Charging station

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This article is about electrical recharging. For pneumatic recharging, see compressed air vehicle.
A Tesla Roadster Sport being charged at an electric charging station in Iwata city, Shizuoka, Japan.
Nissan Leaf recharging from a NRG Energy eVgo station in Houston, Texas
Converted Toyota Prii recharging at public charging stations in San Francisco (2009)

An electric vehicle charging station, also called EV charging station, electric recharging point, charging point, charge point and EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment), is an element in an infrastructure that supplies electric energy for the recharging of plug-in electric vehicles, including all-electric cars, neighborhood electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids.

As plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicle ownership is expanding, there is a growing need for widely distributed publicly accessible charging stations, some of which support faster charging at higher voltages and currents than are available from domestic supplies. Many charging stations are on-street facilities provided by electric utility companies, mobile charging stations have been recently introduced. Some of these special charging stations provide one or a range of heavy duty or special connectors and/or charging without a physical connection using parking places equipped with inductive charging mats. A special form of a charging station is a battery swapping station in which the batteries are switched instead of charged.

Charging stations are also provided for smartphones in some shopping malls.

Overview[edit]

Public-domain European charge station sign
U.S. traffic sign used for EV charging station
A charging station in Monza, Italy

International status[edit]

As of December 2012, around 50,000 non-residential charging points were deployed in the U.S., Europe, Japan and China.[1] As of August 2014, there are 3,869 CHAdeMO quick chargers deployed around the world, with 1,978 in Japan, 1,181 in Europe and 686 in the United States, 24 in other countries.[2] As of December 2013, Estonia is the first and only country that had completed the deployment of an EV charging network with nationwide coverage, with 165 fast chargers available along highways at a maximum distance of between 40 to 60 km (25 to 37 mi), and a higher density in urban areas.[3][4][5]

As of March 2013, 5,678 public charging stations existed across the United States, with 16,256 public charging points, of which 3,990 were located in California, 1,417 in Texas, and 1,141 in Washington.[6][7] As of November 2012, about 15,000 charging stations had been installed in Europe.[8]

As of March 2013, Norway, which has the highest electric ownership per capita, had 4,029 charging points and 127 quick charging stations.[9] As part of its commitment to environmental sustainability, the Dutch government initiated a plan to establish over 200 fast (DC) charging stations across the country by 2015. The rollout will be undertaken by Switzerland-based power and automation company ABB and Dutch startup Fastned, and will aim to provide at least one station every 50 kilometres (31 miles) for the Netherlands' 16 million residents.[10] Beside of that the E-laad foundation installed about 3000 public (slow) charge points since 2009.[11]

As of December 2012, Japan had 1,381 public quick-charge stations, the largest deployment of fast chargers in the world, but only around 300 slow chargers.[1] As of December 2012, China had around 800 public slow charging points, and no fast charging stations.[1] As of December 2012, the country with the highest ratio of quick chargers to electric vehicles (EVSE/EV) was Japan, with a ratio of 0.030, and the Netherlands had the largest ratio of slow EVSE/EV, with more than 0.50, while the U.S had a slow EVSE/EV ratio of 0.20.[1]

As of September 2013, the largest public charging networks in Australia exist in the capital cities of Perth and Melbourne, with around 30 stations (7 kW AC) established in both cities—smaller networks exist in other capital cities.[12]

Safety[edit]

Although the rechargeable electric vehicles and equipment can be recharged from a domestic wall socket, a charging station is usually accessible to multiple electric vehicles and has additional current or connection sensing mechanisms to disconnect the power when the EV is not charging.

