unite in a new film, a follow-up to Man of Steel (2013), taking its inspiration from the comic The Dark Knight Returns and set for release in 2015. Goyer stated at the Superman 75th Anniversary Panel at Comic-Con, that Superman and Batman would face off, and titles under consideration were Superman vs Batman or Batman vs Superman.
On August 22, 2013, The Hollywood Reporter announced the casting of Ben Affleck as Bruce Wayne/Batman. On January 17, 2014, it was announced that the film had been delayed from its original July 17, 2015 release date to May 6, 2016, in order to give the filmmakers "time to realize fully their vision, given the complex visual nature of the story". The film's release was moved again to March 25, 2016.
Suicide Squad (2016)
In February 2009, Warner Bros. was developing a Suicide Squad movie, with Dan Lin producing, and Justin Marks writing the script. In September 2014, David Ayer signed to direct and writing the screenplay for the movie. Charles Roven is also set to produce the film. In November 2014 and March 2015, it was announced that Deadshot, Harley Quinn, Killer Croc and the Joker will appear in the film portrayed respectively by Will Smith, Margot Robbie,Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje and Jared Leto. In May 2015, Affleck was seen on set in costume as Batman.
Justice League (2017)
Shortly after filming had finished for Man of Steel, Warner Bros hired Will Beall to script a new Justice League film in June 2012. With the release of Man of Steel in June 2013, Goyer was hired to write a new Justice League script, with the Beall draft being scrapped. In April 2014 it was announced that Zack Snyder would also be directing Goyer's Justice League script. Warner Bros. was reportedly courting Chris Terrio to rewrite Justice League the following July, after having been impressed with his rewrite of Batman v Superman.
- 1993: Mask of the Phantasm, set in the continuity of Batman: The Animated Series with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 1998: Subzero, set in the continuity of Batman: The Animated Series with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 2000: Return of the Joker, set in the continuity of Batman Beyond with Will Friedle voicing Batman
- 2003: Mystery of the Batwoman, set in the continuity of The New Batman Adventures with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 2005: The Batman vs. Dracula, set in the continuity of The Batman with Rino Romano voicing Batman
- 2010: Under the Red Hood, an adaptation of Batman: Under the Hood with Bruce Greenwood voicing Batman
- 2011: Year One, an adaptation of Batman: Year One with Benjamin McKenzie voicing Batman
- 2012: The Dark Knight Returns - Part 1, an adaptation of the first half of The Dark Knight Returns with Peter Weller voicing Batman
- 2013: The Dark Knight Returns - Part 2, an adaptation of the second half of The Dark Knight Returns with Peter Weller voicing Batman
- 2013: DC Super Heroes Unite, an adaptation of Lego Batman 2: DC Super Heroes with Troy Baker voicing Batman
- 2014: Son of Batman, a loose adaptation of Batman and Son with Jason O'Mara voicing Batman
- 2014: Assault on Arkham, set in the continuity of Batman: Arkham with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 2015: Batman vs. Robin
- 2015: Batman Unlimited: Animal Instincts
With other heroes
- 2008: Justice League: The New Frontier, based on the comic of the same name with Jeremy Sisto voicing Batman
- 2009: Superman/Batman: Public Enemies, based on the comic of the same name with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 2010: Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths, a loose adaptation of various DC comics with William Baldwin voicing Batman
- 2010: Superman/Batman: Apocalypse, based on Superman/Batman: The Supergirl from Krypton with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 2010: DC Super Friends, based on the Fisher-Price toyline with Daran Norris voicing Batman
