BattleTech is a wargaming and science fiction franchise launched by FASA Corporation in 1984, acquired by WizKids in 2000, and owned since 2003 by Topps. The series began with FASA's debut of the board game BattleTech (originally named BattleDroids) by Jordan Weisman and L. Ross Babcock III and has since grown to include numerous expansions to the original game, several computer and video games, a collectible card game, a series of more than 100 novels, an animated television series and more.
Original game 
Chicago-based FASA Corporation's original, 1984 BattleTech game focuses on enormous robotic, semi-humanoid battle machines called BattleDroids. The name of the game was changed to BattleTech in the second edition because George Lucas and Lucasfilm claimed the rights to the term "droid"; the machines themselves were renamed BattleMechs from the second edition onwards. The visual design of the earliest line of BattleMechs were taken from Macross and other anime, including many signature images. In later years FASA abandoned these images, and it was common speculation by fans that the decision was the result of a lawsuit brought against them by Playmates and Harmony Gold [USA] over the use of said images. No official broke the silence until 2007, after FASA had sold the BattleTech intellectual property to WizKids Games. Under license from them, the Classic BattleTech line developer for Fantasy Productions, Randall N. Bills explained that FASA had sued Playmates over the use of images owned by FASA, but received no compensation, even though Playmates was ordered to stop using the images in question. After realizing how the use of licensed images made them vulnerable to lawsuits and afraid that such a suit would bankrupt the company, FASA made the decision to only use images owned by them and them alone. The BattleMechs taken from the various anime sources were then considered "Unseen". When Fantasy Productions licensed the property, these "Unseen" images were expanded to include all art produced "out-of-house" – that is, whose copyrights resided with the creators, not the company. Catalyst Game Labs has continued this practice. On 24 June 2009, Catalyst Game Labs announced that they had secured the rights to the "unseen"; as a result, art depicting the original 'Mechs absent from publications for over a decade, can be legally used again. An update on 11 Aug. 2009 has placed the unseen restriction on several designs once again. This update affects only the designs whose images originated from Macross. Designs whose images originated from other anime such as Dougram and Crusher Joe are unaffected by this change and are still no longer considered unseen. By August 2011, the remaining images that were considered to be unseen were returned to unseen status due to continuing problems with license agreements.
At its most basic, the game of BattleTech is played on a map sheet composed of hexagon-shaped terrain tiles. The combat units are 30-foot-tall (9.1 m) humanoid armored combat units called BattleMechs, powered by fusion reactors, armed with lasers, particle projection cannons, autocannons, and both short and long range missiles. Typically these are represented on the game board by two-inch-tall miniature figurines that the players can paint to their own specifications, although older publications such as the 1st edition included small scale plastic models originally created for the Macross TV series, and the 2nd edition boxed set included small cardboard pictures (front and back images) that were set in rubber bases to represent the units. The game is played in turns, with each turn composed of multiple stages. During each stage players alternate back and forth playing the game. The stages are initiative, movement, attack declaration, attacks, physical attacks, and end phase. Winning initiative actually means the winning player moves second, advantageous because the player can react to the movements and attack declarations of the losing player.
Heat buildup is a major limiting factor of the game, and overheating a unit can have many negative affects such as penalties to weapon accuracy, slower movement, or even detonation of any ammunition carried by the Mech.
Armor is tracked by body location of the mech, such as arms, legs, and multiple torso locations. Combat generally involves a slow attrition of damage over multiple turns of the game.
The game's popularity spawned several variants and expansions to the core system, including CityTech which fleshed out urban operations, infantry and vehicle combat, AeroTech which focused on air- and space-based operations, and BattleSpace which detailed large spacecraft combat. FASA also published numerous sourcebooks that featured specifications for new combat units that players could select from. However, despite the large number of such pre-designed BattleMechs, vehicles, aerospace units and other military hardware, the creators also established a system of custom design rules, enabling players to generate their own units and field them in combat. This engineering aspect of the game, itself expanded by several design and technology sourcebooks, has proven to be enduringly popular and may explain BattleTech's longevity.