There are two main types of safety sensor:

  • additional physical 'sensor wires' which provide a feedback signal such as specified by the undermentioned SAE J1772 and IEC 62196 schemes that require special (multi-pin) power plug fittings,
  • Current sensors which monitor the power consumed, and only maintain the connection if the demand is within a predetermined range. Sensor wires react more quickly, have fewer parts to fail and are possibly less expensive to design and implement.[citation needed] Current sensors however can use standard connectors and can readily provide an option for suppliers to monitor or charge for the electricity actually consumed.[citation needed]

Until 2013 there was an issue where blink chargers were overheating and causing damage to both charger and car.[13][14] The solution employed by the company was to reduce the maximum current.[15]

Standards[edit]

In SAE terminology, 240 volt AC charging is known as Level 2 charging, and 500 volt DC high-current charging is known as DC Fast Charge. Owners can install a level 2 charging station at home, while businesses and local government provide level 2 and DC Fast Charge public charging stations that supply electricity for a fee or free.

The International Electrotechnical Commission modes definition (IEC 62196):

  • Mode 1 - slow charging from a regular electrical socket (1- or 3-phase)
  • Mode 2 - slow charging from a regular socket but which equipped with some EV specific protection arrangement (e.g., the Park & Charge or the PARVE systems)
  • Mode 3 - slow or fast charging using a specific EV multi-pin socket with control and protection functions (e.g., SAE J1772 and IEC 62196)
  • Mode 4 - fast charging using some special charger technology such as CHAdeMO.

There are three connection cases:

  • Case A is any charger connected to the mains (the mains supply cable is usually attached to the charger) usually associated with modes 1 or 2
  • Case B is an on-board vehicle charger with a mains supply cable which can be detached from both the supply and the vehicle - usually mode 3
  • Case C is a dedicated charging station with DC supply to the vehicle. The mains supply cable may be permanently attached to the charge-station such as in mode 4.

There are four plug types

  • Type 1 - single phase vehicle coupler - reflecting the SAE J1772/2009 automotive plug specifications
  • Type 2 - single and three phase vehicle coupler - reflecting the VDE-AR-E 2623-2-2 plug specifications
  • Type 3 - single and three phase vehicle coupler equipped with safety shutters - reflecting the EV Plug Alliance proposal
  • Type 4 - fast charge coupler - for special systems such as CHAdeMO

Mode 1: Household socket and extension cord[edit]

Mode 1 : Fixed, non-dedicated socket.

The vehicle is connected to the power grid through standard socket-outlets present in residences, which depending on the country are usually rated at around 10 A. To use mode 1, the electrical installation must comply with the safety regulations and must have an earthing system, a circuit breaker to protect against overload and an earth leakage protection. The sockets have blanking devices to prevent accidental contacts.

The first limitation is the available power, to avoid risks of

  • heating of the socket and cables following intensive use for several hours at or near the maximum power (which varies from 8 to 16 A depending on the country)
  • fire or electric injury risks if the electrical installation is obsolete or if certain protective devices are absent.

The second limitation is related to the installation's power management

  • as the charging socket shares a feeder from the switchboard with other sockets (no dedicated circuit) if the sum of consumptions exceeds the protection limit (in general 16 A), the circuit-breaker will trip, stopping the charging.

All these factors impose a limit on the power in mode 1, for safety and service quality reasons. This limit is currently being defined, and the value of 10 A appears to be the best compromise.

Mode 2: Domestic socket and cable with a protection device[edit]

Mode 2 : Non-dedicated socket with cable-incorporated protection device.

The vehicle is connected to the main power grid via household socket-outlets. Charging is done via a single-phase or three-phase network and installation of an earthing cable. A protection device is built into the cable. This solution is more expensive than Mode 1 due to the specificity of the cable.

Mode 3: Specific socket on a dedicated circuit[edit]

Mode 3 : Fixed, dedicated circuit-socket.

The vehicle is connected directly to the electrical network via specific socket and plug and a dedicated circuit. A control and protection function is also installed permanently in the installation. This is the only charging mode that meets the applicable standards regulating electrical installations. It also allows loadshedding so that electrical household appliances can be operated during vehicle charging or on the contrary optimise the electric vehicle charging time.

Mode 4: Direct current (DC) connection for fast recharging[edit]

Mode 4 : CC Connection.

