Battery nomenclature

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Standard battery nomenclature describes portable dry cell batteries that have physical dimensions and electrical characteristics interchangeable between manufacturers. The long history of disposable dry cells means that many different manufacturer-specific and national standards were used to designate sizes, long before international standards were reached. Technical standards for battery sizes and types are set by standards organizations such as International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Popular sizes are still referred to by old standard or manufacturer designations, and some non-systematic designations have been included in current international standards due to wide use.

The complete nomenclature for the battery will fully specify the size, chemistry, terminal arrangements and special characteristics of a battery. The same physically interchangeable cell size may have widely different characteristics; physical interchangeability is not the sole factor in substitution of batteries.

National standards for dry cell batteries have been developed by ANSI, JIS, British national standards, and others. Civilian, commercial, government and military standards all exist. Two of the most prevalent standards currently in use are the IEC 60086 series and the ANSI C18.1 series. Both standards give dimensions, standard performance characteristics, and safety information.

Modern standards contain both systematic names for cell types that give information on the composition and approximate size of the cells, as well as arbitrary numeric codes for cell size.

History of the IEC standard[edit]

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) was established in 1906 and co-ordinates development of standards for a wide range of electrical products. The IEC maintains two committees, TC21 established in 1933 for rechargeable batteries, and TC35 established in 1948 for primary batteries, to develop standards.[1] The current designation system was adopted in 1992. Battery types are designated with a letter/number sequence indicating number of cells, cell chemistry, cell shape, dimensions, and special characteristics. Certain cell designations from earlier revisions of the standard have been retained.[2]

The first IEC standards for battery sizes were issued in 1957.[3] Since 1992, International standard IEC 60086 defines an alphanumeric coding system for batteries.[2][4] British standard 397 for primary batteries was withdrawn and replaced by the IEC standard in 1996.[5]

History of the ANSI standard[edit]

Standardization in the United States started in 1919, when the US National Bureau of Standards published recommended test procedures and standard dimensions of cells.[6] American standards were revised several times during the following decades, as new sizes of cells were introduced and new chemistry developed, including chloride, alkaline, mercury and rechargeable types.

The first American Standards Association (predecessor to ANSI) standard C18 appeared in 1928. It listed cell sizes using a letter code, roughly in order of size from smallest (A) to larger types. The only numerical designation was the 6-inch tall "No. 6" cell. The 1934 edition of the C18 standard expanded the nomenclature system to include series and parallel arrays of cells. In 1954, mercury batteries were included in the standard. The 1959 edition identified types suitable for use with transistor radios. In 1967, NEMA took over responsibility for development from the National Bureau of Standards. The 12th edition of C18 began to be harmonized with the IEC standard. Rechargeable batteries were introduced in the C18 standard in 1984, and lithium types were standardized in 1991.

In 1999 the ANSI standards were extensively revised and separate safety standards provided. The current edition of the ANSI standards designates sizes with an arbitrary number, with a prefix letter to designate shape, and with a suffix letter or letters to identify different chemistry, terminals, or other features.

IEC battery nomenclature[edit]

Battery categories[edit]

IEC nomenclature classifies batteries according to their general shape and overall physical appearance. These categories, however, are not identified in the IEC battery number.[7][8]

Category 1: Cylindrical cells with protruding positive and recessed or flat negative terminals. The positive terminal shall be concentric with the cell overall. The total height of the cell is not necessarily the same as the total distance between terminals (This accounts for nubs, recesses and battery casings). The cell casing is insulated. E.g. R1 & LR8D425
Category 2: Cylindrical cells with protruding positive and protruding or flat negative terminals. The total height of the cell is the same as the total distance between terminals. The cell casing is insulated. E.g. CR14250, LR61
Category 3: Cylindrical cells with flat positive and negative terminals. The total height of the cell is not necessarily the same as the total distance between terminals (This accounts for any protuberances from the negative terminal). The cell casing is in connection with the positive terminal. No part of the cell is allowed to protrude from the positive terminal surface. E.g. CR11108, LR9
Category 4: Cylindrical cells with a protruding flat negative terminal. The total height of the cell is the same as the total distance between terminals. The cell casing is the positive terminal and it is recommended that the outer surface is used for positive connection even though it is possible from the base. No part of the cell is allowed to protrude from the positive terminal surface. E.g. LR44, CR2032
Category 5: Cylindrical batteries which fit none of the other categories. E.g. R40, 8LR23
Category 6: Non-cylindrical batteries. E.g. 3R12, 4R25, 6F22

Battery numbering[edit]

Examples of the IEC nomenclature are batteries coded R20, 4R25X, 4LR25-2, 6F22, 6P222/162, CR17345 and LR2616J. The letters and numbers in the code indicate the number of cells, cell chemistry, shape, dimensions, the number of parallel paths in the assembled battery and any modifying letters deemed necessary. A multi-section battery (two or more voltages from the same package) will have a multi-section designation.

