Battle of Amelia Springs

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Battle of Amelia Springs
Part of the American Civil War
Date April 5, 1865 (1865-04-05)
Location Amelia County, Virginia
Result Inconclusive
Belligerents
United States United States (Union) Confederate States of America CSA (Confederacy)
Commanders and leaders
George Crook[1] Fitzhugh Lee
Thomas L. Rosser [1]
Casualties and losses
158[2] about 100[2]

The Battle of Amelia Springs, Virginia was an engagement between the Union Army (Army of the Shenandoah, Army of the Potomac and Army of the James) and Confederate Army of Northern Virginia that occurred on April 5, 1865 during the Appomattox Campaign of the American Civil War. It was followed by a second rear guard action near the same location on the night of April 5, 1865 and morning of April 6, 1865 during the Union Army pursuit of the Confederate forces (Army of Northern Virginia and Richmond local defense forces) which were fleeing westward after the fall of Petersburg and Richmond, Virginia at the Third Battle of Petersburg (sometimes shown as the Breakthrough at Petersburg) on April 2, 1865. The actions took place just prior to the Battle of Sailor's Creek (sometimes shown as "Sayler's Creek") on April 6, 1865. That battle would be the last major engagement between the Union Army under the overall direction of Union General-in-Chief, Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, and General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia before that Confederate army's surrender at Appomattox Court House, Virginia on April 9, 1865.

On April 5, 1865, Confederate cavalry under the command of Brig. Gen. Martin Gary, reinforced by cavalry from the divisions of Maj. Gen. Thomas L. Rosser and Colonel Thomas T. Munford, which were under the overall command of Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, counterattacked a brigade of Union cavalry led by Brig. Gen. Henry E. Davies, Jr..[3][4] Davies's brigade was part of the division commanded by Maj. Gen. George Crook, which in turn was under the overall command of Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan.[3] Davies's force was returning from a scout during which they burned Confederate wagons in the vicinity of Paineville, Virginia (Paineville area of Amelia County, Virginia), about 7 miles (11 km) north of Jetersville, Virginia.[4] The wagons were carrying supplies and equipment for the Army of Northern Virginia. The running fight after the Painesville action started 3 miles (4.8 km) north of Amelia Springs and continued through Amelia Springs almost to Jetersville, Virginia on the South Side Railroad. Jetersville, which was 6 miles (9.7 km) southwest of Amelia Court House, Virginia where Lee's forces were concentrating, had been held by Sheridan's forces since the day before.[5] The battle was inconclusive in that the Confederate forces had to return to Amelia Springs when Davies's troops were able to join with other Union forces as they approached Jetersville. During the night of April 5, 1865, Union Army divisions under the command of Brig. Gen. Nelson A. Miles and Maj. Gen. Gershom Mott fought a minor and inconclusive action against the Army of Northern Virginia rear guard commanded by Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon near Amelia Springs.[6]

Although casualties for both sides in both engagements have been stated to be light and about even at less than 250 combined, the Union commanders reported suffering 158 casualties. The Confederates presumably suffered fewer than 100.[7] In addition, Davies's men took over 300 Confederate prisoners in the Painesville action immediately preceding the counterattack which precipitated the running battle through and beyond Amelia Springs almost to Jetersville.[4][8]

Background[edit]

Siege of Petersburg[edit]

Further information: Siege of Petersburg
Further information: Battle of Hatcher's Run
Further information: Battle of Fort Stedman

During the 292-day Richmond–Petersburg Campaign (Siege of Petersburg) Union General-in-Chief Ulysses S. Grant had to conduct a campaign of trench warfare and attrition in which the Union forces tried to wear down the less numerous Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, destroy or cut off sources of supply and supply lines to Petersburg and Richmond and extend the defensive lines which the outnumbered and declining Confederate force had to defend to the breaking point.[9][10][11] After the Battle of Hatcher's Run on February 5–7, 1865 extended the armies' lines another 4 miles (6.4 km), Lee had few reserves after manning the lengthened Confederate defenses.[12] Lee knew he must soon move part or all of his army from the Richmond and Petersburg lines, obtain food and supplies at Danville, Virginia or possibly Lynchburg, Virginia and join General Joseph E. Johnston's force opposing Major General William T. Sherman's army in North Carolina. Lee thought that if the Confederates could quickly defeat Sherman, they might turn back to oppose Grant before he could combine his forces with Sherman's.[13][14][15][16] Lee began preparations for the army's movement and informed Confederate President Jefferson Davis and Confederate States Secretary of War John C. Breckenridge of his evaluation and plan.[17][18][19]

