Battle of Batoche
|Battle of Batoche|
|Part of the North-West Rebellion|
Contemporary lithograph of the Battle of Batoche.
|Provisional Government of Saskatchewan (Métis)||Canada|
|Commanders and leaders|
Bowen van Straubenzee
|Casualties and losses|
The Battle of Batoche was the decisive battle of the North-West Rebellion. Fought from May 9 to May 12, 1885 at the ad hoc Provisional Government of Saskatchewan capital of Batoche, the greater numbers and superior firepower of Middleton's force could not be successfully countered by the Métis (as had happened at Fish Creek), and the town was eventually captured. The defeat of the Métis led to the surrender of Louis Riel on May 15 and the collapse of the Provisional Government. In the weeks that followed, Poundmaker would surrender and only the Cree under Big Bear would continue to engage Canadian authorities – see Battle of Frenchman's Butte and Battle of Loon Lake.
Early advances and the crippling of the Northcote
Conscious of the numerous reverses that had been suffered by government forces in previous clashes with the rebels (see the battles of Duck Lake, Fish Creek, and Cut Knife), Middleton approached Batoche with caution, reaching Gabriel's Crossing on 7 May and advancing within eight miles (13 km) of the town the following day. Middleton's plan rested on an encirclement strategy: as his main contingent advanced directly against Métis defensive lines, the steamboat Northcote, carrying some of Middleton's troops, would steam past the distracted defenders and unload fifty men at the rear of the town, effectively closing the pincer. However, due to the difficulty of the terrain and Middleton's penchant for prudence, his force lagged behind schedule, and when the Northcote appeared adjacent to the town on 9 May it was spotted by Métis who had not yet come under artillery fire. Although their small arms fire did little damage to the armoured ship, the Métis were able to lower Batoche's ferry cable, into which the Northcote steamed unsuspectingly. Its masts and smokestacks sliced clean off, the crippled ship drifted harmlessly down the South Saskatchewan River and out of the battle.
Ignorant of the Northcote's fate, Middleton approached the church at Mission Ridge on the morning of 9 May in order to bring his plan into effect. Finding the mission occupied only by priests and civilians, Middleton brought his artillery out onto the ridge and began shelling the town. There his Gatling gun was used to good effect, providing covering fire for the withdrawal of cannon that had come under sniper fire and dispersing an attempt by Gabriel Dumont to capture the guns.
Canadian advances saw less success but were carefully conducted, keeping casualties to a minimum. A Métis attempt to surround the Canadian lines failed when the brushfires meant to screen the sortie failed to spread, and at the end of the day, both sides held their positions at Mission Ridge, Canadian soldiers retiring to sleep behind their network of improvised barricades.
Probing attacks of 10 May to 11
On May 10, Middleton established heavily defended gunpits and conducted a devastating, day-long shelling of the town. Attempted advances, however, were turned back by Métis fire, and no ground was gained. The next day, Middleton gauged the strength of the defenders by dispatching a contingent of men north along the enemy's flank while simultaneously conducting a general advance along the front. Having redirected a portion of their strength to hold the northward flank, the Métis lacked the manpower to oppose the Canadian thrust, ceding ground with little resistance. Canadian soldiers ventured as far as the Batoche cemetery before turning back. Satisfied with his enemies' weakness, Middleton retired to sleep and contended to take the town in the morning.
The storming of Batoche
By 12 May, Métis defences were in poor shape. Of the original defenders, three-quarters had either been wounded by artillery fire or scattered and divided in the many clashes with the Canadians on the outskirts of the town. Those that still held their positions were fatigued and desperately short of ammunition. To this effect, some Métis were forced to fire nails and rocks out of their rifles, from their remaining gunpowder supplies. They also used forks and knives.
Middleton's attack plan was designed to mirror the success of the previous day's flanking feint, with one column drawing defenders away to the north and a second, under Colonel Bowen van Straubenzee, assaulting the town directly. Straubenzee's soldiers performed brilliantly, charging into Batoche in the face of heavy fire and driving the remaining Métis clear of the town.