The electric vehicle is connected to the main power grid through an external charger. Control and protection functions and the vehicle charging cable are installed permanently in the installation.

Evolution[edit]

The coordinated development of charging stations in a region by a company or local government is more fully discussed in the electric vehicle network article. Currently charging stations are being installed by public authorities, commercial enterprises and some major employers in order to stimulate the market for vehicle that use alternative fuels to gasoline & diesel fuels. For this reason most charge stations are currently either provided gratis or accessible to members of certain groups without significant charge (e.g. activated by a free "membership card" or by a digital "day code").

Charging time[edit]

The battery capacity of a fully charged electric vehicle from electric vehicle automakers (such as Nissan) is about 20 kWh, providing it with an electrical autonomy of about 100 miles. Tesla Motors released their Model S with battery capacities of 60 kWh and 85 kWh with the latter having an estimated range of approximately 480 km. Plug in hybrid vehicles have capacity of roughly 3 to 5 kWh, for an electrical autonomy of 20 to 40 kilometres (the gasoline engine ensures the autonomy of a conventional vehicle).

As the electric only autonomy is still limited, the vehicle has to be charged every 2 or 3 days on average. In practice, drivers plug in their vehicles each night, thus starting each day with a full charge.

For normal charging (up to 6.6 kW), car manufacturers have built a battery charger into the car. A charging cable is used to connect it to the electrical network to supply 230 volt AC current. For quicker charging (22 kW, even 43 kW and more), manufacturers have chosen two solutions:

  • Use the vehicle's built-in charger, designed to charge from 3 to 43 kW at 230 V single-phase or 400 V three-phase.
  • Use an external charger, which converts AC current into DC current and charges the vehicle at 44 kW (e.g. Nissan Leaf) or more (e.g. 120 kW Tesla Model S).
Charging time for 100 km of BEV range Power supply Voltage Max current
6–8 hours Single phase - 3.3 kW 230 VAC 16 A
2–3 hours Three phase - 10 kW 400 VAC 16 A
3–4 hours Single phase - 7 kW 230 VAC 32 A
1–2 hours Three phase - 22 kW 400 VAC 32 A
20–30 minutes Three phase - 43 kW 400 VAC 63 A
20–30 minutes Direct current - 50 kW 400 - 500 VDC 100 - 125 A
10 minutes Direct current - 120 kW 300 - 500 VDC 300 - 350 A

The user finds charging an electric vehicle as simple as connecting a normal electrical appliance; however to ensure that this operation takes place in complete safety, the charging system must perform several safety functions and dialogue with the vehicle during connection and charging.

Infrastructure[edit]

Prototype modified Renault Laguna E.V. cars charging at Project Better Place charging stations in Ramat Hasharon, Israel, north of Tel Aviv.
Public charging stations in a parking lot near Los Angeles International Airport. Shown are two old/obsolete (6kW level-2) EVSE units (left: inductive Magne-charge gen2 SPI, right: conductive EVII ICS-200 AVCON).
REVAi/G-Wiz i charging from an on-street station in London.
SemaConnect Electric Vehicle Charging Stations for Commercial Use

Charging stations for electric vehicles may not need much new infrastructure in developed countries, less than delivering a new alternative fuel over a new network.[16] The stations can leverage the existing ubiquitous electrical grid and home recharging is an option. For example, polls have shown that more than half of homeowners in the USA have access to a plug to charge their cars.[citation needed] Also most driving is local over short distances which reduces the need for charging mid-trip. In the USA, for example, 78% of commutes are less than 40 miles (64 km) round-trip.[17] Nevertheless, longer drives between cities and towns require a network of public charging stations or another method to extend the range of electric vehicles beyond the normal daily commute. One challenge in such infrastructure is the level of demand: an isolated station along a busy highway may see hundreds of customers per hour if every passing electric vehicle has to stop there to complete the trip. In the first half of the 20th century, internal combustion vehicles faced a similar infrastructure problem.

