Battle of Bataan

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For the battle that occurred in 1945, see Battle of Bataan (1945).
Battle of Bataan
Part of World War II, Pacific theater
JapaneseTroopsBataan1942.jpg
Japanese soldiers celebrate victory on Bataan
Date 7 January – 9 April 1942 (3 months, and 2 days)
Location Bataan Peninsula near Manila Bay in Luzon Island, Philippines
Result Japanese victory
Bataan Death March
Belligerents
 United States  Empire of Japan
Commanders and leaders
United States Douglas MacArthur
United States Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV
United States George M. Parker
United States Edward P. King
Commonwealth of the Philippines Vicente Lim
Japan Masaharu Homma
Japan Susumu Morioka
Japan Kineo Kitajima
Japan Kameichiro Nagano
Strength
120,000 U.S. and Filipino troops 75,000 Japanese troops
Casualties and losses
105,000
10,000 killed,
20,000 wounded,
75,000 prisoners
19,000
7,000 killed,
12,000 wounded,

The Battle of Bataan represented the most intense phase of Imperial Japan's invasion of the Philippines during World War II. The capture of the Philippine Islands was crucial to Japan's effort to control the Southwest Pacific, seize the resource-rich Dutch East Indies, and protect its Southeast Asia flank. It was the largest surrender in American and Filipino military history, and was the largest United States surrender since the Civil War's Battle of Harper's Ferry.[1] Ultimately, more than 60,000 Filipino and 15,000 American prisoners of war were forced into the infamous Bataan Death March.[2]

After more than two years of fighting in the Pacific, General Douglas MacArthur initiated The Campaign for the Liberation of the Philippines, fulfilling his famous promise to return to the country he'd left in 1942. As part of the campaign, the Battle for the Recapture of Bataan (31 January to 21 February 1945) by US Forces and Philippine guerillas avenged the surrender of the defunct United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) to invading Japanese forces.

Summary[edit]

Forces of the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy invaded Luzon along with several islands in the Philippine archipelago after the bombing of the American naval base at Pearl Harbor. The commander-in-chief of all Filipino and American forces in the islands, General Douglas MacArthur, declared Manila an open city to avoid it being bombed by Japanese warplanes, which however was bombed anyway. After this, he consolidated his units all over Luzon in Bataan peninsula to fight a stand against the Japanese invaders. By this time, with the Japanese controlled nearly all of Southeast Asia; the peninsula, and the island of Corregidor, were the only remaining Allied strongholds in the region. Despite almost complete lack of supplies and materiel, Filipino-American forces managed to fight the Japanese to a bloody 3-month standstill, engaging them initially in a fighting retreat southward and finally in a last stand, eventually costing the latter a valuable time to immediately conquer the rest of the Pacific from the Allies. The infamous Bataan Death March eventually took place after the surrender of about 75,000 Allied soldiers.

Background[edit]

After Japanese carrier planes attacked the United States Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor on the morning of 7 December 1941 (8 December, Manila time), Taiwan-based aircraft within 6–7 hours pounded the main bases of the American Far East Air Force at Clark Field in Pampanga, Iba Field in Zambales, Nichols Field near Manila, and the headquarters of the U.S. Asiatic Fleet in the Philippines at Cavite. Many American planes were caught on the ground and summarily destroyed. In one day, the Japanese had gained air superiority over the Philippine Islands. This forced the U.S. Asiatic Fleet to withdraw its surface ships from its naval base in Cavite and retreat southwards, leaving only the submarine force to resist the Japanese.

From 8 to 10 December, scattered resistance by ground troops and remaining American air and naval forces failed to stop preliminary landings to seize airfields at Batan Island, Aparri, and Vigan City. Army Air Force B-17s, often with minimal or no fighter escort, attacked Japanese ships offloading at Gonzaga and the Vigan landings on Luzon. Submarines of the Asiatic Fleet were also assigned to the effort.