FASA launched two additional systems to complement the core game: BattleTroops, an infantry combat system, and BattleForce, a large-scale combat simulator governing the actions of grouped BattleTech units. The Succession Wars, a board game released in 1987, is one of only two purely strategic titles of the series (the other being "The Inner Sphere in Flames" from the Combat Operations book). The Succession Wars is played on a political star map, with players trying to capture regions of space.
Recent years have seen a trend of consolidating the expansions into the core products, beginning under FASA's aegis and continued by both FanPro and Catalyst Game Labs. Of the current set of core rules, Total Warfare includes elements originating in CityTech and AeroTech 2 (itself a consolidation of AeroTech and BattleSpace), while Tactical Operations consolidates Maximum Tech Rules and adds new rules for Advance/Experimental weapons & equipment, Strategic Operations includes advance Aerospace rules which include usage of large aerospace units (Jumpships/Warships/Space Stations/Fighter Squadrons) which is remaining half AeroTech 2 left out of Total Warfare as well revised version of BattleForce, and Interstellar Operations is slated to introduce rules to control Clans/Succession Houses/Empires to conquer the Inner Sphere or Clan Space.
Spin-off games 
The BattleTech franchise first extended beyond the tabletop wargame format with the release of MechWarrior, a role-playing game in which players portray BattleMech pilots or other characters in the 31st century. The RPG system has been republished in several editions and expanded by various sourcebooks and supplements. In 1996, FASA also introduced the BattleTech Collectible Card Game, a CCG developed by Wizards of the Coast, creators of the popular Magic: The Gathering.
WizKids, the owners of the BattleTech franchise since 2001, introduced a collectable miniatures-based variant of the classic tabletop game called MechWarrior: Dark Age in 2002 (later renamed MechWarrior: Age of Destruction). The game incorporates WizKids' "Clix System", a means of tracking the combat statistics and abilities of each figure by turning a dial in its base.
BattleMechs, the hulking flagship units of the franchise, made a natural subject for computer emulation, and so in 1988 Infocom released a PC based RPG called BattleTech: The Crescent Hawk's Inception, which took place in the canonized BattleTech story universe. It was later followed up with a sequel, BattleTech: The Crescent Hawk's Revenge in 1990. Both games were reasonably well received, although aside from storyline continuity the second game held few similarities to its predecessor.
The first pure simulation of BattleMech combat, however, was released for computers in 1989. Entitled MechWarrior and published by Activision, the single-player game gave users the opportunity to pilot a range of 'Mechs and engage in combat against computer-controlled opponents. Sequels MechWarrior 2 (1995), MechWarrior 3 (1999) and MechWarrior 4 (2000) created simulations of progressively higher technical sophistication. The most recent commercial game is MechWarrior 4: Mercenaries (2002) and the most recent developments have been in fan based modding. 'Mekpaks' for Mechwarrior 4 Mercenaries made by Mektek have been released, adding new Weapons, Mechs and graphics. A high Definition pack has been released for Mekpaks 2 and 3 by Mechstorm. Recently a group has been modding Crysis for the release of a BattleTech game known as MechWarrior Living Legends and the first public beta was released on December 26, 2009. A possible MechWarrior 5 was being produced, though it lingered in development for about a year and was eventually canceled. Currently Smith & Tinker own the MechWarrior Electronic franchise. As of July 9, 2009, it has been confirmed the franchise will be rebooted. Further trailers of MechWarrior Reboot were released and it was confirmed that the timeline would be reset to around 3015, several years before the start of the Fourth Succession War. Though it seemed that the legal troubles which originally plagued FASA due to the similarities between Battletech mechs and those in Robotech/Macross had returned to cause some troubles for Piranha Games, the company later released a statement noting that their primary troubles had been with finding a publisher, which eventually lead to the announcement of a free-to-play reboot called Mechwarrior Online, set around the start of the clan invasions.
The franchise saw its first online-dedicated game with Multiplayer BattleTech: EGA in 1992, which was followed by Multiplayer Battletech: Solaris in 1996. 1994 saw the series' first console original title, the simply titled BattleTech for the Sega Genesis. Other notable titles include the MechCommander series for the PC (MechCommander in 1998 and MechCommander 2 in 2001) and the MechAssault series (MechAssault and MechAssault 2: Lone Wolf in 2002 and 2004, respectively, for the Xbox, and MechAssault: Phantom War in 2006 for the Nintendo DS).
