Battle in the Bay of Matanzas

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Battle in the Bay of Matanzas
Part of the Eighty Years' War
MatanzasBay.png
Matanzas lies on Cuba's north coast, east of Havana.
Date 7 September–8 September 1628
Location Near Matanzas, Cuba
Result Decisive Dutch Victory
  • Capture of the Spanish treasure fleet by the Dutch
Belligerents
Dutch Republic United Provinces Spain Spain
Commanders and leaders
Dutch Republic Piet Hein
Dutch Republic Witte de With
Spain Juan de Benavides Bazán
Strength
31 vessels 21 vessels
Casualties and losses
No casualties 16 vessels captured

Minimal casualties

The Battle in the Bay of Matanzas was a naval battle during the Eighty Years' War in which a Dutch squadron was able to defeat and capture a Spanish treasure fleet.

Overview[edit]

In 1628, Admiral Piet Hein, with Witte de With as his flag captain, sailed out to capture the Spanish treasure fleet loaded with silver from their American colonies. With him was Admiral Hendrick Lonck and he was later joined by a squadron of Vice-Admiral Joost Banckert. Part of the Spanish fleet in Venezuela had been warned because a Dutch cabin boy had lost his way on Blanquilla and was captured, betraying the plan, but the other half from Mexico continued its voyage, unaware of the threat. Sixteen Spanish ships were intercepted; one galleon was taken after a surprise encounter during the night, nine smaller merchants were talked into a surrender; two small ships were taken at sea fleeing, four fleeing galleons were trapped on the Cuban coast in the Bay of Matanzas.

After some musket volleys from Dutch sloops their crews surrendered also and Hein captured 11,509,524 guilders of booty in gold, silver and other expensive trade goods, as indigo and cochineal, without any bloodshed. The Dutch didn't take prisoners: they gave the Spanish crews ample supplies for a march to Havana. The released were surprised to hear the admiral personally giving them directions in fluent Spanish; Hein after all was well acquainted with the region as he had been confined to it during his internment after 1603. The treasure was the company's greatest victory in the Caribbean.

As a result, the money funded the Dutch army for eight months, allowing it to capture the fortress 's-Hertogenbosch, and the shareholders enjoyed a cash dividend of 50% for that year. Hein returned to the Netherlands in 1629, where he was hailed as a hero. Watching the crowds cheering him standing on the balcony of the town hall of Leiden he remarked to the town mayor: "Now they praise me because I gained riches without the least danger; but earlier when I risked my life in full combat they didn't even know I existed." He was the first and last to capture such a large part of a Spanish "silver fleet" from the Americas, which were very well-protected.

Plan of the West Indies Company (WIC)

One squadron of 12 ships (180 cannons), under the command of Direck Symensz, went to Brazil to the state of Pemambuco, in the north-east region of the country, and took several sugar ships. A second squadron, also containing 12 ships, although larger and more heavily armed, was under the command of Pieter Adriaansz from the city of Vlissingen (Flushing, province Zeeland). His order was to operate in the waters of the West Indies and attack ships from Honduras and Mexico. These squadrons were nothing compared to the main force of the WIC, consisting of 31 ships (14 more than 250ton). Among them were the Amsterdam (625ton – 22 x 48 pounders and 30 x 25 pounders) and the Hollandsche Thuyn (500ton), enormous ships for those days. The rest of the fleet had 32 and 42 pounders. All in all, the Dutch West Indies Company had 65 ships in the region.

May 22 1628

The big fleet left Texel out of the sight of the Portuguese to Brazil. What admiral Heyn didn’t know was that the Spaniards knew about the plans.

July 10 1628

A cannon shot was fired when they sighted land. Short after they anchored at St Vincent. Here the put in water and food, except flesh that they couldn't get here.