In one last coordinated action by the Far East Air Force, U.S. planes damaged two Japanese transports, the flagship Nagato, a destroyer and sank one minesweeper. These air attacks and naval actions, however, did not significantly delay the Japanese assault.

These small-scale landings preceded the main assault on 22 December 1941 at Lingayen Gulf in Pangasinan and Lamon Bay, Tayabas by the 14th Japanese Imperial Army, led by Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma.

By effectively neutralizing U.S. air and naval power in the Philippines, the Japanese gained supremacy that isolated the Philippines from reinforcement and resupply, and provided itself with both airfields for support of its invasion forces and staging bases for further operations in the Netherlands East Indies.

Prelude[edit]

War Plan Orange-3[edit]

Japanese troops occupy Manila, 2 January 1942

After securing the beachheads, the Japanese launched a large-scale pincer attack and the three PA divisions assigned to contain the beachhead were pushed back by the invading forces. In the face of this onslaught, the American commander, General Douglas MacArthur, realized that the beachhead defense plan had failed. On 26 December, he notified his commanders that War Plan Orange-3 (WPO-3) was now in effect, thereby reactivating a prewar plan to defend only Bataan and Corregidor in a delaying action. A fighting retreat by units to the Bataan peninsula, whereupon the defending forces, in accordance with WPO-3, would regroup and hold out for six months, at which time the plan assumed (but did not specify) that relief would arrive from the United States. They hoped that with this change in strategy, the Japanese invasion plans might be altered.

The concept of WPO-3 was to delay invading Japanese forces until the U.S. Pacific Fleet could be mustered at full strength and fight its way to the Philippines. At the Bataan peninsula, with its defensive terrain, and backed by artillery from the harbor defenses in Manila Bay and the nearby island fortress of Corregidor, the defenders were expected to hold out until reinforcements arrived. The U.S. Navy had estimated that the Pacific Fleet would need two years to fight its way across the Pacific, but in any case, with the Pacific Fleet having been crippled at Pearl Harbor, no aid would be forthcoming.

Due to MacArthur's decision, with tacit approval from Washington, to change the plan under War Plan Rainbow 5, it was ordered that the entire archipelago would be defended, with the necessary supplies dispersed behind the beachheads for defending forces to use while defending against the landings. With the return to War Plan Orange 3, the necessary supplies to support the defenders for the anticipated six-month long defensive position were not available in the necessary quantities for the defenders who would withdraw to Bataan.[3]

Meanwhile, Manuel L. Quezon, the president of the Philippine Commonwealth, together with his family and government staff were evacuated to Corregidor along with MacArthur's USAFFE headquarters on the night of 24 December 1941, while all USAFFE military personnel were removed from the major urban areas. That same day, Manila was declared an open city. Despite Manila being declared an open city, Japanese forces undertook punitive bombing raids, finally occupying it on 2 January 1942.

The battle[edit]

The fighting retreat[edit]

Gen. MacArthur intended to move his men with their equipment and supplies in good order to their defensive positions. He charged the North Luzon Force under Maj. Gen. Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV with holding back the main Japanese assault and keeping the road to Bataan open for use by the South Luzon Force of Maj. Gen. George Parker, which proceeded quickly and in remarkably good order, given the chaotic situation. To achieve this, Wainwright deployed his forces in a series of five defensive lines outlined in WPO-3:

Layac Line[edit]

WWII First Line of Defense Memorial (Dinalupihan, Bataan, Philippines).
Historical Marker (6 January 1942)

When the Japanese invaded the Philippine Islands on 22 December 1941, the untrained Philippine Army troops assigned to beach defense collapsed. After U.S. General Douglas MacArthur had withdrawn his army down the island of Luzon's central plain into the Bataan Peninsula, one last line existed before the Japanese invaders reached the main line of resistance. The Americans would slow the Japanese entry into Bataan by fighting a delaying action at Layac, thus gaining time and deceiving the enemy as to the location of the main defensive positions. For the first time in World War II, American troops faced Japanese soldiers on the ground.