A dedicated fan community also works hard on an online free version of the tabletop game, called MegaMek. This project led to follow up projects like MekWars, which aims at making campaigns out of MegaMek games. There were also a series of fan-created Battletech MUSEs then later MUXes (text-only multiplayer games with ASCII images, accessed by telnet connection) in the 1990s, starting with Battletech 3025 MUSE in 1991.
Virtual World Entertainment 
The BattleTech creators' goal of creating an immersive BattleMech simulation came to fruition in 1990 with the opening of the first BattleTech Center at the North Pier Mall in Chicago. The BattleTech Center featured 16 networked, full-sized cockpits or "pods" that resembled a fully functional BattleMech cockpit with over 80 separate controls. Each player selected a 'Mech to pilot into combat against up to seven other human players in the other cockpits.
Virtual World Entertainment, the company that managed the centers, later opened many other Virtual World centers around the world. It eventually merged with FASA Interactive Technologies (FIT) to form Virtual World Entertainment Group (VWEG) to better capitalize on various FASA properties. In 1999, Microsoft Corporation purchased VWEG to integrate FIT into Microsoft Game Studios and sold VWE. VWE continues to develop and support the current BattleTech VR platform called the Tesla II system, featuring BattleTech: Firestorm.
Beyond gaming 
The popularity of the BattleTech games and the fictional universe they inhabit has led to a number of related projects in other areas. The most active of these is a line of popular science fiction novels, with more than 100 titles published to date. The novels are set in both the Classic BattleTech era (mid-3000s) and the Dark Age era (3130s). The original BattleTech novels were produced between 1986 until 2002; the Dark Age era Novels were produced from 2002 to early 2008. An online writing project named BattleCorps also produces novelettes set in various eras of the BattleTech universe.
In July 2008 it was announced that both the Classic BattleTech and MechWarrior book lines would resume by the end of 2008.
BattleTech: The Animated Series, a 13-episode television show produced by Saban Entertainment, aired on Fox in late 1994. Plots centered around Major Adam Steiner and his First Somerset Strikers, and their conflict with Clan Jade Falcon.
Electric Entertainment, a company under contract to Paramount Studios, has leased the rights to produce a motion picture based on the BattleTech universe, but development has been slow and little is known about the project's status.
As part of their line of BattleTech products, FASA printed The Spider and the Wolf in 1986, a comic-style sourcebook depicting the inception of the "Black Widow Company" in 3015 and offering a brief introduction to the BattleTech universe on the inside cover, and three game scenarios in the back of the book.
By virtue of being published by FASA proper, The Spider and the Wolf is considered canonical for the BattleTech universe, unlike other comics produced by third parties.
In the late 80s, Blackthorne Publishing produced several licensed comics under the "BattleTech" moniker (including an "annual" and a 3-D issue), plus a series of "BattleForce" comics that was scheduled to run for (at least) three issues but had only two published, leaving the story arc unfinished.
The Blackthorne comics are not dated, but their time of publication and context suggests the stories are set in or around the year 3025, the "classic" period of BattleTech.
A four issue comic BattleTech: Fallout was issued by Malibu Comics in 1994-1995, plus a fifth issue (titled "Issue #0") that offered three very short stories supplementing the series, but outside of the story arc. Set during the Clan Invasion in early 3050, they depict disparate fugitives pairing with the Belt Pirates to form an irregular BattleMech force and end the Clan occupation of the Star's End system.
The first Fallout issue was also printed in two special editions, one with gold print ("gold edition") and one with a holographic cover.
A detailed timeline stretching from the late 20th century to the mid-32nd describes humanity's technological, social and political development and spread through space both in broad historical terms and through accounts of the lives of individuals who experienced and shaped that history. Individual people remain largely unchanged from those of modern times, due in part to stretches of protracted interplanetary warfare during which technological progress slowed or even reversed. Cultural, political and social conventions vary considerably between worlds, but feudalism is widespread, with many states ruled by hereditary lords and other nobility, below which are numerous social classes.
