Battle of Batangas (1945)

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Battle of Batangas
Part of World War II and the Allied Liberation of the Philippines
Lipa After Bombardment.jpg
Lipa after being Liberated by the Allied Forces
Date January 31, to August 15, 1945
Location Batangas, Luzon, Philippines
Result Allied Victory
Belligerents
 United States  Empire of Japan
Units involved
United States United States Army United States United States Navy
United States United States Army Air Forces
Empire of Japan Imperial Japanese Army
Strength
480,000 Filipino troops and recognized guerrillas
65,000 American troops
156,000 Japanese troops
Casualties and losses
Filipino troops
4,500 killed
14,000 wounded
Batangueño guerrillas
700 killed
2,140 wounded
American troops
2,000 killed
10,200 wounded
Japanese troops
40,000 killed
12,000 wounded
3,000 captured
XIV Corps of 158th RCT, 11th Airborne Division and 1st Cavalry Division campaign in Batangas and nearby province.

The Battle of Batangas was fought and one of the continued of seven months of main battles on January 31, to August 15, 1945 in the province of Batangas in Southern Luzon are followed in the Philippines Campaign on 1944 to 1945 between the Imperial Japanese Armed Forces and the joint military force of the U.S. and Philippine Commonwealth troops are aiding the recognized guerrillas was invaded them the clearing operations in this province during World War II.

Japanese occupation and Built of the Commonwealth military[edit]

After the attack in Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the Japanese switched their planes to attacking the Philippines, launching major air raids throughout the country. The bombings resulted into the destruction of the Batangas Airport located in Batangas City, of which nothing remains today. Batangas was also a scene of heavy fighting between the Philippine Army Air Corps and the Japanese A6M Zero Fighter Planes. The most notable air combat battle took place at height of 3,700 metres (12,000 ft) on December 12, 1941 when 6 Filipino fighters led by Capt. Jesús Villamor engaged the numerically superior enemy of 54 Japanese bombers and fighter escorts which raided the Batangas Airfield. Thus, Capt. Jesús Villamor won the battle, suffering only one casualty, Lt. César Basa whose plane was shot down by seven intercepting enemy fighters which eventually died when he was strafed by machine gun's fire came from the A6M Zeroes.

When Gen. Douglas MacArthur ordered the overall retreat of the American and Filipino military forces to Bataan in 1942, the province was ultimately abandoned and later came under direct Japanese occupation. During this time, the Imperial Japanese Army committed many crimes against civilians including the massacre of 328 people in Bauan, 320 in Taal, 300 in Cuenca, 107 in San Jose and 39 in Lucero.

The establishment and founded of the military general headquarters and military camp bases of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active and built on 1942 to 1946 and the Philippine Constabulary was active and built on 1944 to 1946 in the province of Batangas in Southern Luzon. During the engagements of the Anti-Japanese Imperial Military Operations in Manila, Southern Luzon, Mindoro and Palawan from 1942 to 1945 included the City of Manila and the Provinces of Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Mindoro and Palawan and aided the local soldiers of the Philippine Constabulary, local guerrilla resistance and U.S. liberation military forces against the occupying Japanese Imperial armed forces before liberation. The followed by all stronghold of Filipino soldiers of the 4th, 41st, 42nd, 43rd, 45th and 46th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and 4th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was started the Battle for the Liberation of Batangas under the Southern Luzon Campaign from the Allied and Japanese forces in January 31, to August 15, 1945 and helping the local recognized guerrillas and American forces against the Japanese Imperial forces and ended in World War II.