Brigadier General Clyde A. Selleck commanded the Philippine Army's 71st Division and was responsible for establishing the Layac line. Born in 1888, 'Pappy' Selleck was an artilleryman, a West Pointer and a graduate of the Command and General Staff School and the War College. Although the plan for defending Layac was seemingly known to all senior officers in the Philippines, it was not known to Selleck. His short time in the islands—he had arrived on 23 October—the few briefings made on war plans, and a lack of information about the position itself resulted in one of the least knowledgeable officers on Luzon commanding the Layac line.

Porac-Guagua Line[edit]

From 1 to 5 January 1942, as the entire USAFFE converged from south and north, delaying actions were fought to allow the struggling withdrawal to Bataan. The bloodiest fighting occurred at the hastily emplaced Porac-Guagua line, where the 11th Division and 21st Division, respectively led by Brigadier Generals William E. Brougher and Mateo Capinpin with the 26th Cavalry Regiment of Colonel Clinton A. Pierce in reserve, held the line, mostly on open and unprepared ground, against massive aerial and artillery bombardment, strong tank assaults, and infantry banzai attacks by the Takahashi and Tanaka Detachments. Both sides suffered heavy casualties.[citation needed]

Overlooked in this report are the actions of the 23rd infantry regiment of the PA led by Senior Instructor Col Wallace A Mead, USA. The 23rd regiment established the defensive line at porac-pampanga on or about 2 January 1942. Colonel Mead was later awarded the Silver Star for his actions there. The 23rd's defence allowed Capinpin's forces to withdraw and establish new defensive positions. It was Capinpin's recount of the fighting that day that was offered as support for Mead's citation.

Abucay-Mauban Line[edit]

Japanese Landings on Bataan 23 January - 1 February 1942

WPO-3 called for two defensive lines across Bataan. The first extended across the peninsula from Mauban in the west to Mabatang, Abucay in the east. Gen. Wainwright, commanding the newly organised I Philippine Corps of 22,500 troops, held the western sector. I Corps included the Philippine Army's 1st Regular, 31st, and 91st Infantry Divisions, the 26th Cavalry (PS)and a battery of field artillery and self-propelled guns. Gen. Parker and the new II Philippine Corps, which included the Philippine Army's 11th, 21st, 41st, and 51st Divisions and the 57th Infantry (PS), and numbered 25,000 men, defended the eastern sector. All of the divisions, understrength at the onset of war, had suffered serious combat losses, particularly to desertions. The U.S. Army's Philippine Division, made up of the 31st Infantry, the 45th Infantry (Philippine Scouts), and supporting units became the Bataan Defense Force Reserve. Mount Natib, a 4,222-foot (1,287 m)-high mountain that split the peninsula, served as the boundary line between the two corps. The commanders anchored their lines on the mountain, but, since they considered the rugged terrain impassable, they did not extend their forces far up its slopes. The two corps were therefore not in direct contact with each other, leaving a serious gap in the defense line. With the fighting withdrawal completed, the Abucay-Mauban line, the USAFFE's main battle position was now finally in place.

The stand[edit]

On 9 January, Japanese forces under Lt. Gen. Susumu Morioka assaulted the eastern flank of the Abucay-Mauban line, and was repulsed by the 91st Division of BGen. Luther Stevens and Col. George S. Clark's 57th Infantry (PS). On 12 January, amid fierce fighting, 2nd Lt. Alexander R. Nininger, a platoon leader in the 57th Infantry, with uncommon valor, sacrificed his life when, armed with only a rifle and hand grenades, he forced his way into enemy foxholes during hand-to-hand combat, permitting his unit to retake Abucay Hacienda; for his actions he was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. Another extreme act of bravery was put forth by a Filipino named Narcisco Ortilano.[4] He was on a water-cooled heavy machine gun when the Japanese burst out of a canebrake in a banzai attack. He shot down dozens of the Japanese with his machine gun, then pulled out his Colt .45 and shot down five more when the machine gun jammed. Then, when one Japanese soldier stabbed at him with a bayonet, he desperately tried to grab the gun, but got his thumb cut off. But he still held on, and then with a sudden burst of adrenaline he turned the gun on the enemy soldier and stabbed him in the chest. When another Japanese soldier swung a bayonet at him, he turned his rifle on the soldier and shot him dead. Narcisco received the Distinguished Service Cross.[4]