- 2012: Justice League: Doom, based on JLA: Tower of Babel with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 2013: Justice League: The Flashpoint Paradox, based on Flashpoint with Kevin McKidd voicing Batman
- 2014: JLA Adventures: Trapped in Time, an original story with Diedrich Bader voicing Batman
- 2014: Justice League: War, based on Justice League: Origin with Jason O'Mara voicing Batman
- 2015: Justice League: Throne of Atlantis, based on Throne of Atlantis with Jason O'Mara voicing Batman
- 2015: Justice League: Gods and Monsters
- 2008: Batman: Gotham Knight, a collection of original shorts with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 2014: A Lego-themed version of Batman appears in The Lego Movie, voiced by Will Arnett
Cast and characters
Box office performance
|Film||Release date||Box office revenue||Box office ranking||Budget||Ref(s)|
|Batman||June 23, 1989||$251,188,924||$160,160,000||$411,348,924||#71
|Batman Returns||June 19, 1992||$162,831,698||$103,990,656||$266,822,354||#206
|Batman: Mask of the Phantasm||December 25, 1993||$5,617,391||$5,617,391||#4,653|||
|Batman Forever||June 16, 1995||$184,031,112||$152,498,032||$336,529,144||#148
|Batman & Robin||June 20, 1997||$107,325,195||$130,881,927||$238,207,122||#460||#394||$125 million|||
|Batman Begins||June 15, 2005||$206,852,432||$167,366,241||$374,218,673||#120||#182||$150 million|||
|The Dark Knight||July 18, 2008||$534,858,444||$469,700,000||$1,004,558,444||#4
|The Dark Knight Rises||July 20, 2012||$448,139,099||$636,300,000||$1,084,439,099||#7
Critical and public response
|Batman (1966)||79% (28 reviews)|
|Batman (1989)||71% (66 reviews)||66% (17 reviews)||A|
|Batman Returns||81% (67 reviews)||B|
|Batman: Mask of the Phantasm||81% (26 reviews)|
|Batman Forever||41% (58 reviews)||51 (23 reviews)||A-|
|Batman & Robin||12% (66 reviews)||28 (21 reviews)||C+|
|Batman Begins||85% (265 reviews)||70 (41 reviews)||A|
|The Dark Knight||94% (288 reviews)||82 (39 reviews)||A|
|The Dark Knight Rises||88% (304 reviews)||78 (45 reviews)||A|
|Award||Burton/Schumacher series||Nolan series|
|Batman||Batman Returns||Batman Forever||Batman & Robin||Batman Begins||The Dark Knight||The Dark Knight Rises|
|Actor in a Supporting Role||Won (Heath Ledger)|
- Subers, Ray (September 4, 2012). "Around-the-World Roundup: 'Dark Knight Rises' Joins Billionaire Club". Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- "Box Office Mojo Movie Franchises Index Sorted by Total Gross". Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- Daniels, Les (1999). Batman: The Complete History. Chronicle Books. pp. 57–59. ISBN 0-8118-4232-0.
- Bill "Jett" Ramey (November 8, 2005). "An Interview With Michael Uslan – Part 1". Batman-on-Film. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Bill "Jett" Ramey (November 11, 2005). "An Interview With Michael Uslan – Part 2". Batman-on-Film. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Nancy Griffin; Kim Masters (1997). "Hit Men". Hit & Run: How Jon Peters and Peter Guber Took Sony For A Ride In Hollywood. Simon & Schuster. pp. 158–174. ISBN 0-684-80931-1.
- Alan Jones (November 1989). "Batman in Production". Cinefantastique. pp. 75–88. Retrieved May 13, 2008.
- Michael Uslan, Benjamin Melniker, Peter Guber, Tom Mankiewicz, Sam Hamm, Shadows of the Bat: The Cinematic Saga of the Dark Knight—The Road to Gotham City, 2005, Warner Home Video
- Alan Jones (November 1989). "Batman". Cinefantastique. pp. 55–67. Retrieved May 2, 2008.
- Stax (December 1, 2001). "The Stax Report Special Edition: Script Review of The Batman". IGN. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved October 24, 2008.
- Taylor L. White (July 1989). "Batman". Cinefantastique. pp. 33–40.
- Mark Salisbury; Tim Burton (2006). "Batman". Burton on Burton. London: Faber and Faber. pp. 70–83. ISBN 0-571-22926-3.