So they decided to go to the island Islas Blanca where were a lot of goats. When the fleet left there, they were missing a crewmember. They tried to find the man but didn't found him. They left him behind but this would be a disaster. Short after that a privateer ship landed on the island who found the crewmember sleeping. After an interrogation and arresting him, the ship continued his voyage to La Guayara where the man was put on a transport to Cartagena. Here he was extremely interrogated and gave the necessary information. By this way the Spaniards were informed about the plans to attack their silver fleet from Terra Firma. Piet Heyn was lucky that the news didn't reached Vera Cruz and the silver fleet sailed out from there. Meanwhile, the squadron of Pieter Adriaensz, that sailed in the West Indies waters had no problems, but on the island Grenada it went wrong. 16 crewmembers lost their life during the fishing. They were killed by natives. Later were some prices or bounty ships taken. The reconnaissance of the copper harbor of Santiago de Cuba had no result. They were cruising before the Cuba coast around Cape Antonio.

July 21 1628

The 1628 Spanish silver fleet of Mexico departed early. It contained 30 cargo ships and 5 galleons. The lasts under the command of Don Juan de Benevides y Bazan as "Capitan-General" with Don Juan de Leoz as second in command or "Almirante" and Don Francisco Denneboa as commander of the soldiers. Immediately after they left Vera Cruz bad luck began already for the fleet. Not far from the coast, they were surprised by a storm coming from the north. The Capitana, the admiralship, stranded on a beach and the rest returned confused. Some ships were damaged so they couldn’t continue.

July 27 1628

Piet Heyn reached with his 31 ships Cap Tiburon in Hispaniola. From there they went to Isla de Pinos.

July 31 1628

The squadron of Pieter Adriaensz sighted the Honduras sailors. These large ships seamed to be warned and were sailing near the coast and tried to reach by this way the harbor of Havana. They were intercepted by the Leeuwin, the best sailing ship of the Dutch fleet. During this action it ran aground and was heavily damaged by the gunfire of two Spanish ships. Finally both ships were overpowered. One was so heavily damaged that was decided to put the precious cargo onto the other ship. The Nuestra Señora de los Remedios was put on fire in front of the coast of Florida. Everything happened very fast because they were waiting for the arrival of the other Spanish ships. All of this was unknown to Piet Heyn and he didn't know that the Spaniards know about his presence in the region.

August 3 1628

During Piet Heyn’s voyage from Cap Tiburon to Isla de Pinos, between both capes they saw 2 sails. They immediately began the purchase. It seems to be two Dutch ship that came lose from the fleet. The Rode Leeuw and the Pinas both from the chamber of Amsterdam. It seemed they sailed more to the south that the rest of the convoy. The Roode Leeuw and the Pinas joined the fleet after recovery of the attack by the Dunquerk privateers.

August 5 1628

The ships arrived in San Antonio and were keeled. Between august 5th and 10th the ships were cleaned near Cape Antonio. Because the course of the ships of New Spain was more to the north, Piet Heyn went to the Tortugas, a group of islands that continued the Keys at the Westside of Florida. There was told by fishermen that the fleet from New Spain from Vera Cruz could arrive every moment. But due to unforeseen circumstances it would last three more weeks. But now they knew for sure at the Dutch side that they still had a chance.

August 8 1628

The Spanish silver fleet from Mexico left again from Vera Cruz. Their force was reduced to eleven cargo ships and four galleons. The cargo of the ships that were left behind was dispersed under the other ships and also on the war ships. This meant that the warships were packed so full that the guns could just be partly served.

August 21 1628

The Dutch fleet met two Spanish ships who thought that this was the fleet from New Spain. When they saw he mistake, skipper Marcus d’Almeida told that he was sailed out by order of the governor of Havana. He knows nothing from the position of the Spanish, or the Dutch fleet but had to warn them. He was captured during 29 days on the Dutch fleet.

August 22 1628

To verify the new information the ships went immediately to the North coast of Cuba because the Spanish fleet from Terra Firma or the fleet from New Spain were not here.

August 24 1628

They arrived at Havana. The castle of El Morro was seen very clear but it seemed very difficult to sail in that region. The east orientated stream, that goes by the Great Antilles made the ships continuously drifting so they lost very soon Havana out of their viewing and saw a mountain, that seen from the sea, had the form of a bread and was called by the Spanish "Pan de Matanzas". While the main force was trying to fight the stream, what was difficult because of the stormy weather, Piet Heyn sent out some ships for look out.