Liberation campaign and operations[edit]

Started the part of the Philippines Campaign (1944–45), the liberation begun on January 31, 1945 when elements of the American forces under the 11th Airborne Division under the U.S. Eighth Army went ashore of the beaches of Nasugbu, Batangas. However, Batangas was not yet the target of the invasion force but instead, most of its units switch north to capture Manila and by March 3, the capital was completely secured. XIV Corps of the U.S. Sixth Army continued its drive south of Luzon and by March 4, the 11th Airborne Division together with 158th Regimental Combat Team (or 158th RCT) were passed under its command. 158th Regimental Combat Team stationed in Nasugbu would have to secure the shores and nearby towns of Balayan and Batangas Bays while the 11th Airborne Division from the Tagaytay Ridge would attack the Japanese defenses north of Taal Lake and by then reaching the Lipa Corridor. The same that day, 158th RCT had captured the town of Balayan and by March 11 had reached Batangas City. In order to secure the two bays, 158th RCT would have to capture the entire Calumpang Peninsula of the town of Mabini which was still held by some elements of the Japanese 2nd Surface Raiding Base Force. Fighting continued until March 16 when the whole peninsula was finally captured. After that, 158th RCT's turn northward to meet the Japanese Fuji Force defenses at Mt. Maculot in Cuenca on March 19. Finally, 158th Regimental Combat Team capitulated on March 23 for Bicol Operations and 187th Infantry Task Force of the 11th Airborne Division was assigned to relieve their positions in the mountain. Another 11th Airborne Division task force, the 188th Infantry was ordered to dispatch their troops around Batangas City and its remaining frontiers. To the northern section, 11th Airborne Division's 511 Parachute Infantry Regiment positions in Santo Tomas and Tanauan were all relieved by the 1st Cavalry Division. By now, 11th Airborne Division's 187th and 188th Infantry Task Forces holding the southern sector and the 1st Infantry Division to the northern sector were on their way to secure the Lipa Corridor, the last major part of the Province of Batangas to be taken.

While the stronghold of all Filipino troops and officers was leaded under the military unit of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary from the general headquarters and military camps here in Batangas and some parts in Southern Luzon and stayed of clearing operations and engage in this province and supporting the recognized guerrillas and the U.S. liberation forces under the Eighth Army at all to invading attack by the Japanese Imperial forces.

The last major offensive for the capture of the Lipa Corridor begun when 188th Infantry Task Force from Batangas City left for Lipa on March 24. The same that day, 187th Infantry Task Force launched an attack against the remaining Japanese positions in Mt. Maculot. Although still heavy fighting continued until April 17, the bulk of its forces headed also for the invasion of the Lipa Corridor. The final capture of Mt. Maculot came by April 21.

188th Infantry Task Force on the other hand engaged a stiff resistance against Fuji Force's 86th Airfield Battalion on March 26. Meanwhile to the north, 1st Cavalry Division attacked the remaining Japanese defenses in towns of Santo Tomas and Tanauan and by then meeting up with the advancing 187th and 188th Infantry Task Forces from the south. Lipa was captured by the 1st Cavalry Division on March 29. Fuji Force's 86th Airfield Battalion retreated and makes their last stand on Mt. Malepunyo where they were besieged by the 187th Infantry Task Force and 1st Cavalry Division from both north and south positions.

With the capture of Lipa, 1st Cavalry Division, 187th and 188th Infantry Task Forces continued their drive towards the Quezon Province. Only some elements of the 188th Infantry Task Force was left to clear the Batangas Mountains located southeast of province from the remaining Japanese defenses. Throughout the battle, the local recognized guerrilla fighters played an important key role in the advancement of the combined American and Philippine Commonwealth troops, providing key roads and information for the Japanese location of defenses and movements. The 11th Airborne Division and attached Filipino Guerillas had 390 casualties in which 90 of it were figured dead. The Japanese however lost 1,490 men. Soon afterwards, by the end of April 1945, Batangas was liberated and fully secured for the Allied control, thus ending all the hostilities.

Aftermath[edit]

When the Battle for the Liberation of Batangas was aftermath to ended, the successfully victorious of combined U.S. and Filipino troops including recognized guerrillas are recapture in the province on August 15, 1945 after the long month battle. Almost the casualties of over 20,000 Filipino troops died and injured in battle, the local Batangueño guerrillas almost 700 killed and 2,140 wounded, the American troops almost of over 14,000 killed and wounded in main battle and some of several Japanese Imperial forces almost 40,000 killed, 12,000 wounded and 3,000 captured in action through the war.

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