Smart grid communication[edit]

Recharging a large battery pack presents a high load on the electrical grid, but this can be scheduled for periods of reduced load or reduced electricity costs. In order to schedule the recharging, either the charging station or the vehicle can communicate with the smart grid. Some plug-in vehicles allow the vehicle operator to control recharging through a web interface or smartphone app.[18] Furthermore, in a Vehicle-to-grid scenario the vehicle battery can supply energy to the grid at periods of peak demand. This requires additional communication between the grid, charging station, and vehicle electronics. SAE International is developing a range of standards for energy transfer to and from the grid including SAE J2847/1 "Communication between Plug-in Vehicles and the Utility Grid".[19] ISO and IEC are also developing a similar series of standards known as ISO/IEC 15118: "Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface".

Deployment of public charging stations[edit]

Locations[edit]

Charging stations can be found and will be needed where there is on-street parking, at taxi stands, in parking lots (at places of employment, hotels, airports, shopping centers, convenience shops, fast food restaurants, coffeehouses etc.), phone booths, as well as in driveways and garages at home. Existing filling stations may also become or may incorporate charging stations. Stations can be added onto other public infrastructure that have an electrical supply, such as phone booths[20] and smart parking meters.

Vehicle and charging station projects and joint ventures[edit]

Wireless charging station
Detail of the wireless inductive charging device

Electric car manufacturers, charging infrastructure providers, and regional governments have entered into many agreements and ventures to promote and provide electric vehicle networks of public charging stations.

The EV Plug Alliance[21] is an association of 21 European manufacturers which proposes an alternative connecting solution. The project is to impose an IEC norm and to adopt a European standard for the connection solution with sockets and plugs for electric vehicle charging infrastructure. Members (Schneider Electric, Legrand, Scame, Nexans, etc.) argue that the system is safer because they use shutters. General consensus is that the IEC 62196 and IEC 61851-1 already have taken care of safety by making parts non-live when touchable.[22][23][24]

Charging station manufacturers[edit]

The principal suppliers and manufacturers of charging stations offer a range of options from simple charging posts for roadside use, charging cabinets for covered parking places to fully automated charging stations integrated with power distribution equipment[25]

DC charging stations (fast)[edit]

Tesla Model S charging at a Tesla Motors Supercharger network (rapid-charging) station in Gilroy, California.

These companies (among AC slow-charging stations) design and manufacture DC Fast charging stations (less than 30 minutes). These systems may offer a restricted charge (stops at 80% SOC), or changes charging rate to a lower level after the 80% SOC is reached.

Charging network operators[edit]

An operator manages charging stations.

Feud[edit]

Reports emerged in late July 2013 of a significant conflict between the companies responsible for the two types of charging machines. The Japanese-developed CHAdeMO standard is favored by Nissan, Mitsubishi, and Toyota, while the Society of Automotive Engineers’ (SAE) International J1772 Combo standard is backed by GM, Ford, Volkswagen, and BMW. Both are direct-current quick-charging systems designed to charge the battery of an electric vehicle to 80 percent in approximately 20 minutes, but the two systems are completely incompatible. In light of an ongoing feud between the two companies, experts in the field warned that the momentum of the electric vehicle market will be severely affected.[36][37] Richard Martin, editorial director for clean technology marketing and consultant firm Navigant Research, stated:

Fast charging, however and whenever it gets built out, is going to be key for the development of a mainstream market for plug-in electric vehicles. The broader conflict between the CHAdeMO and SAE Combo connectors, we see that as a hindrance to the market over the next several years that needs to be worked out.[37]

As of September 16, 2013, a standard does not exist in Australia for charging connectors. Australia’s first fast-DC charging stations follow the Japanese ChaDeMo standard and these may be obsolete by 2015.[12]

EV charging station signs[edit]

In the United States, the standard charging station sign is defined in the Federal Highway Administration's Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) 2009 edition.