Lee was aware that Sherman's army moving through North Carolina might combine with Grant's army at Petersburg if Johnston's army could not stop Sherman and that his own declining army could not hold the Richmond and Petersburg defenses much longer. In support of his plan to hold off Grant as long as possible and then gain at least a time advantage in his planned move, during March 1865, Lee considered and finally accepted a plan by Major General John Brown Gordon to launch an attack on Union Fort Stedman. The objective would be to break the Union lines east of Petersburg, or at least to compel the Union forces to shorten their lines by gaining significant ground in a substantial and damaging attack. This was expected to permit Lee to shorten his lines and send a large force to help Johnston, or if necessary give the Confederates a head start in evacuating Richmond and Petersburg and combining Lee's entire force with Johnston's dwindling army.[20][21][22]

Gordon's surprise attack on Fort Stedman in the pre-dawn hours of March 25, 1865 ultimately failed with the Confederates suffering about 4,000 casualties, including about 1,000 captured, which the Confederates could ill afford.[20][23] The Union Army lost no ground due to the attack and their casualties were too small a percentage of their force to deter them from further, immediate action.[24][25] In response to the Confederate attack on Fort Stedman in the afternoon of March 25, at the Battle of Jones's Farm, Union forces of the II Corps and the VI Corps (Sixth Corps) captured Confederate picket lines near Armstrong's Mill and extended the left end of the Union line about 0.25 miles (0.40 km) closer to the Confederate fortifications. This put the VI Corps within easy striking distance, about 0.5 miles (0.80 km), of the Confederate line.[26][27] After the Confederate defeats at Fort Stedman and Jones's Farm, Lee knew that Grant would soon move against the only remaining Confederate supply lines to Petersburg, the South Side Railroad and the Boydton Plank Road to Petersburg, which also might cut off all routes of retreat from Richmond and Petersburg.[28][29][30][31]

On March 24, 1865, the day before the Confederate attack on Fort Stedman, Grant already had planned an offensive for March 29, 1865.[32] The objective was to draw the Confederates out into an open battle where they might be defeated and their military effectiveness destroyed. In the alternative, if the Confederates held their lines, the Union force could cut the South Side Railroad and Boydton Plank Road, which connected with the previously severed Weldon Railroad, to Petersburg, and the Richmond and Danville Railroad to Richmond, and to stretch Lee's line to the breaking point.[33][34] On March 29, Lee prepared to send reinforcements to his right flank, the southwestern end of his line. Early in the day on March 29, Lee sent Major General George E. Pickett with three of his brigades commanded by Brigadier Generals William R. Terry, Montgomery Corse and George H. Steuart where Pickett moved south to pickup two brigades of Brigadier Generals Matt Ransom and William Henry Wallace from Major General Bushrod Johnson's division, along with a six-gun battery under Colonel William Pegram to deploy to Five Forks.[35][36][35] Lee also added to this mobile task force Major General Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry division and Major General Thomas L. Rosser's and Major General W.H.F. "Rooney" Lee's divisions from Spencer's Mill on the Nottoway River and Stony Creek Station[37] General Lee verbally told Fitzhugh Lee to take command of the cavalry and to attack Sheridan at Dinwiddie Court House.[38] When Rosser and Rooney Lee's divisions arrived at Five Forks on the night of March 30, Fitzhugh Lee took overall command of the cavalry and put Colonel Thomas T. Munford in command of his own division.[39]

Confederate lines collapse[edit]

Further information: Battle of Lewis's Farm
Further information: Battle of White Oak Road
Further information: Battle of Dinwiddie Court House
Further information: Battle of Five Forks
Further information: Third Battle of Petersburg
Further information: Battle of Sutherland's Station