The Métis defeat at Batoche virtually ended the North-West Rebellion. Louis Riel surrendered and was hanged for treason in Regina on 16 November while Gabriel Dumont fled to the United States, returning to Batoche only in 1893. Middleton's forces proceeded north to Prince Albert, Saskatchewan.
Middleton reported 8 deaths and 46 wounded on the Canadian side and 51 deaths and 173 wounded on the Métis side. Later Father Vegreville reported that the Métis loss was not as high as the Mission first reported to Middleton. There were 16 Métis killed and between 20 and 30 wounded. Nine of the Métis killed in the battle were buried in the cemetery of Batoche. Eight were in a common grave.
Bell of Batoche
Following the battle, it was believed that several Canadian soldiers from Millbrook, Ontario, had taken the bell from the Batoche church back to Ontario as a prize. The fate of the bell became an issue of longstanding controversy, involving several Métis organizations and the provincial governments of Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan.
In the spring of 2008, Tourism, Parks, Culture and Sport Minister Christine Tell proclaimed in Duck lake, that "the 125th commemoration, in 2010, of the 1885 Northwest Resistance is an excellent opportunity to tell the story of the prairie Métis and First Nations peoples' struggle with Government forces and how it has shaped Canada today."
Batoche, where the Métis Provisional Government had been formed, has been declared a national historic site. Batoche marks the site of Gabriel Dumont's grave site, Albert Caron's House, Batoche school, Batoche cemetery, Letendre store, Gabriel's river crossing, Gardepy's crossing, Batoche crossing, St. Antoine de Padoue Church, Métis rifle pits, and Canadian militia's battle camp.
- Military Map Battlefield of Batoche
- Military Map of Mission Ridge
- Military Map of Batoche (Position May 9)
- Military Map of Batoche Rifle Pits
- Photo Collection (Glenbow Archives)
- Panet, Charles Eugène (1886), Report upon the suppression of the rebellion in the North-West Territories and matters in connection therewith, in 1885: Presented to Parliament., Ottawa: Department of Militia and Defence, retrieved 2014-04-10
- Mulvaney, Charles Pelham (1885), The history of the North-West Rebellion of 1885 p.327, Toronto: A.H. Hovey & Co, retrieved 2014-04-10
- "Batoche: les missionnaires du nord-ouest pendant les troubles de 1885 (La Liberation) P.206". Le Chevallier, Jules Jean Marie Joseph. Montreal: L'Oeuvre de presse dominicaine. 1941. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- Mulvaney, Charles Pelham (1885), The history of the North-West Rebellion of 1885 (p.196-215), Toronto: A.H. Hovey & Co, retrieved 2014-04-10
- Panet, Charles Eugène (1886), Report upon the suppression of the rebellion in the North-West Territories and matters in connection therewith, in 1885: Presented to Parliament.(P. 27-35), Ottawa: Department of Militia and Defence, retrieved 2014-04-10
- "The Battle of Batoche: British Small Warfare and the Entrenched Métis". The Battle of Batoche by Hildebrandt, Walter. Parks Canada, Winnipeg. 1985. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- "The Battle of Batoche". The New York Times. May 16, 1885. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- "Batoche". Darren R. Préfontaine. Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- "Heroes of the 1885 Northwest Resistance. Summary of those Killed.". Barkwell, Lawrence J. Louis Riel Institute. 2010. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- "Bell of Batoche really the Bell of Frog Lake". Alexandra Paul (Winnipeg Free Press). 2014-04-21. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
- Historic Sites and Monuments board of Canada. Government of Canada (21 Nov 2004). "Welcome To Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Region Gen Web Batoche / Fish Creek Photo Gallery". Saskatoon Gen Web. online by Julia Adamson. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- "Tourism agencies to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the Northwest Resistance/Rebellion". Home/About Government/News Releases/June 2008. Government of Saskatchewan. June 7, 2008. Archived from the original on 21 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- "Batoche The Virtual Museum of Métis History and Culture". Gabriel Dumont Institute of Native Studies and Applied Research. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- "Parks Canada Batoche National Historic Site of Canada". Government of Canada. 2009-06-22. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- Barkwell, Lawrence J. Veterans and Families of the 1885 Northwest Resistance. Saskatoon: Gabriel Dumont Institute, 2011. ISBN 978-1-926795-03-4
- Barkwell, Lawrence J. Women of the 1885 Resistance. Winnipeg: Louis Riel Institute, 2008.