August 27 1628

Around this day they had a council because they were already 14 days overdue to the orders of the “Lords of 19”. There was proposed to stop the operation and to sail back to Europe.

August 28 1628

Another Spanish ship was sighted. Witte de With asked to attack and got the permission. The ship with his 50men crew was overwhelmed. The prisoners were brought to the admiralship were they were questioned. This ship was also sent out by the governor of Havana to warn the Spanish fleet. Out of the questioning seemed that they were coming. So they didn’t left for Europe and thanks to De With the mission became successful. From the captured prisoners they also heard that the cruising Dutch fleet was seen by El Morro, that there were 400 to 500 men and 70 guns in the castle. In the 2 forts in front of the castle were 20 and 28 cannons. So it was the plan to catch the fleet before they could arrive in the strong harbor. There was no danger for this because there were no warships in the harbor of Havana, only a just finished galley and one who was still under construction. Although they were now very sure that the silver fleet could not escape, they didn't knew why the fleet was so late.

September 2 1628

Piet Heyn send out his fastest ship, De Vos again in the direction of the Tortugas to know something about Banckert, who’s fleet was still missing. They were not found there.

September 7 1628

In the morning at sunrise sails were seen at the horizon sailing towards the fleet. It seemed to be the squadron of Banckert; Neptunus, De Goude Sonne, De Goude Leeuw, the Dolphijn (dolphin) and the yacht Postpaert. Finally the fleet was complete.

September 8 1628

During the night the guard of the Witte Leeuw sighted down under their bow a Spanish merchant ship that was lost from the Spanish silver fleet. He shouted to stay away and the Spaniards answered "Que quiereis". The sloops were immediately manned and the Nuestra Señora de la Concepcion was captured. The captain of the ship was brought to the Dutch commander. When the sun came up, about 20 sails were sighted of which nine with some difficulty were captured. Afterwards it seemed that, without knowing of the Dutch presence, they followed the shooting of the enemy ships during the night. This seems to be cargo ships.

At a large distance were seen some numbers of big ships. Once they saw the Dutch they went to the coast, trying to reach the bay of Matanzas because Admiral Hendrick Lonck could cut off the way to Havana. The only reachable harbor for the Spaniards was now in the Bay of Matanzas[disambiguation needed]. But these waters were not known to the Spanish steersmen. Meanwhile there was a race going on. The Dutch did all efforts to overtake the Spaniards.

September 9 1628

The next morning the Dutch fleet also entered the bay. (There is no agreement in the archives about the time that the Dutch fleet entered the bay of Matanza. Netscher writes “the next day at 9 o clock”, other archives mentioned that Piet Heyn was close upon his heels of the Spaniards. Piet Heyn was probably not in the possession of good maps of the Cuban coast. Even those of the Spaniards were not accurate because some of their ships stranded on sand banks or other shoal that were not marked on the maps. This made it probable that the Dutch attack happened in the morning. The Spaniards also tried to unload their ships and trying to make an entrenchment on the shore, points into that direction. They wouldn’t have the time if Piet Heyn followed them close. The evening before the Dutch tried in vain to cut of the way, although all sails were set and Piet Heyn even let them make wet to let them catch more wind. The whole Spanish fleet was confused when the Dutch arrived. Some ships were run aground when night fell and were lying in a way that the cannons that could be used couldn’t reach the entrance of the bay. The Dutch reached the bay in time. Some of their ships also ran aground. Piet Heyn had to handle quickly because the Spaniards planned to build a stronghold on land and defend the treasures there. When admiral Heyn anchored in the bay, he found already several boats around his ship that were set out by admiral Lonck and vice admiral Banckert to enter the ships. Heyn went on board of a sloop of the Hollandsche Thuyn and ordered to go first to the ship of the vice admiral Benavides. The crew of the Spanish ship, who already partially left in panic, shoots some musket fire, but where talked by the “General”, that is how the Spaniards called Piet Hein. The same was done with the rest of the fleet.