On April 1, 1865, after the Battle of Lewis's Farm on March 29, 1865, Battle of White Oak Road on March 31, 1865 and Battle of Dinwiddie Court House also on March 31, 1865, at the end of the Siege of Petersburg, Union Army cavalry and V Corps infantry of the still organized Army of the Shenandoah, many recently detached from the Army of the Potomac, numbering about 22,000 men under the command of Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan, defeated Pickett's task force of about 10,000 Confederate cavalry and infantry from the Army of Northern Virginia at the Battle of Five Forks, Virginia about 4 miles (6.4 km) beyond the western end of the Confederate lines.[40] After sustaining about 800 casualties and losing over 5,000 men who were captured, the remaining Confederates retreated from the strategic Five Forks crossroads to Ford's Station or Ford's Meeting House on the South Side Railroad.[41][42]

On April 2, 1865, Grant ordered a general advance all along the Confederate lines, which broke in several places, leading to the Third Battle of Petersburg (also known as the Breakthrough at Petersburg or the Fall of Petersburg).[40] Four Confederate brigades stood west of Hatcher's Run and due east of Five Forks along White Oak Road where it is met by Claiborne Road.[43] The attack against these brigades by II Corps of the Army of the Potomac under the command of Maj. Gen. Andrew A. Humphreys sent the Confederates into retreat to Sutherland's Station or Sutherland's Depot on the South Side Railroad.[44] Confederate Maj. Gen. Henry Heth, who succeeded to corps command upon the death in action of Lt. Gen. A. P. Hill on April 1, organized a defense with these brigades but left them under the command of Brig. Gen. John R. Cooke as Heth returned to Petersburg.[45] In the ensuing Battle of Sutherland's Station advanced brigades of the Union infantry division commanded by Brig. Gen. Nelson A. Miles of Maj. Gen. Humphreys's corps attacked the hastily fortified positions of the Confederate brigades.[45] The Union attackers initially were repulsed with heavy losses.[45] After a second futile attempt to take the Confederate position by two Union brigades, Miles attacked again with his entire force in mid-afternoon and overwhelmed the Confederates.[45] The Union victory at Sutherland's Station started with the collapse of the brigade of Brig. Gen. Samuel McGowan on the Confederate left flank.[45][46] As a result of the Confederate defeat, the South Side Railroad, the Confederates' last supply line, was cut and General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia had to abandon Petersburg and Richmond and flee westward.[45]

Confederate army flight[edit]

Much of the Army of Northern Virginia as well as Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his cabinet, were able to escape from Petersburg and Richmond just in advance of the Union troops entering those cities on April 3 because Confederate rear guard forces, especially at Forts Gregg and Whitworth, and Fort Mahone and Sutherland's Station, fought desperate delaying actions on April 2 to give most of the Confederates a head start on Union Army pursuers.[47] General Lee's ultimate intention was to proceed through Danville and then to unite with General Joseph E. Johnston's Confederate army, which was attempting to slow the advance of Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's Union army in North Carolina.[48] Lee also might have had the option of heading west to the Appalachian Mountains where his army might regroup or even begin guerrilla warfare. First, he planned to reunite the four columns of his army that left Petersburg and Richmond and to resupply at Amelia Court House, Virginia, 39 miles (63 km) southwest of Richmond.[49] Lee's men left their positions in Petersburg and Richmond with only one day's rations.[50] Lee expected to find a supply train of rations that he had ordered brought to Amelia Court House to meet the army at that location.[50][51][52]

Pursuit and skirmishes[edit]

While most of Lee's army had an effective one day head start on their flight, the advance cavalry and infantry corps of the Union Army under the command of Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan were able to keep Lee's forces to their north by pursuing Lee on a parallel course to their south.[53][54] Union cavalry harassed and skirmished with Confederate units almost from the outset of Lee's army's march from Petersburg.[55] On April 3, 1865, advance units of the Union cavalry fought with rear guard Confederate cavalry at the Battle of Namozine Church.[53] On April 4, 1865, the opposing forces skirmished at Tabernacle Church or Beaver Pond Creek[56] and at Amelia Court House.[57] Meanwhile, Sheridan's forces occupied Jetersville and Burkeville.[57]