See two examples of "D9-11b Electric Vehicle Charging" and "D9-11bP Electric Vehicle Charging" at "Figure 2I-1. General Service Signs and Plaques", page 301, Sect. 2I.02

In July 2013, FHWA released interim MUTCD approval for charging station signs located on public roads governed by MUTCD standards. [1]

There is an open source, public domain European charge station sign proposed.[38]

Block heater power supplies[edit]

In colder areas such as Finland, some northern US states and Canada there already exists some infrastructure for public power outlets provided primarily for use by block heaters and set with circuit breakers that prevent large current draws for other uses. These can sometimes be used to recharge electric vehicles, albeit slowly.[39] In public lots, some such outlets are only turned on when the temperature falls below -20 °C, further limiting their use.[40]

Battery swapping[edit]

A charging station is different from a battery switch station, which is a place to swap a discharged battery or battery pack for a fully charged one, saving the delay of waiting for the vehicle's battery to charge.

Battery swapping is common in warehouses using electric forklift trucks.[41] The concept of exchangeable battery service was first proposed as early as 1896 in order to overcome the limited operating range of electric cars and trucks. It was first put into practice by Hartford Electric Light Company through the GeVeCo battery service and was initially available for electric trucks. The vehicle owner purchased the vehicle from General Vehicle Company (GVC, a subsidiary of the General Electric Company) without a battery and the electricity was purchased from Hartford Electric through an exchangeable battery. The owner paid a variable per-mile charge and a monthly service fee to cover maintenance and storage of the truck. Both vehicles and batteries were modified to facilitate a fast battery exchange. The service was provided between 1910 to 1924 and during that period covered more than 6 million miles. Beginning in 1917 a similar successful service was operated in Chicago for owners of Milburn Electric cars who also could buy the vehicle without the batteries.[42] A rapid battery replacement system was implemented to keep running 50 electric buses at the 2008 Summer Olympics.[43]

The companies Better Place, Tesla Motors, and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries considered working in integrating battery switch technology in their electric vehicles to extend their driving range.[44][45] In a battery switch station, the driver does not need to get out of the car while the battery is swapped.[46] Battery swap depends on at least one electric car designed for "easy swap" of batteries. However, electric vehicle manufacturers that are working on battery switch technology have not standardized on battery access, attachment, dimension, location, or type.

Tesla Motors introduced a proprietary charging station service to support owners of Tesla Model S automobiles in the summer of 2013. The growing network of Tesla stations will be able to support both battery pack swaps for the Model S, as well as the more-widespread fast charging capability for both the Model S and the Tesla Roadster.[47][48]

Battery swapping has the following benefits:

  • Fast battery swapping under five minutes.[49][50]
  • Unlimited driving range where there are battery switch stations available.[51]
  • The driver does not have to get out of the car while the battery is swapped.[52]
  • The driver does not own the battery in the car, transferring costs over the battery, battery life, maintenance, capital cost, quality, technology, and warranty to the battery switch station company.[53]
  • Contract with battery switch company could subsidize the electric vehicle at a price lower than equivalent petrol cars.[54]
  • The spare batteries at swap stations could participate in vehicle to grid storage.[citation needed]
Better Place
Better Place's battery switching station in Israel
Main article: Better Place

The Better Place network was the first modern commercial deployment of the battery switching model. The Renault Fluence Z.E. was the first electric car enabled with switchable battery technology available for the Better Place network in operation in Israel and Denmark.[55] Better Place used the same technology to swap batteries that F-16 jet fighter aircraft use to load their bombs.[56] Better Place launched its first battery-swapping station in Israel, in Kiryat Ekron, near Rehovot in March 2011. The battery exchange process took five minutes.[49][57] As of December 2012, about 600 Fluence Z.E.s were sold in the country. Sales during the first quarter of 2013 improved, with 297 cars sold, bringing the total fleet in Israel close to 900.[58] As of December 2012, there were 17 battery switch stations fully operational in Denmark enabling customers to drive anywhere across the country in an electric car.[59] Fluence Z.E. sales totaled 198 units through December 2012.[60]