- Ken Hanke (1999). "Going Batty in Britain". Tim Burton: An Unauthorized Biography of the Filmmaker. Renaissance Books. pp. 75–85. 1-58063-162-2.
- Englehat, Steve. "Batman". SteveEnglehart.com. Archived from the original on December 14, 2007. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
So I got to do the second treatment with just the characters that eventually hit the screen: Bruce Wayne, the Batman, Silver St. Cloud, Boss Thorne, and the Joker.
- Stephen Rebello (November 1989). "Sam Hamm – Screenwriter". Cinefantastique. pp. 34–41.
- Iain Johnstone (August 1989). "Dark Knight in the City of Dreams". Empire. pp. 46–54. Retrieved May 14, 2008.
- Joe Morgenstern (April 9, 1989). "Tim Burton, Batman and The Joker", The New York Times. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
- Salisbury, Burton, p.145
- Geoff Boucher (October 15, 2008). "Tim Burton talks about Johnny Depp, 'Alice in Wonderland' and 'The Dark Knight'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- Jeffrey Resner (August 1992). "Three Go Mad in Gotham", Empire, pp. 39–46. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
- Judy Sloane (August 1995). "Daniel Waters on Writing", Film Review, pp. 67–69. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
- David Hughes (2003). "Batman". Comic Book Movies. Virgin Books. pp. 33–46. ISBN 0-7535-0767-6.
- Broeske, Pat H.; Thompson, Anne (August 9, 1991). "Big-Game Hunting". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
- Salisbury, Burton, p.102-114
- "Batman Returns". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- Olly Richards (September 1992). "Trouble in Gotham", Empire, pp. 21–23. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
- "Batman 3". Entertainment Weekly. October 1, 1993. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- Jeff Gordinier (July 15, 1994). "Next at Batman". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- Benjamin Svetkey (July 12, 1996). "Holy Happy Set!". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on September 7, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- "Batman Forever (1995)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "Batman Forever". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
- Michael Fleming (February 21, 1997). "Helmer's 3rd At Bat". Variety. Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- Joel Schumacher, Peter MacGregor-Scott, Chris O'Donnell, Val Kilmer, Uma Thurman, John Glover, Shadows of the Bat: The Cinematic Saga of the Dark Knight Part 6-Batman Unbound, 2005, Warner Home Video
- Degen Pener (September 13, 1996). "Holy Hearsay". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 11, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- Anita M. Busch (January 10, 1997). "Schumacher on 'Popcorn'". Variety. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- Michael Mallory; Michael Fleming (March 5, 1997). "Holy caped caper, IV". Variety. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- "Batman & Robin". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
- Dave Karger (July 11, 1997). "Big Chill". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- "1998 Razzie Awards". Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved November 14, 2008.
- "Comix Worst to Best: Batman & Robin (1997)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on October 14, 2008. Retrieved November 14, 2008.
- David Fear. "Men in Tights". MSN Movies. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved November 14, 2008.
- Michael Fleming (February 21, 1997). "Helmer's 3rd At Bat". Variety. Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Brian Linder (July 27, 2000). "Rumblings From Gotham". IGN. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Michael Fleming (November 11, 1997). "Schumacher trims sails". Variety. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- Gabe Toro (2011-10-05). "Joel Schumacher Says He Wanted Nicolas Cage To Play Scarecrow In The Aborted 'Batman Triumphant'". IndieWire. Retrieved 2014-09-01.
- David Hughes (March 2004). "The Dark Knight Strikes Out". Tales From Development Hell. London: Titan Books. pp. 192–211. ISBN 1-84023-691-4.
- Jeff Jensen (December 4, 1998). "Winging It". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Bill "Jett" Ramey (July 28, 2005). "Interview: Lee Shapiro". Batman-on-Film. Archived from the original on September 25, 2008. Retrieved October 18, 2008.