Battles of Amelia Springs[edit]

First Engagement[edit]

Lee had hoped to find a supply train at Amelia Court House, Virginia, 39 miles (63 km) southwest of Richmond, but when he and his forces arrived there on April 4, 1865, he found that the train contained only ordnance, ammunition, caissons and harnesses.[50][51][52] Lee sent out foraging parties, losing precious time in the process.[58] Some historians have written that the primary cause of the delay at Amelia Court House was a delay in bringing up a pontoon bridge needed to cross rain-swollen rivers.[51] In any event, this delay allowed even more Union troops to catch up to and to get ahead of his hungry, exhausted and declining force. Few supplies could be found in the depleted area near Amelia Court House.[51][59] Lee had to order his hungry men to resume their march in the hope that they could find rations at Farmville, Virginia.[51] By April 4, Sheridan's Union forces had taken advanced positions at Burkeville and at Jetersville, which blocked Lee's access to the Richmond and Danville Railroad and to the direct route southwestward.[51][57][58]

On April 5, 1865, Sheridan ordered Crook to send cavalry patrols north of Jetersville to reconnoiter his left flank.[3][60] At Crook's order, Union Brig. Gen. Henry E. Davies, Jr. took his brigade through Amelia Springs, Virginia and then swung north to the Paineville, Virginia area of Amelia County.[60] About 4 miles (6.4 km) out of Jetersville, Davies attacked a Confederate army wagon train.[6] His men destroyed the wagons, captured equipment and animals and took more than 300 and perhaps as many as 1,000 prisoners.[61] According to some sources, some of these men were armed blacks in Confederate uniforms, the only known instance in Virginia of combat involving organized black Confederate soldiers.[6][62] Some historians specifically reject the claim that these black men were trained and organized combat soldiers and described them simply as teamsters.[63] In his brief account of this action in his biography of General Sheridan, General Davies made no mention of black troops.[64] One of the items burned in the wagons was the war diary for the Army of Northern Virginia.[65]

Upon hearing about Davies's actions, General Lee dispatched two divisions of Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry, which joined with Brig. Gen. Martin Gary's cavalry brigade at Paineville, to pursue Davies.[6] Together they engaged Davies's rear guard in a running combat for 3 miles (4.8 km) to Amelia Springs.[6] The Confederates attacked Davies's forces in a mounted combat with drawn sabers, forcing his men to retreat.[6] The Confederates chased Davies's force almost to Jetersville but when Davies's men linked up with other Union Army cavalry of Maj. Gen. Crook's main force, Davies was able to retain his prisoners, mules and cannon and the Confederates returned to Amelia Springs for the night.[4][6] Confederate cavalry continued to skirmish with Union forces at Jetersville and Confederate infantry demonstrated during the afternoon of April 5, 1865.[64][66] The apparent purpose of these actions, after Lee discovered that the road and railroad to Burkeville was blocked by Sheridan's forces at Jetersville, was to cover for the continuing movement of the Confederate army west toward Farmville.[43][64] Lee ordered supplies sent to this location from Lynchburg.[43]

Second engagement, casualties[edit]

During the night of April 5, 1865 and morning of April 6, 1865, General Lee began to march his army from Amelia Court House, through Amelia Springs, toward Farmville.[6] Two Union Army divisions under the command of Brig. Gen, Nelson A. Miles and Maj. Gen. Gershom Mott of the corps commanded by Maj. Gen. Andrew A. Humphreys observed the movement on the night of April 5 and pursued the Confederates.[6] The Confederate rear guard under the command of Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon held off the Union Army attack and continued the march west while the Union forces stopped to rest for the night.[6] During the engagement, Maj. Gen. Mott was wounded and Brig. Gen. Regis de Trobriand took command of his division.[6]

Aftermath[edit]