Prior to October 1990, round cells were designated with a sequential numeric size code ranging from R06 through to R70, for example R20 is the size of a "D" cell or ANSI"13" size. After October 1990, round cells are systematically identified with a number derived from their diameter and height. Primary cells larger than 100 mm in diameter or height are designated with an oblique "/" between diameter and height.

Examples of IEC battery designations
Designation Series Cells System Shape Standardized code or diameter code Diameter modifier Height code Height adjustment modifier Modifier(s) Parallel strings Remarks
R20 R 20 A single zinc-carbon torch cell. Size 20 which is equivalent to D, or ANSI "13" size
4R25X 4 R 25 X A zinc-carbon lantern battery. Consisting of 4 round size 25 cells in series. Terminated with spring terminals.
4LR25-2 4 L R 25 2 An alkaline lantern battery. Consisting of 2 parallel strings of 4 round size 25 cells in series.
6F22 6 F 22 A zinc-carbon rectangular battery. Consisting of 6 flat size 22 cells. Equivalent to a PP3 or transistor battery.
6P222/162 6 P 222 162 A zinc-carbon battery. Maximum dimensions: length 192 mm, width 113 mm, and height 162 mm. Consisting of 6 cells in series.
CR17345 C R 17 345 A single-cell round lithium cell. 17 mm diameter, 34.5 mm height.
LR2616J L R 26 16 J A single-cell round alkaline battery, 26.2 mm diameter, 1.67 mm height.
LR8D425 L R 8.5 D 42.5 A single-cell round alkaline battery, 8.8 mm diameter (8.5 +0.3 for modifier) and 42.5 mm long, AAAA or ANSI "25" size.

Electrochemical system[edit]

IEC 60086 battery type designation system.

The first letter identifies the chemical composition of the battery, which also implies a nominal voltage. Certain rechargeable battery systems, commonly made in sizes interchangeable with primary batteries, also have symbols. IEC standard 61436 for rechargeable batteries defines certain sizes that are interchangeable with primary batteries.[2]

It is common to refer to the negative electrode first in IEC battery definitions.

IEC codes for battery electrochemical systems
Letter
code
Negative electrode Electrolyte Positive electrode Nominal
voltage
Main article
(none) Zinc Ammonium chloride/Zinc chloride Manganese dioxide 1.5 Zinc-carbon battery
A Zinc Ammonium chloride/Zinc chloride Oxygen 1.4 Zinc-air battery
B Lithium Organic Carbon monofluoride 3.0 Lithium battery
C Lithium Organic Manganese dioxide 3.0 Lithium battery
E Lithium Non-aqueous inorganic Thionyl chloride 3.6 Lithium battery
F Lithium Organic Iron disulfide 1.5 Lithium battery
G Lithium Organic Copper(II) oxide 1.5 Lithium battery
H Hydrogen absorbing alloy Alkali Nickel oxide 1.2 Nickel-metal hydride battery
K Cadmium Alkali Nickel oxide 1.2 Nickel-cadmium battery
L Zinc Alkali Manganese dioxide 1.5 Alkaline battery
M
(withdrawn)
Zinc Alkali Mercuric oxide 1.35 Mercury battery
N
(withdrawn)
Zinc Alkali Mercuric oxide
manganese dioxide
1.4 Mercury battery
P Zinc Alkali Oxygen 1.4 Zinc-air battery
PB Lead Sulfuric acid Lead dioxide 2.0 Lead-acid battery
S Zinc Alkali Silver oxide 1.55 Silver-oxide battery
Z Zinc Alkali Manganese dioxide and nickel oxyhydroxide 1.70 Nickel oxyhydroxide battery

Italics indicate a chemical system unlikely to be found in consumer or general-purpose batteries, or withdrawn from the current standard.

Bold indicates a secondary (rechargeable) cell type.

Shape[edit]

LR44 alkaline cell.

Shape codes are:

R Round, (coin, button or cylindrical)
P Not round
F Flat (layer built)
S Square (or rectangular or prismatic)

Italics indicate a shape code that is still in use but is not to be used for new battery definitions.

Size code[edit]

Certain sizes, given by one or two digit numbers, represent standard size codes from previous editions of the standard. Sizes given as 4 or more digits indicate the diameter of the battery and the overall height.

The numbers in the code correlate with the battery dimensions. For batteries with dimensions of < 100 mm the (truncated) diameter in millimetres, followed by the height in tenths of a millimetre; for batteries with a single dimension ≥ 100 mm the diameter in millimetres, then a slash (/) followed by the height in millimetres.

As well as the recommended size code definitions there are also ten modifying suffix letters that can be added to the end of the specific size code. These run from A to L (omitting F and I) and depending on the largest dimension of the battery can either signify 0.0 – 0.9 mm maximum dimensions or 0.00 – 0.09 mm maximum dimensions with A being 0.0 or 0.00 and L being 0.9 or 0.09.

For flat cells the diameter code is given as the diameter of a circle circumscribed around the whole cell's area.