Another attack on 14 January at the boundary of positions held by the 41st Division and 51st Divisions of Brigadier Generals Vicente Lim and Albert M. Jones, respectively, aided by the 43rd and Colonel Wallace A Mead's 23rd Infantry, stubbornly refused the Japanese their left flank. The Japanese advanced to the Salian River valley through a gap made by the 51st Infantry's withdrawal. But a patrol discovered the infiltration, and units of the 21st Division rushed to the valley, and repulsed the attackers after a savage encounter.

At another engagement farther to the west, a Japanese force surprised and routed the 53rd Infantry of Col. John R. Boatwright. This force also penetrated deep behind the Abucay-Mauban line along the Abo-Abo river valley. But their advance was held up by combined units of the 21st and 51st Divisions, the 31st Division of BGen. Clifford Bluemel,and Col. John H. Rodman's 92nd Infantry at the Bani-Guirol forest area. The 31st Infantry and the 45th Infantry, Philippine Scouts of Col. Thomas W. Doyle partially restored the abandoned line of the 51st Division.

On 15 January, the reinforced 1st Regular Division of BGen. Fidel Segundo, defending the Morong sector came under heavy bombardment, but held the line. The Japanese penetrated through a huge gap in the Silangan-Natib area, established a roadblock on Mauban ridge, threatening to cut off the division's rear. Repeated attacks by the 91st Division and 71st Division, and 92nd Infantry failed to dislodge the Japanese. The attackers' nightly raids and infiltration tactics became more frequent. Previously, Gen. Parker's II Corps had prevented a similar encirclement at the Salian river battle, but the position of Gen. Wainwright's I Corps was deemed indefensible, and the Abucay-Mauban line had to be abandoned on 22 January.

Battle of Trail 2[edit]

Japanese flamethrower in action against a bunker on the Orion-Bagac line

Within four days, the Orion-Bagac line was formed. But the defenders had yet to complete their withdrawal to the reserve battle position when the Japanese struck again, through a gap held by I Corps. General Bluemel hastily organized a defense along Trail 2, consisting of 32nd Infantry, 41st Infantry and 51st Division reinforcements, in time to stop a major offensive and plugged the gap.

Battle of the Pockets[edit]

The remaining Japanese troops managed to get through, however, and held out at some rear sectors of the Orion-Bagac line at the Tuol River valley behind the 11th Division, and in the Gogo-Cotar River behind the 1st Regular Division. From 23 January to 17 February, coordinated action by the defenders, to eliminate these salients of resistance, became known as the Battle of the Pockets. Fierce fighting marked the action. Capt. Alfredo M. Santos of the 1st Regular Division outmaneuvered the enemy during their attempt to pocket their area. In both attempts, his unit successfully broke through the Gogo-Cotar and Tuol Pockets, thus earning for himself the moniker "hero of the pockets". For his successes, he was promoted to Major in the field. Major Santos was then given the hazardous mission of closing the gaps and annihilating the enemy troops who had infiltrated the lines as the gap posed a serious threat to the positions and the security of the division. He led a counter-attack against the strong and numerically superior Japanese forces positioned between the MLR and the Regimental Reserve Line (RRL). The fighting began at dawn of 29 January 1942, and laer succeeded in restoring the defensive sector assigned to the 1st Regular Division. On 3 February 1942, 1st Lt. Willibald C. Bianchi of the 45th Infantry, Philippine Scouts led a reinforced platoon forward against two enemy machine-gun nests, silenced them with grenades, and then manned an antiaircraft machine gun until dying of his wounds. His Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously. Of the 2,000 Japanese soldiers engaged, only 377 were reported to have escaped.