A key feature of the BattleTech universe is the absence of non-human intelligent life. Despite one or two isolated encounters in novels, mankind is the only sentient species, making the incessant warfare among humanity's feudal empires seem a more realistic and direct extension of the past and present.
Above all, the central theme of BattleTech is conflict, something to be expected given the franchise's wargaming core. Interstellar and civil wars, planetary battles, factionalization and infighting, as well as institutionalized combat in the shape of arena contests and duelling, form the grist of both novelized fiction and game backstories.
BattleTech's fictional history covers the approximately 1150 years from the end of the 20th century to the middle of the 32nd. Most works in the series are set during the early to middle decades of the 31st century, though a few publications concern earlier ages, including a technical readout describing 2750s-era technology. MechWarrior: Dark Ages and its related novels take place in the mid 3100s.
The level of technology evident in BattleTech is an unusual blend of the highly futuristic and the nearly modern. Radically advanced tech like faster-than-light interstellar travel and superluminal communication mix with seemingly anachronistic technologies as internal combustion engines, projectile weapons and artillery. Artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, androids, and many other staples of future fiction are generally absent or downplayed. Incessant warfare is generally blamed for the uneven advancement, the destruction of industry and institutes of learning over the centuries of warfare having resulted in the loss of much technology and knowledge. As rivalries and conflicts have dragged on, the most common advanced technologies - used to gain military advantage - are redeveloped for the battlefield. Because the BattleTech universe reached a pinnacle of scientific achievement before it collapsed in strife, there is an element of LosTech that is sometimes used as a tool in fiction and/or gameplay to add new dimensions to the storyline. LosTech represents designs and occasionally implementations of technological advances that were at some point achieved, but believed to have been lost over the ages. LosTech is frequently found in Star League-era caches, the locations of which have been forgotten or have been made inaccessible for various reasons. When designs and schematics are found, the most common source are old ComStar locations, as their organization held the majority of the most powerful and best-maintained computer systems.
Political entities 
Terra is the homeworld of mankind (no longer commonly called Earth, although this name is sometimes used) and former capital of the Star League. Many planets around Terra were rendered uninhabitable during the first two Succession Wars, and surviving planets suffer from the damage even centuries later. Several dozen of these worlds, in what came to be known as the Chaos March, briefly gained their independence between 3057 and 3081. Historically, whichever faction controlled Terra has held more political power than any single Great House. Several groups have held Terra, including the Terran Alliance, Terran Hegemony, ComStar, Word of Blake, and Republic of the Sphere; most of these nations fought bitter struggles upon Terra, scarring the world.
Inner Sphere 
The Inner Sphere, heart of the BattleTech Universe, contains all worlds within 500 light-years of Terra. It is dominated by five "Great Houses": House Davion, House Liao, House Marik, House Steiner and House Kurita. (The term "Inner Sphere" sometimes refers to these houses collectively). The leader of each Great House claims to be the rightful successor to the rule of the Star League, and so their nations are known as the Successor States.
There are few other significant nations in the Inner Sphere. The St. Ives Compact was a short-lived state that broke away from the Capellan Confederation after the Fourth Succession War, and was reabsorbed following a brief war in 3062. The Free Rasalhague Republic was created in 3034 by a deal between the Draconis Combine and the Lyran Commonwealth. It rivaled the Capellan Confederation for size, but by 3052 it had been almost entirely conquered by the Clans; in the 3070s, much of it was incorporated into the Ghost Bear Dominion (which is known as the Rasalhague Dominion by 3130).
The space surrounding the Inner Sphere contains a number of independent nations, known collectively as the Periphery. The largest of these nations (the Outworlds Alliance, Taurian Concordat, Magistracy of Canopus, and Rim Worlds Republic) predate the Star League and rival the Successor States themselves in size, but are inferior economically and militarily. More moderately sized nations, such as the Marian Hegemony or Bandit Kingdoms, also lie near the Inner Sphere. The Periphery contains countless other independent nations, many consisting of a single star system each and rarely playing a significant role in Inner Sphere politics. The mostly uncharted space beyond the nearby Periphery states is known as the Deep Periphery and contains numerous pirate havens and lost Star League colonies.
