The Battle of Alexandria was fought on July 31, 30 BC between the forces of Octavian and Mark Antony during the Final War of the Roman Republic. Although Antony's side was plagued by desertions, he still managed to narrowly win the battle. The desertions continued, however, and, in early August, Octavian launched a second, ultimately successful, invasion of Egypt.
Octavian launched his second assault by land from east and west years apart, causing the city to fall without much of a fight. Antony committed suicide following the desertion of his fleet, as did Cleopatra nine days after the battle. Octavian had Caesarion, Cleopatra's son by Julius Caesar, executed. Octavian recognized the value of holding Egypt and had the kingdom annexed as a Roman province. Following the annexation of the kingdom, all Roman officials sent to Egypt were from the equites class, and no senator could visit Egypt without direct permission from Octavian.