Better Place filed for bankruptcy in Israel in May 2013. The company's financial difficulties were caused by the high investment required to develop the charging and swapping infrastructure, about US$850 million in private capital, and a market penetration significantly lower than originally predicted by Shai Agassi. Less than 1,000 Fluence Z.E. cars were deployed in Israel and around 400 units in Denmark.[61][62] Under Better Place's business model, the company owns the batteries, so the court liquidator will have to decide what to do with customers who do not have ownership of the battery and risk being left with a useless car.[63]

Tesla Motors
Tesla Supercharger network rapid charging station in Tejon Ranch, California. The rooftop of the carport has a solar collector manufactured by Solar City feeding energy into the grid.
Main article: Tesla supercharger

Tesla Motors designed its Model S to allow fast battery swapping.[44] In June 2013, Tesla announced their goal to deploy a battery swapping station in each of its supercharging stations. At a demonstration event Tesla showed that a battery swap operation with the Model S takes just over 90 seconds, about half the time it takes to refill a gasoline-powered car used for comparison purposes during the event.[50][64]

The first stations are planned to be deployed along Interstate 5 in California where, according to Tesla, a large number of Model S sedans make the San Francisco-Los Angeles trip regularly. These will be followed by the Washington, DC to Boston corridor. Elon Musk said the service would be offered for the price of about 15 US gallons (57 l; 12 imp gal) of gasoline at the current local rate, around US$60 to US$80 at June 2013 prices. Owners can pick up their battery pack fully charged on the return trip, which is included in the swap fee. Tesla will also offer the option to keep the pack received on the swap and paying the price difference if the battery received is newer; or to receive the original pack back from Tesla for a transport fee. Pricing has not been determined.[50]

Criticism

These battery swapping solution have been criticized for being proprietary. By creating a monopoly regarding the ownership of the batteries and the patent protected technologies the companies split up the market and decrease the chances of a wider usage of battery swapping.[65]

Renewable electricity and RE charging stations[edit]

Charging stations are usually connected to the electrical grid, which often means that their electricity originates from fossil-fuel power stations or nuclear power plants. Solar power is also suitable for electric vehicles. SolarCity is marketing its solar energy systems along with electric car charging installations. The company has announced a partnership with Rabobank to make electric car charging available for free to owners of Tesla Motors' vehicles traveling on Highway 101 between San Francisco and Los Angeles. Other cars that can make use of same charging technology are welcome.[66]

Several Chevrolet Volts at a charging station powered with solar panels in Frankfort, Illinois.

SPARC station[edit]

The SPARC (Solar Powered Automotive ReCharging Station) uses a single custom fabricated monocrystalline solar panel capable of producing 2.7 kW of peak power to charge pure electric or plug-in hybrid to 80% capacity without drawing electricity from the local grid. Plans for the SPARC include a non-grid tied system as well as redundancy for tying to the grid through a renewable power plan. This supports their claim for net-zero driving of electric vehicles.

E-Move charging station[edit]

The E-Move Charging Station is equipped with eight monocrystalline solar panels, which can supply 1.76KWp of solar power. With further refinements, the designers are hoping to generate about 2000KWh of electricity from the panels over the year.[67]

Wind-powered charging station[edit]

In 2012, Urban Green Energy introduced the world's first wind-powered electric vehicle charging station, the Sanya SkyPump. The design features a 4 kW vertical-axis wind turbine paired with a GE WattStation. [68]

Smartphones[edit]

A charging station at Boise Towne Square courtesy of General Growth Properties in Boise, Idaho