During the Fall of the aforementioned Star League, the Star League Defense Force exiled itself and eventually settled in the Deep Periphery. They reformed into the Clans, a warrior-centric caste society relying on genetic manipulation and artificial birth. The four strongest of these Clans returned to the Inner Sphere as would-be conquerors in 3049, were reinforced by three more Clans a year later, and were joined in the late 3060s by another two. Of the original twenty Clans, by 3067 three were absorbed, two were annihilated, two fragmented, two defected, and one was abjured. The Clan Occupation Zones together occupy a region roughly equivalent to one of the Successor States. 
The Inner Sphere is home to many private military companies. Some of them are quite powerful, and their actions have influenced the history of the known universe. Among the most famous mercenary groups are the Wolf's Dragoons, Eridani Light Horse, Kell Hounds, Northwind Highlanders, Gray Death Legion, and McCarron's Armored Cavalry.
See also 
- BattleTech technology
- List of BattleTech characters
- List of BattleTech novels
- List of BattleTech games
- Clute, John; Nicholls, Peter, eds. (1995) . "Games and Sports". The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. technical editor, John Grant; contributing editor, Brian Stableford (2nd ed.). New York: St. Martin's Griffin. p. 466. ISBN 978-0-312-09618-2. "...many visions of a corrupt future society forsee the return of bloody games in the Roman tradition... The BattleTech shared-world series (see also Robert Thurston) moves the formula on to a galactic stage."
- ICv2 - Topps Acquires WizKids
- Reed, Philip (2007). "BattleTech". In Lowder, James. Hobby Games: The 100 Best. Green Ronin Publishing. pp. 24–27
- Weisman, Jordan; L. Ross Babcock III (1984). Basic Battledroids. Chicago: FASA Corporation.
- Harmony Gold U.S.A. and Playmates Toys v. FASA Corporation and Virtual World Entertainment, 95 2972 (U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division 1996-06-12).
- Record Sheets: Phoenix Upgrades. BattleCorps. 2006. pp. 1–2.
- Catalyst Game Labs | Publisher of exciting adventure games including Shadowrun and BattleTech
- Sometimes Things Just Don’t Go As We Want Them To | BattleTech: 25 Years of Heavy Metal Mayhem
- Update on Unseen/Reseen/Unseen/Uhhhhh?
- WizKids Games
- WizKids Games
- MechWarrior 5 Trouble Brewing? - IGN
- MWO: News
- Catalyst Game Labs bring Classic BattleTech, Shadowrun, and MechWarrior novels back to bookstores | Catalyst Game Labs
- "BattleTech: Fallout".
- Bills, Randall N.; et al. (2007). "A Brief History of the Inner Sphere". Inner Sphere at a Glance. Classic BattleTech. Lake Stevens, WA: Catalyst Game Labs (inMediaRes Productions). ISBN 978-0-9792047-3-9.
- Hess, Clare W.; et al. (1989). Donna Ippolito, ed. Technical Readout: 2750 (Corrected Second Printing ed.). Chicago: FASA Corporation. ISBN 978-1-55560-089-1.
- "WizKids: MechWarrior". Archived from the original on 2007-12-08. Retrieved 2007-12-09.
- "Combat Equipment"
- "Technical Readout: Vehicle Annex"
- "The Legend of the Jade Phoenix Trilogy"
- "Mercenaries Supplemental"
- "Mercenaries Supplemental II"
Official sites 
- Classic BattleTech - The official site for Classic Battletech board game.
- Catalyst Game Labs, Official Publisher of Classic BattleTech and Shadowrun
- Iron Wind Metals, official manufacturer of Classic BattleTech miniatures
- HeavyMetal Software, official software for Classic BattleTech
- BattleCorps, official fiction and game material for Classic BattleTech
- Virtual World Entertainment The maker of the full size BattleTech VR Simulator, BattleTech: Firestorm
Animated series