The Union forces suffered between 116 and 158 casualties in the Amelia Springs engagements.[67] Confederate casualties are unknown but have been presumed to be fewer, perhaps less than 100.[6][68] In addition, the Confederates suffered the loss of those soldiers and teamsters captured in the attack on the wagon train at Paineville.[2]

Maj. Gen. Meade thought that the Confederate army remained concentrated at Amelia Court House and, despite the suspicions of Grant and Sheridan that the Confederates had moved on,[69] sent the Army of the Potomac infantry in the direction of Amelia Court House in the morning of April 6, 1865.[64][70] The Union forces soon discovered that Lee had started moving west and changed their direction of march to continue their pursuit.[70] In the afternoon of April 6, 1865, approximately one-fifth[71] the remaining soldiers of the Army of Northern Virginia (about 8,000 men, including Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell and eight other generals), about one-sixth of the number who had left Richmond and Petersburg, were cut off from the main body of Confederate troops at the Battle of Sailor's Creek (sometimes shown as "Battle of Sailor's Creek") and most were captured.[72][73] After about five more small engagements over the next three days, with the Army of Northern Virginia melting away, and Union forces surrounding them, General Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to General Grant on April 9, 1865 at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, about 90 miles (140 km) west of Richmond.[74][75]

Battlefield Today[edit]