Smartphone charging stations, such as Veloxity are provided as a courtesy by some shopping malls for their clientele.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d International Energy Agency, Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (April 2013). "Global EV Outlook 2013 - Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020". International Energy Agency. Retrieved 2013-04-20.  See pp. 14-15.
  2. ^ http://www.chademo.com.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ Adam Palin (2013-11-19). "Infrastructure: Shortage of electric points puts the brake on sales". Financial Times. Retrieved 2013-12-28. 
  4. ^ KredEx (2013-02-20). "Estonia becomes the first in the world to open a nationwide electric vehicle fast-charging network". Estonian World. Retrieved 2013-12-28. 
  5. ^ Adam Vaughan (2013-02-20). "Estonia launches national electric car charging network". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-12-28. 
  6. ^ U.S. Department of Energy (2013-04-09). "Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State". Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC). Retrieved 2013-04-10.  The AFDC counts electric charging units or points, or EVSE, as one for each outlet available, and does not include residential electric charging infrastructure.
  7. ^ Danny King (2013-04-10). "US public charging stations increase by 9% in first quarter". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  8. ^ Renault Press Release (2012-12-17). "Renault delivers first ZOE EV". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  9. ^ "Ladepunkter i Norge" [Charge Points in Norway] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  10. ^ Amar Toor (10 July 2013). "Every Dutch citizen will live within 31 miles of an electric vehicle charging station by 2015". The Verge. Vox Media, Inc. Retrieved 11 July 2013. 
  11. ^ Stichting E-laad (21 January 2014). "Ondersteuning laadinfrastructuur elektrische auto’s wordt voortgezet". Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  12. ^ a b Thomas Bräunl (16 September 2013). "Setting the standard: Australia must choose an electric car charging norm". The Conversation Australia. Retrieved 16 September 2013. 
  13. ^ http://www.plugincars.com/honda-fit-ev-overheats-blink-charger-126246.html
  14. ^ http://colbytrudeau.com/2012/12/30/dont-blink/
  15. ^ http://green.autoblog.com/2013/08/20/ecotality-trying-to-fix-charging-station-problems-by-reducing-po/
  16. ^ "Plug-In 2008: Company News: GM/V2Green/Coulomb/Google/HEVT/PlugInSupply". CalCars. 2008-07-28. Retrieved 2010-05-30. 
  17. ^ Source: US Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Omnibus Household Survey. Data from the February, April, June, and August 2003 surveys have been combined. Data cover activities for the month prior to the survey. (October 2003). "From Home to Work, the Average Commute is 26.4 Minutes". OmniStats 3 (4). Retrieved 2009-10-15. 
  18. ^ "Tesla Motors Introduces Mobile App for Model S Sedan". 2013-02-06. 
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  22. ^ http://www.mennekes.in/in/latest0.html?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=883&cHash=143015f2385ea4fe930d04795b919cce
  23. ^ IEC6216-1
  24. ^ IEC61851-1
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  38. ^ http://evinfra.org
  39. ^ Electric Vehicles, Manitoba Hydro, retrieved 2013-04-02, Manitobans' experience with cold weather and plugging in their vehicles will help ease the transition to adopting PEVs. In some circumstances, the existing infrastructure used to power vehicle block heaters in the winter can also be used to provide limited charging for PEVs. However, some existing electrical outlets may not be suitable for PEV charging. Residential outlets can be part of a circuit used to power multiple lights and other electrical devices, and could become overloaded if used to charge a PEV. A dedicated circuit for PEV charging may need to be installed by a licensed electrician in these situations. Also, some commercial parking lot outlets operate in a load restricted or cycled manner and using them may result in your PEV receiving a lower charge than expected or no charge at all. If a parking stall is not specifically designated for PEV use, we recommend that you consult with the parking lot or building manager to ensure it can provide adequate power to your vehicle. 
  40. ^ Park and Ride Locations, Calgary Transit, 16 April 2009, retrieved 2009-04-25, The plug-ins located in the Park and Ride lots automatically turn on when the outside temperature falls below -20 degrees and turn off and on in increments to save electricity usage. 
  41. ^ "Industrial electrical vehicle stalwarts head out on the road". 
  42. ^ Kirsch, David A. (2000). The Electric Vehicle and the Burden of History. New Brunswick, New Jersey, and London: Rutgers University Press. pp. 153–162. ISBN 0-8135-2809-7. 
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External links[edit]