- Eric Anderson (2012-09-13). "Chris O'Donnell On Why His 'Robin' Spin-Off Never Happened & Passing On Men In Black". Access Hollywood. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
- Dana Harris (September 21, 2000). "WB sends Pi guy into the Bat Cave". Variety. Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Brian Linder (October 16, 2000). "The Bat-Men Speak". IGN. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Fred Topel (2012-04-23). "Action Packed: Boaz Yakin on Safe and Batman Beyond". CraveOnline. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- Brian Linder (December 6, 2000). "Aronofsky Talks Batman: Year One...Again". IGN. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Andrew O. Thompson (November 8, 2000). "Matthew Libatique". Variety. Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Adam Smith (July 2005). "The Original American Psycho". Empire. pp. 74–80, 82, 84, 87.
- Michael Fleming (April 2, 2001). "WB: Judd purr-fect as Cat". Variety. Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Dana Harris (June 30, 2002). "WB: fewer pix, more punch". Variety. Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- David Hughes (2003). Comic Book Movies. Virgin Books. pp. 21–2. ISBN 0-7535-0767-6.
- Mike White. "Superman: Grounded". Cashiers du Cinemart. Archived from the original on February 16, 2008. Retrieved February 3, 2008.
- Daniel Fierman; Nancy Miller; Brian M. Raftery (March 14, 2003). "Stallville?". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
- Brian M. Raftery; Nancy Miller (July 9, 2002). "Dynamic Duel". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on January 6, 2008. Retrieved February 4, 2008.
- Brian Linder (August 9, 2001). "More Batman, Superman Insanity at WB". IGN. Retrieved February 4, 2008.
- Akiva Goldsman (June 21, 2002). "Batman vs Superman 2nd Draft" (PDF). Daily Scripts. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- Smith, Adam (July 2005). "The Original American Psycho". Empire. pp. 74–80, 82, 84, 87.
- Brian Linder (2002-07-09). "Batman vs. Superman in '04". IGN. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
- David Hughes (2003). Tales From Development @#!*%. Titan Books. pp. 205–8. ISBN 1-84023-691-4.
- Brian Jacks (2010-03-15). "EXCLUSIVE: Christian Bale Met For Superman Role In Wolfgang Petersen's 'Batman Vs. Superman'". MTV News. Retrieved 2011-03-24.
- Larry Carroll (2007-12-03). "'Batman Vs. Superman' Coming In 2009, But Will We Live To See It?". MTV Movies Blog. Retrieved 2008-08-19.
- Alex Pappademas (May 2012). "The Geek Shall Inherit the Earth". GQ. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
- Casey Seijas (2008-08-11). "Joss Whedon Talks About His 'Batman' Movie That Never Was". MTV Splash Page. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
- Michael Flemming (January 27, 2003). "Batman captures director Nolan". Variety. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
- Marc Graser; Cathy Dunkley (February 8, 2004). "The bat and the beautiful". Variety. Retrieved November 2, 2006.
- "Batman Begins goes to the source". The Kansas City Star. June 25, 2004.
- "35 East Wacker Drive". Emporis. 2007. Retrieved May 14, 2007.
- Brain, Marshall. "How the Batmobile Works". HowStuffWorks.
- "Batman Begins Production Notes – The Batsuit & Gadgetry". Warner Bros.
- "Batman Begins (2005) – Awards". IMDb. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
- "Empire's 500 Greatest Movies of All Time". Retrieved August 23, 2012.
- "Batman Begins (2005)". Retrieved August 23, 2012.
- Marshall Crook; Peter Sanders (January 24, 2008). "Advertising: Will Marketing Change After Star's Death?". The Wall Street Journal. pp. B1. Archived from the original on May 4, 2008. Retrieved June 4, 2008.
- "Ledger's Death Puts Last Films in a Bind". CNN. January 24, 2008. Archived from the original on July 26, 2008. Retrieved July 10, 2008.