During one week they were working of transferring the cargo of the captured ships to the Dutch fleet. They had not much confidence in the seaworthiness of the Spanish ships. They hurried up because they feared that the fleet of Terra Firma showed up. But this fleet was lying safe and well in the harbor of Cartagena. When making inventory of the booty, it consisted 177.000 pound silver, some gold (some chains and a crown), skins, chests with sugar, etc. The Spanish galleons were partially unloaded. He took 4 Spanish galleons (Santa Ana Maria, Santa Gertrudis, San Juan Bautista and the Nuestra Señora de la Antigua) and one new smaller ship with the same name. All other ships were burned or sunk on site. The Galleon Nuestra Señora de la Antigua was renamed to Santa Lucia. The smaller ship Nuestra Señora de la Antigua was renamed to Medemblik.

September 17 1628

Two hours before sunrise Piet Heyn's fleet left the bay on their way back. The governor from Havana sent out two ships to the street of Florida to watch for the Dutch fleet, one in the north and one in the south. It was sent 140 miles west of the Bermudas. It was given to the yachts Ooievaar and Vos.

September 26 1628

On his way back admiral Heyn wrote the Lords of 19 a letter of the event. It is dated September 26 1628.

September 30 1628

The Spanish ships signalled Piet Heyn's fleet passing the passage of Florida.

October 25 1628

During the night the Santa Gertrudis lost his foremast and the stem of the ship.

October 31 1628

After installing a new mast she was seen the 31st for the last time. In a short time the admiral had left only 14 ships. Afterwards some ships rejoined the convoy.

November 14 1628

The Ooievaar arrived in Rotterdam with the news of the captured fleet. Due to many storms the master fleet had it very hard.

December 4 1628

Further they lost a lot of men by scurvy. The main fleet arrived at the island Wight were the met Jan Evertsen with 3 warships. The Santa Gertudis, full with sick men, arrived in the harbor of Falmouth in sinking condition and was sold there for 200 pound.

Dutch ship list (31)

  • Amsterdam - Admiral-General Hein
  • Hollandse Tuin - Admiral Lonck
  • Neptunus - Vice Admiral Banckert
  • Utrecht - Schout-bij-nacht (rear admiral) Cornelis Claeszoon Melckmeyt
  • Hollandia
  • Gelderland
  • Provincie Utrecht
  • Witte Leeuw
  • Zwarte Leeuw
  • Rode Leeuw
  • Vergulde Valk
  • Haarlem
  • Pinas
  • Tijger
  • Gouden Zon
  • Dordrecht
  • Monnickendam
  • Griffioen
  • Gouden Leeuw

Yachts:

  • Muiden
  • Naarden
  • Eenhoorn
  • Zwarte Ruiter
  • Langebark
  • Postpaard
  • Oud-Vlissingen
  • Tijger
  • Ooievaar
  • Dolfijn
  • Vos

Spanish ship list (21)

  • Santa Ana Maria - Admiral Juan de Benavides y Bazan
Stranded on the south-east coast of Ireland. The captain Pieter Franz knew to save the crew and guns.
  • Santa Gertrudis - Baltasar de Amezquita
Arrived sinking in England and was sold.
  • San Juan Bautista - Alonso de Ayspuru
Called "Platluys" due to the insects on board. Was put on fire in full sea.
  • Santa Lucia de van Guerra
Arrived as troffe on the Schelde. It was Renamed "Middelburg" and have served for some years.
  • Nuestra Señora de la Antigua - Francisco Ortuno
  • Nuestra Señora de la Concepcion
  • Nuestra Señora de la Antigua (new ship)
  • unknown yet
  • The San Juan Bautista was declared as lost and destroyed on the way back.
  • The Santa Ana Maria sank on the way back home before the Irish coast.

Source : Dr. Gaëtan Algoet

Coordinates: 23°20′00″N 81°34′00″W / 23.3333°N 81.5667°W / 23.3333; -81.5667