General Homma on 8 February ordered the suspension of offensive operations in order to reorganize his forces. This could not be carried out immediately, because the 16th Division remained engaged trying to extricate the pocketed 3d Battalion 20th Infantry. With further casualties, the remnants of the 3rd Battalion, 378 officers and men, were extricated on 15 February. On 22 February the 14th Army line was withdrawn a few miles to the north, with USAFFE forces re-occupying positions evacuated by the Japanese.

Battle of the Points[edit]

In an attempt to outflank I Corps and isolate the Service Command Area commanded by USAFFE Deputy Commander Brig. Gen. Allan C. McBride, Japanese troops of the 2nd Battalion, 20th Infantry, 16th Division, were landed on the west coast of southern Bataan on the night of 22 January. Intercepted by U.S. PT boat PT-34, two barges were sunk and the rest scattered into two groups, neither of which landed on the objective beach. The Japanese forces were contained on their beachheads by members of Philippine Constabulary units, a hastily organized naval infantry battalion, and by personnel of several U.S. Army Air Corps pursuit squadrons fighting as infantry, including Ed Dyess and Ray C. Hunt.[5][6]

The naval infantry consisted of 150 ground crewmen from Patrol Wing Ten, 80 sailors from the Cavite Naval Ammunition Depot, and 130 sailors from USS Canopus (AS-9) with 120 sailors from the base facilities at Cavite, Olongapo, and Mariveles, and 120 Marines from an antiaircraft battery. Sailors used Canopus machine shop to fabricate makeshift mountings for machine guns salvaged from Patrol Wing Ten's damaged aircraft. The Marines were distributed through the ranks and the sailors were told to "watch them and do as they do." The sailors attempted to make their white uniforms more suitable for jungle combat by dying them with coffee grounds. The result was closer to yellow than khaki, and the diary of a dead Japanese officer described them as a suicide squad dressed in brightly colored uniforms and talking loudly in an attempt to draw our fire and reveal our positions.[7]

Japanese commanders, in an attempt to hold onto their lodgments, reinforced the beachheads piecemeal but could not break out. Battles were fought ferociously against a company-sized group at the Lapay-Longoskawayan points from 23 to 29 January, at the Quinawan-Aglaloma points from 22 January to 8 February, and at the Silalim-Anyasan points from 27 January to 13 February. Out of the 2,000 Japanese troops committed to these battles, only 43 wounded returned to their lines. These engagements were collectively termed the "Battle of the Points".

The fall of Bataan[edit]

Japanese tanks and infantry advance through Bataan jungle.
Fall of Bataan historical marker, Bataan Capitolio

On the night of 12 March, General MacArthur, his family, and several USAFFE staff officers left Corregidor for Mindanao aboard four PT boats commanded by Lieutenant Commander John D. Bulkeley. For this and a number of other feats over the course of four months and eight days, Bulkeley was awarded the Medal of Honor, the Navy Cross, the Distinguished Service Cross and other citations.

MacArthur was eventually flown to Australia where he broadcast to the Filipino people his famous "I Shall Return" promise. MacArthur's departure marked the end of the USAFFE and by 22 March, the defending army was renamed United States Forces in the Philippines (USFIP) and Lt. Gen. Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV was placed in command.

After the failure of their first attack against Bataan, the Japanese General Headquarters sent strong artillery forces to the Philippines in order to smash the American fortifications. They had 190 artillery pieces, which included bigger guns like 150 mm cannons or the rare Type 45 240 mm howitzer, with Bataan being its only known campaign. The 1st Artillery Headquarters under Maj. Gen. Kineo Kitajima, who was a known authority on IJA artillery, also moved to the Philippines along with the main forces to command and control these artillery units. Also the Japanese High Command reinforced Gen. Homma's 14th Imperial Army and toward the end of March, the Japanese forces prepared for the final assault.