- "The 50 Best Movies of the Decade (2000–2009)". Paste Magazine. November 3, 2009. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
- "Film Critics Pick the Best Movies of the Decade". Metacritic. January 3, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- "Review of the Decade – Year-By-Year: Empire's Films Of The Decade". Empire Magazine. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- "Movie Records". the-numbers.com. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
- "All Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on May 30, 2010. Retrieved May 31, 2010.
- Boucher, Geoff (October 27, 2008). "Christopher Nolan on 'Dark Knight' and its box-office billion: 'It's mystifying to me'". Los Angeles Times.. WebCitation archive.
- "Merrick" (pseudonym) (December 5, 2008). "Nolan Talks DARK KNIGHT Blu-Ray, a 100,000 Person Screening of the Film (Featuring Live Q & A w/ Nolan), TDK Sequel, and More!!". Ain't It Cool News.. WebCitation archive.
- Jeff Jensen (November 30, 2010). "Christopher Nolan on his 'last' Batman movie, an 'Inception' videogame, and that spinning top". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on December 2, 2010. Retrieved December 3, 2010.
- Bowles, Scott (December 7, 2008). "For now, Nolan and Batman will rest in 'Dark' glory". USA Today.. WebCitation archive.
- Finke, Nikki, and Mike Fleming (February 9, 2010). "It's A Bird! It's A Plane! It's Chris Nolan! He'll Mentor Superman 3.0 And Prep 3rd Batman". Deadline.com. Retrieved December 3, 2010.. WebCitation archive.
- Boucher, Geoff (March 10, 2010). "Christopher Nolan takes flight with Superman: 'We have a fantastic story' [UPDATED]". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 4, 2010. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- Jensen, Jeff (January 19, 2011). "'The Dark Knight Rises' scoop: Anne Hathaway, Tom Hardy join cast". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
- Sneider, Jeff (March 18, 2011). "Gordon-Levitt's 'Dark Knight' role revealed". Variety. Retrieved March 18, 2011.. WebCitation.org
- Jeff Labrecque (March 21, 2011). "Joseph Gordon Levitt joins 'Dark Knight Rises'... but not as Falcone". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
- de Semlyen, Phil (November 19, 2010). "Exclusive: The Dark Knight Rises In May". Empire. Retrieved December 3, 2010.
- Boucher, Geoff (October 27, 2010). "Nolan: 'Dark Knight Rises' finds the future in IMAX, not 3-D". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 30, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- Weintraub, Steve (December 22, 2010). "Exclusive: Exclusive: David Keighley (Head of Re-Mastering IMAX) Talks 'The Dark Knight', 'The Dark Knight Rises', 'Tron: Legacy', New Cameras, More". Collider. Retrieved November 1, 2011.. WebCitation archive.
- Todd Gilchrist (April 20, 2010). "Cinematographer Wally Pfister Talks About Shooting 'Batman 3' in 3-D". Moviefone. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
- "Batman teaser poster: Gotham city topples as 'The Dark Knight Rises'". Daily Bhaskar. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
- Feinberg, Scott (January 10, 2013). "Nolan: The Oscar Nomination Snubs That Have Fans and Industry Insiders Baffled (Analysis)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- Pamela McClintock; Ben Fritz (2007-02-22). "'Justice' prevails for Warner Bros.". Variety. Retrieved 2007-04-12.
- Borys Kit (2007-10-15). "The Vine: Young actors seek Justice". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Michael Cieply (2008-03-01). "A Film’s Superheroes Face Threat of Strike". The New York Times.
- Garry Maddox (2008-02-25). "Unhappy feet may flee Sydney". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Kyle Buchanan (2010-10-20). "The Social Network’s Armie Hammer Talks Special Effects, Misogyny, and the Downside of Being Tall and Handsome". New York. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
- Jami Philbrick (2010-11-20). "Exclusive: Teresa Palmer Still Wants to Play Talia Al Ghul in 'The Dark Knight Rises'". Movieweb.com.