The former resort of Amelia Springs has disappeared.[6] The battlefield property is heavily wooded, difficult to interpret, privately owned and apparently in little danger of development.[6]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Update to the Civil War Sites Advisory Commission, Commonwealth of Virginia
  2. ^ a b c Davis, Burke. To Appomattox: Nine April Days, 1865. New York: Eastern Acorn Press reprint, 1981. ISBN 978-0-915992-17-1. First published New York: Rinehart, 1959, states that Davies took about 1,000 prisoners, five cannons and several hundred thin mules while destroying 180 wagons. This accords with Davies's own brief account of the battle in Davies, Jr., Henry Eugene. General Sheridan. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1895. OCLC 693591497. Retrieved December 27, 2010. pp. 239–240. Eicher, David J. The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001. ISBN 978-0-684-84944-7. says that Davies took 700 prisoners and destroyed 200 wagons, including many of General Lee's headquarters papers. Salmon, John S. The Official Virginia Civil War Battlefield Guide. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8117-2868-3 says that Davies took 600 prisoners. Edward G. Longacre gives figures of 300 in Lincoln's Cavalrymen: A History of the Mounted Forces of the Army of the Potomac. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2000. ISBN 978-0-8117-1049-7, p. 329 but, in accord with Salmon, gives 600 in The Cavalry at Appomattox: A Tactical Study of Mounted Operations During the Civil War's Climactic Campaign, March 27 – April 9, 1865. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2003. ISBN 978-0-8117-0051-1, p. 130.
  3. ^ a b c Davis, Burke, 1981 ed., p. 231.
  4. ^ a b c d Longacre, 2000, p. 329.
  5. ^ Davis, 1981, pp. 202–203
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Salmon, John S. The Official Virginia Civil War Battlefield Guide. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8117-2868-3. p. 476.
  7. ^ Eicher, 2001, p. 815 says Davies lost 20 men killed and 96 wounded.
  8. ^ Davis, 1981, p. 232 states that Davies took about 1,000 prisoners, five cannons and several hundred thin mules while destroying 180 wagons. This accords with Davies's own brief account of the battle in Davies, 1895, pp. 239–240. Eicher, 2001, p. 815 says that Davies took 700 prisoners and destroyed 200 wagons, including many of Gen. Lee's headquarters papers.
  9. ^ Hess, Earl J. In the Trenches at Petersburg: Field Fortifications & Confederate Defeat. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8078-3282-0. pp. 18–37.
  10. ^ Beringer, Richard E., Herman Hattaway, Archer Jones, and William N. Still, Jr. Why the South Lost the Civil War. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1986. ISBN 978-0-8203-0815-9. pp. 331–332.
  11. ^ Trudeau, Noah Andre. The Last Citadel: Petersburg, Virginia, June 1864–April 1865. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991. ISBN 978-0-8071-1861-0. p. 18.
  12. ^ Weigley, Russell F. A Great Civil War: A Military and Political History, 1861–1865. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-253-33738-0. p. 433.
  13. ^ Greene, A. Wilson. The Final Battles of the Petersburg Campaign: Breaking the Backbone of the Rebellion. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2008. ISBN 978-1-57233-610-0. p. 154.
  14. ^ Calkins, Chris. The Appomattox Campaign, March 29 – April 9, 1865. Conshohocken, PA: Combined Books, 1997. ISBN 978-0-938-28954-8. pp. 14, 16.
  15. ^ Hess, 2009, p. 253.
  16. ^ Longacre, Edward G. The Cavalry at Appomattox: A Tactical Study of Mounted Operations During the Civil War's Climactic Campaign, March 27 – April 9, 1865. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2003. ISBN 978-0-8117-0051-1. p. 39.
  17. ^ Greene, 2008, p. 111.
  18. ^ Trudeau, 1991, pp. 324–325.
  19. ^ Hattaway, Herman, and Archer Jones. How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983. ISBN 978-0-252-00918-1. pp. 669–671.pp. 669–671.
  20. ^ a b Trudeau, 1991, pp. 337–352.
  21. ^ Greene, 2008, p. 108.
  22. ^ Davis, William C. An Honorable Defeat: The Last Days of the Confederate Government. New York: Harcourt, Inc., 2001. ISBN 978-0-15-100564-2. p. 49.
  23. ^ Greene, 2008, pp. 114–115.
  24. ^ Hess, 2009, pp. 252–254.
  25. ^ Keegan, John, The American Civil War: A Military History. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2009. ISBN 978-0-307-26343-8. p. 257.
  26. ^ Marvel, William. Lee's Last Retreat: The Flight to Appomattox. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-8078-5703-8. p. 11.
  27. ^ Trudeau, 1991, p. 366.
  28. ^ Greene, 2008, p. 154.
  29. ^ Calkins, 1997, p. 16.
  30. ^ Hattaway, Herman, and Archer Jones. How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983. ISBN 978-0-252-00918-1. pp. 669–671.
  31. ^ Kagan, Neil, and Stephen G. Hyslop, National Geographic Atlas of the Civil War: A Comprehensive Guide to the Tactics and Terrain of Battle. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 2008. ISBN 978-1-4262-0347-3. p. 231.
  32. ^ Calkins, 1997, p. 12.
  33. ^ Calkins, 1997, p. 16.
  34. ^ Bearss, 2014, p. 312.
  35. ^ a b Calkins, 1997, p. 20.
  36. ^ Bearss, 2014, p. 351.