MG Edward King discusses terms of surrender with Japanese officers

On 3 April, the entire Orion-Bagac line was subjected to incessant bombings by 100 aircraft and artillery bombardment by 300 artillery pieces from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m., which turned the Mount Samat stronghold into an inferno. Thereafter, over the course of the next three days (Good Friday to Easter Sunday, 1942), the Japanese 65th Brigade and 4th Division spearheaded the main attack at the left flank of II Corps. Everywhere along the line, the American and Filipino defenders were driven back by Japanese tanks and infantry.

Based on his two prior attempts, General Homma had estimated that the final offensive would require a week to breach the Orion-Bagac line and a month to liquidate two final defense lines he believed had been prepared on Bataan. When the opening attack required just three days, he pushed his forces on 6 April to meet expected counterattacks headon. The Japanese launched a drive into the center, penetrated into flanks held by the 22nd and 23rd Regiments of the 21st Division, captured Mt. Samat and outflanked all of II Corps. Counterattacks by the U.S. Army and Philippine Scout regulars held in reserve were futile; only the 57th Infantry gained any ground, soon lost.

All along the battle front, units of I Corps together with devastated remnants of II Corps, crumbled and straggled to the rear. The commanders on Bataan lost all contact with their units except by runner in a few instances. In the last two days of the defense of Bataan, the entire Allied defense progressively disintegrated and collapsed, clogging all roads with refugees and fleeing troops. By 8 April, the senior U.S. commander on Bataan, Maj. Gen. Edward P. King, saw the futility of further resistance, and put forth proposals for capitulation.

Allied troops listen to Voice of Freedom broadcast

The next morning, 9 April 1942, Gen. King met with Maj. Gen. Kameichiro Nagano and after several hours of negotiations, the remaining weary, starving and emaciated American and Filipino defenders on the battle-swept Bataan peninsula surrendered.

Radio Broadcast – Voice of Freedom – Malinta Tunnel – Corregidor – 9 April 1942:

[8]

Aftermath[edit]

Japanese soldiers guard American and Filipino prisoners of war

The surrender of Bataan would hasten the fall of Corregidor, a month later. However, without this stand, the Japanese might have quickly overrun all of the U.S. bases in the Pacific, and worse, the Japanese could have even quickly invaded Australia.[9] Ultimately, more than 60,000 Filipino and 15,000 American prisoners of war were forced into the infamous Bataan Death March.[2] However, about 10,000-12,000 of these would eventually escape from the march to form guerrilla units in the mountains, eventually tying down the occupying Japanese until the Allies retook the islands on 1944. On 7 September 1944 the Japanese ship Shinyo Maru was sunk by USS Paddle; on board the Maru were US POWs of whom 668 died and 82 survived. American and Filipino forces later retook the Bataan peninsula on 17 February 1945.

Legacy[edit]

  • Araw ng Kagitingan or Day of Valour. The day Bataan fell into Japanese hands, 9 April, was declared a national holiday in the Philippines.[10] Previously called Bataan Day, the day is now known as Araw ng Kagitingan or Day of Valour, commemorating both the Fall of Bataan (9 April 1942) and the Fall of Corregidor (6 May 1942).
Mariveles, Bataan Memorial Shrine (Km. Zero, starting point of Death March, 9–17 April 1942).
  • Dambana ng Kagitingan or Shrine of Valor is a memorial shrine erected on top of Mt. Samat in Pilar, Bataan in the Philippines. The war memorial grounds feature a colonnade that houses an altar, esplanade, and a museum. On the peak of the mountain is the Memorial Cross standing about 311 ft (95 m) high.
A U.S. Army member posts the flag of the Battling Bastards of Bataan at the opening ceremony of the Bataan Memorial Death March
  • Bataan Death March Memorial Monument, erected in April, 2001, is the only monument funded by the US Federal Government dedicated to the victims of the Bataan Death March during World War II. The Memorial was designed and sculpted by Las Cruces artist Kelley Hester and is located in Veterans Park along Roadrunner Parkway in New Mexico.[11]