- Garry Maddox (2008-03-19). "Mega movie refused rebate". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Diane Garrett (2008-02-26). "Warner Bros. to serve 'Justice' in '09". Variety. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
- Michael Fleming; Pamela McClintock (2008-02-27). "Film greenlights in limbo". Variety. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
- Casey Seijas (2009-03-09). "Justice League' Movie Still A Possibility, Says Director... Just Not Anytime Soon". MTV Splash Page. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
- Why 'Man of Steel' Holds the Key to Warner Bros.' Future Franchises
- Sperling, Nicole (July 20, 2013). "Comic-Con 2013: ‘Superman & Batman’ movie will follow ‘Man of Steel’". Los Angeles Times.
- "Superman & Batman Film Set for Comic-Con Reveal". The Hollywood Reporter. July 20, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Anders, Charlie Jane (July 20, 2013). "They're doing a Superman/Batman movie... but that's not the big news". io9. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
- Collura, Scott (July 23, 2013). "Comic-Con: Man of Steel Sequel Likely Called Batman Vs. Superman". Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- "Ben Affleck is Batman for 'Man of Steel' Sequel". The Hollywood Reporter. August 22, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Schillaci, Sophie (22 August 2013). "Ben Affleck Is Batman for 'Man of Steel' Sequel". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- "Warner Bros. Pictures Pushes Batman vs. Superman Back to 2016". ComingSoon.net. January 17, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- Sneider, Jeff; Cunningham, Todd (August 6, 2014). "Warner Bros. Blinks in Marvel Showdown: ‘Batman v Superman’ Avoids ‘Captain America 3'". TheWrap.com. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- "Warner Bros. Circling David Ayer for DC Comics’ ‘Suicide Squad’ (Exclusive)". Variety. September 19, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- Kit, Borys. "Scribe In for 'Suicide Squad' Pact". The Hollywood Reporter. February 25, 2009.
- "‘Suicide Squad’ Cast Revealed: Jared Leto to Play the Joker, Will Smith is Deadshot". Variety. December 2, 2014. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
- Goldberg, Matt (November 10, 2014). "Exclusive: Margot Robbie to Play Harley Quinn in SUICIDE SQUAD". Collider. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Suicide Squad Casts Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje As Killer Croc". comicbook.com. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
- "Undercover Ben Affleck on set of Suicide Squad". etalk. April 30, 2015. Retrieved May 3, 2015.
- Jeff Sneider (2012-06-05). "Beall writing ‘Justice League’ for Warner Bros.". Variety. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
- Nikki Finke (2013-06-10). "‘Man Of Steel’ Sequel Underway With Zack Snyder And David S. Goyer". Deadline.com. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
- Alex Stedman (2014-04-27). "Zack Snyder to Direct ‘Justice League’ Movie". Variety. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
- Mike Fleming (2014-07-25). "‘Batman V Superman’ Scribe Chris Terrio For ‘Justice League’". Deadline.com. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
- "Batman (1989)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "Batman Returns (1992)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "Batman: Mask of The Phantasm (1993)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "Batman and Robin (1997)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "Batman Begins (2005)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "The Dark Knight (2008)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "The Dark Knight Rises (2012)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "Batman Moviesat the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
- "Batman: The Movie (1966)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- "Batman". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- "Batman (1989): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
- "CinemaScore". cinemascore.com. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- "Batman: Mask of the Phantasm". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Archived from the original on 30 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
- "Batman Forever (1995): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
- "Batman & Robin (1997): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
- "Batman Begins". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- "Batman Begins (2005): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
- "The Dark Knight". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- "The Dark Knight (2008): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
- "The Dark Knight Rises". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved January 16, 2013.
- "The Dark Knight Rises (2012): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Batman franchise overview at Box Office Mojo
- The Dark Knight Rises at the Internet Movie Database
- Behind Batman: Public Domain Analysis of the Film Franchise