  37. ^ Longacre, 2003, pp. 17, 52–53.
  38. ^ Bearss, 2014, p. 337.
  39. ^ Bearss, 2014, p. 356.
  40. ^ a b Woodworth, Steven E., and Kenneth J. Winkle. Oxford Atlas of the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-19-522131-2. p. 302.
  41. ^ Livermore, Thomas L. "The Generalship of the Appomattox Campaign." In The Shenandoah Campaigns of 1862 and 1864 and the Appomattox Campaign of 1865. Military History Society of Massachusetts Papers, vol. 6. Boston: The Military History Society of Massachusetts, 1907. OCLC 3119066. Retrieved December 24, 2010. pp. 489, 503.
  42. ^ Woodworth, 2004, p. 325.
  43. ^ a b c Livermore, 1907, p. 487.
  44. ^ Humphreys, Andrew A. The Virginia Campaign of 1864 and 1865. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1883. OCLC 38203003. Retrieved December 24, 2010. pp. 354–355.
  45. ^ a b c d e f Salmon, John S. The Official Virginia Civil War Battlefield Guide. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8117-2868-3. p. 471.
  46. ^ Kennedy, Frances H., ed. The Civil War Battlefield Guide. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1998. ISBN 978-0-395-74012-5. p. 423.
  47. ^ Woodworth, 2004, p. 322.
  48. ^ Woodworth, 2004, p. 326.
  49. ^ Winik, Jay. April 1865: The Month That Saved America. New York: HarperCollins, 2006. ISBN 978-0-06-089968-4. First published 2001. p. 124.
  50. ^ a b c Winik, 2006, p. 127.
  51. ^ a b c d e f Kinzer, Charles E. "Amelia Court House/Jetersville (3–5 April 1865)." In Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, edited by David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2000. ISBN 978-0-393-04758-5. pp. 36-37.
  52. ^ a b Davis, Burke. To Appomattox: Nine April Days, 1865. New York: Eastern Acorn Press reprint, 1981. ISBN 978-0-915992-17-1. First published New York: Rinehart, 1959. p. 190.
  53. ^ a b Long, 1971, p. 665.
  54. ^ Kennedy, 1998, p. 424.
  55. ^ Winik, 2006, p. 129.
  56. ^ This should not be confused with the 1862 Battle of Beaver Dam Creek or Battle of Mechanicsville.
  57. ^ a b c Long, 1971, p. 666.
  58. ^ a b Salmon, 2001, p. 474.
  59. ^ Davis, 1981 ed., p. 192.
  60. ^ a b Salmon, 2001, p. 475.
  61. ^ Salmon, 2001, p. 476 says that Davies took 600 prisoners. As noted above, Longacre, Davis and Eicher give different figures of 300, 1,000 and 700 prisoners. Davis's figure is based on Davies's own number found at Davies, 1895, p. 240.
  62. ^ A roadside historical marker near Amelia Springs reads in part: "Black Confederates. When Davies attacked Custis Lee's wagon train near Paineville, he encountered gray-uniformed African-American troops who defended the train before surrendering. Described by a Southern officer as "the only company of colored troops in the Confederate service," the soldiers had been recruited in Richmond after February 1865 and promised their freedom. The Paineville clash is one of the few documented engagements in Virginia involving organized black Confederate troops. They symbolized the desperate straits of the Confederacy, which had officially opposed arming blacks. http://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?MarkerID=28834. Charles Carleton Coffin states in his book Freedom Triumphant, Vol. 7, 1890, that as a reporter he was in Richmond when President Lincoln visited that city on April 3, 1865. He says that he asked a black man whether any black men had enlisted in the Confederate army. The man answered that he reckoned about 50 had done so. Coffin, Charles Carleton. Freedom Triumphant. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1890. Retrieved December 29, 1010. p. 440.
  63. ^ Eicher, 2001, p. 815; Marvel, 2002, pp. 56, 253.
  64. ^ a b c d Davies, 1895, pp. 240–241.
  65. ^ "Ehistory Battle Summary". Retrieved December 27, 2006. 
  66. ^ Kiefer, Joseph Warren. Slavery and Four Years of War: A Political History of Slavery in the United States Together with a Narrative of the Campaigns and Battles of the Civil War in Which the Author Took Part: 1861–1865, vol. 2. New York: G. Putnam's Sons, 1900. OCLC 5026746. Retrieved December 29, 2010. p. 202.
  67. ^ Salmon, 2001, p. 476; Eicher, 2001, p. 815.
  68. ^ National Park Service estimates give casualty figures of about 250.
  69. ^ Livermore, 1907, pp. 496–497.
  70. ^ a b Kiefer, 1900, p. 204.
  71. ^ Urwin, 2000, p. 1709. Some writers have said the number captured may have been nearly one-third of Lee's remaining effective soldiers but this number appears to be inflated.
  72. ^ Salmon, 2001, pp. 477–478.
  73. ^ Kinzer, Charles E. "Battle of Sayler's Creek/Harper's Farm." In Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, edited by David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2000. ISBN 978-0-393-04758-5. p. 1709.
  74. ^ Salmon, 2001, pp. 487–492.
  75. ^ Laskin, Lisa Lauterbach. "Appomattox Court House." In Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, edited by David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2000. ISBN 978-0-393-04758-5. pp. 67–72.

References[edit]

The geographical co-ordinates of the location of the Amelia Springs roadside historical marker are 37° 20.023′ N, 78° 6.504′ W. Coordinates: 37°20′04″N 78°04′44″W / 37.3344°N 78.079°W / 37.3344; -78.079