In film and television[edit]

Among the many films and television programs that feature the story of Bataan are Bataan (1943) starring Robert Taylor, the John Ford classic They Were Expendable (1945), starring Robert Montgomery, John Wayne, and Donna Reed, Back to Bataan (1945) starring Wayne and Anthony Quinn, and two movies about the nurses of Bataan So Proudly We Hail! (1943) and Cry 'Havoc' (1943).

Dozens of documentaries have also featured stories from the Battle of Bataan including Ghosts of Bataan (2005) and an episode of the History Channel series Shootout, entitled Raid on the Bataan Death Camp (2006). Though largely focusing on the Cabanatuan Raid in 1945, this last program also featured stories from the 1942 battle; notably the stand of the 57th Infantry Regiment (PS) at Mabatang.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Robertson, p. 606.
  2. ^ a b William L. O'Neill, A Democracy at War: America's Fight at Home and Abroad in World War II, p 115 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
  3. ^ Louis Morton. "The Decision To Withdraw to Bataan". U.S. Army Center of Military History. United States Army. Retrieved 22 May 2011. 
  4. ^ a b None More Courageous – American War Heroes of Today, Stewart H. Holbrook, retrieved 14 January 2010 
  5. ^ Dyess, W.E., 1944, The Dyess Story, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons
  6. ^ Hunt, Ray C., and Norling, Bernard, 1986, Behind Japanese Lines: An American Guerrilla in the Philippines, The University Press of Kentucky, ISBN 0-8131-1604-X
  7. ^ Gordon, John IV, Capt. USA "The Navy's Infantry at Bataan" United States Naval Institute Proceedings Supplement March 1985 pp.64–69
  8. ^ College Writing and Reading. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 327–328. ISBN 978-971-23-0571-9. 
  9. ^ William L. O'Neill, A Democracy at War: America's Fight at Home and Abroad in World War II, p 116 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
  10. ^ "Republic Act no. 9188". The LawPhil Project. Retrieved on 2011-03-22.
  11. ^ Bataan "Bataan Death March Memorial". Las Cruces Convention & Visitors Bureau. Retrieved on 2011-03-20.
  12. ^ "Commemorative plaque". Historic Bridges.org. Retrieved on 2011-03-21.
  13. ^ "Photo – Memorial Plate". Historic Bridges.org. Retrieved on 2011-03-21.

Sources[edit]

  • Robertson, Jr, James I. (1997). Stonewall Jackson: The Man, The Soldier, The Legend. New York, NY: MacMillan Publishing. ISBN 0-02-864685-1. 
  • Bartsch, William H. (2003). 8 December 1941: MacArthur's Pearl Harbor. College Station, TX, USA: Texas A&M University Press. 
  • Burton, John (2006). Fortnight of Infamy: The Collapse of Allied Airpower West of Pearl Harbor. US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-096-X. 
  • Connaughton, Richard (2001). MacArthur and Defeat in the Philippines. New York: The Overlook Press. 
  • Mallonee, Richard C. (2003). Battle for Bataan : An Eyewitness Account. I Books. ISBN 0-7434-7450-3. 
  • Rottman, Gordon L. (2005). Japanese Army in World War II: Conquest of the Pacific 1941–42. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-789-5. 
  • Whitman, John W. (1990). Bataan: Our Last Ditch : The Bataan Campaign, 1942. Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-87052-877-7. 
  • Young, Donald J. (1992). The Battle of Bataan: A History of the 90 Day Siege and Eventual Surrender of 75,000 Filipino and United States Troops to the Japanese in World War. McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-89950-757-3. 

Further reading[edit]

Morton, Louis (1953). The Fall of the Philippines. United States Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 5-2. 

External links[edit]