Standardized size codes for round batteries which do not follow the current nomenclature but have been retained for ease of use are given by a one or two digit number following the R. These include but are not limited to: [9]

IEC size codes for round batteries
Number
code
Nominal
diameter
Nominal
height
Common name
R25 32 91 F
R20 34.2 61.5 D
R14 26.2 50.0 C
R6 14.5 50.5 AA
R1 12.0 30.2 N
R03 10.5 44.5 AAA

Round button batteries also carry two-digit size codes such as R44, see the button battery table for typical dimensions. Other round, flat, and square sizes have been standardized but are used mostly for components of multi-cell batteries.

Assorted sizes of button and coin cells, including alkaline and silver oxide chemistries. Four rectangular 9v batteries are also shown, for size comparison. Enlarge to see the button and coin cell size code markings.

The following is a partial list of IEC standard recommended diameter and height codes for round cells:

IEC recommended round cell diameter and height codes
Number
code
Maximum
diameter
Maximum
height
4 4.8
5 5.8
6 6.8
7 7.9
9 9.5
10 10.0
11 11.6
12 12.5 1.20
16 16 1.60
20 20 2.00
23 23
24 24.5
25 2.50
30 3.00
36 3.60
50 5.00

Modifiers[edit]

After the package size code(s), additional letters may optionally appear in the type designation to indicate the electrolyte used:

Terminal styles and variants of the same battery can be designated with the letters X or Y. Performance levels may also be designated with a C, P, S, CF, HH, or HB or other letter suffixes. Rechargeable types may have a suffix L, M, or H to designate low, medium or high discharge rating designs. An appended letter "W" states that this battery complies with all the requirements of the IEC 60086-3 standard for watch batteries, such as dimensional tolerance, chemical leakage, and test methods.

ANSI battery nomenclature[edit]

Early editions of the ANSI standard used a letter code to identify the dimensions of the cell. Since at the time there were only carbon-zinc cells, no suffix letters or other notation were required. The letter system was introduced in the 1924 edition of the standard, with letters A through J assigned approximately in order of increasing cell volume, for cells typically manufactured at that time.[6] By 1934, the system had been revised and extended to 17 sizes ranging from NS at 7/16 inch diameter by 3/4 inch height, through size J at 1¾ inches diameter by 5 7/8 inches high, to the largest standard cell which retained its old designation of No. 6 and which was 2½ inches in diameter and 6 inches high.

Size and shape codes[edit]

4.5-Volt, D, C, AA, AAA, AAAA, A23, 9-Volt, CR2032 and LR44 cells.

The current edition of the standard uses a numerical code to show the cell size. Common round cell sizes are:

ANSI primary cell sizes and equivalent size designations
Number
code
Other name IEC size
13 D R20
14 C R14
15 AA R6
24 AAA R03
25 AAAA R8D425

Since these IEC and ANSI battery standards have been harmonized, for example, an R20 cell will have the same dimensions as an ANSI 13 cell.

Flat cells, used as components of multi-cell batteries, have an F prefix and a series of numbers to identify sizes. Coin cells were assigned size codes in the 5000 range.

Secondary cells using systems H and K (nickel-metal hydride and nickel-iron sulfide) have a separate series of size codes, but the cells are dimensionally interchangeable with primary cells.

System and performance suffix letters[edit]

The electrochemical system and performance information is given in suffix letters.

ANSI suffix letters
Letter Significance IEC system letter
(none) carbon-zinc (none)
A alkaline L
AC alkaline industrial L + suffix letter
AP alkaline photographic L + suffix letter
C carbon-zinc industrial none + suffix letter
CD carbon zinc industrial heavy duty none + suffix letter
D carbon zinc heavy duty none + suffix letter
F
lithium iron disulfide F
H nickel metal hydride
(rechargeable)
H
K nickel cadmium
(rechargeable)
K
LB lithium-carbon monofluoride B
LC lithium-manganese dioxide C
LF lithium-iron disulfide F
M
(withdrawn)
mercuric oxide M
(withdrawn)
SO silver oxide S
SOP silver oxide photographic S + suffix letter
Z zinc-air P

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.iec.ch/about/history/techline/ retrieved 12 January 2010
  2. ^ a b c David Linden, Thomas B. Reddy (ed). Handbook Of Batteries 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002 ISBN 0-07-135978-8 chapter 4
  3. ^ M. Barak Electrochemical power sources: primary and secondary batteries, IET, 1980 ISBN 0-906048-26-5, page 51
  4. ^ Thomas Roy Crompton, Battery reference book,Newnes, 2000 ISBN 0-7506-4625-X, Appendix 2
  5. ^ British Standards
  6. ^ a b Ron Runkles (ed) A Brief History of the Standardization of Portable Cells and Batteries in the United States, American National Standards Institute Accredited Standards Committee C18 on Portable Cells and Batteries, 2002 , ANSI Battery Standardization History . Retrieved 2010 Jan 9.
  7. ^ As indicated in IEC 60086-2 §7
  8. ^ All information is correct to the current version (2011) of IEC 60086 (Parts 1 to 3). As of Thursday 9th June 2011.
  9. ^ A more complete table is found in the current IEC standard (Table C.1 Annex C) or in Barak 1980 page 53