- Barkwell, Lawrence J. Veterans and Families of the 1885 Resistance. Winnipeg: Louis Riel Institute, 2008.
- Barkwell, Lawrence J. Batoche 1885: The Militia of the Métis Liberation Movement. Winnipeg: Manitoba Métis Federation, #0-9683493-3-1, .
- Barnholden, Michael. Gabriel Dumont Speaks. Vancouver: Talon Books, 1993.
- Beal, Bob and Rod Mcleod. Prairie Fire: The 1885 North-West Rebellion. Edmonton: Hurtig Publishers, 1984.
- Bingamin, Sandra Estlin. "The Trials of the 'White Rebels', 1885." Saskatchewan History, Vol. 25, 1972: 41-54.
- Boulton, Charles Arkell. Reminiscences of the North-West Rebellions. Toronto: Grip Printing & Publishing Co., 1886.
- Cameron, W. B. "The Half-Breed Rising on the South Saskatchewan, 1885." Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan, Northwest Resistance Database, MSS C550/1/28.1 Part I.3.
- Cameron, W. B. "The Northwest Mounted Rifles." Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan, Northwest Resistance Database, MSS C550/1/28.1 Part I.4.
- Combet, Denis. "Les Mémoires dictés par Gabriel Dumont" et le "Récit de Gabriel Dumont." Ca-heirs Franco-Canadiens de l'Ouest, Vol. 14, Nos. 1 et 2, 2002: 105-156.
- Kermoal, Nathalie. "Les roles et les souffrances des femmes métisses lors de la Résistance de 1870 et de la Rébellion de 1885." Prairie Forum, Vol. 19, No. 2, Fall 1993: 153-168
- Lee, David. "The Metis Militant Rebels of 1885." Canadian Ethnic Studies, XXI, 3, 1989; 1-19.
- McLean, Don. 1885: Métis Rebellion or Government Conspiracy? Saskatoon: Gabriel Dumont Institute, 1985.
- Mulvaney, Charles Pelham, M.D. The History of the North-West Rebellion of 1885. Toronto: A. H. Hovey & Co., 1885.
- Payment, Diane. Structural and Settlement History of Batoche Village. Manuscript Report Number 248. Ot-tawa: Parks Canada and Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, 1977.
- __________ "Monsieur Batoche." Saskatchewan History, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1979: 81-103.
- __________ Batoche 1870-1910. St. Boniface, Manitoba: Les Éditions du Blé, 1983.
- __________ Batoche, Saskatchewan 1870-1930: Histoire dune communauté métisse/History of a Métis Community. Ottawa: Parks Canada Manuscript, 1984.
- __________ "The Métis Homeland: Batoche in 1885." NeWest Review, Vol. 10 (9), May 1985.
- __________ "Batoche After 1885, A Society in Transition." In F. Laurie Barron and James B. Waldram (Editors): 1885 and After: Native Society in Transition. Regina: University of Regina, Cana-dian Plains Research Center, 1986: 173-187.
- __________ The Free People – Otispemisiwak. Ottawa: National Historic Parks and Sites, Environment Canada, 1990.
- __________ "'La vie en rose'? Métis Women at Batoche, 1870 to 1920." In Christine Miller and Patricia Chuchryk (Editors): Women of the First Nations: Power, Wisdom and Strength. Winnipeg: Univer-sity of Manitoba Press, 1996, reprinted 1997: 19-37.
- __________ "The Willow Cree of One-Arrow First Nation and the Metis of Batoche 1870 to 1920: An Ambivalent Relationship." Winnipeg: Parks Canada, Cultural Resource Services, 1997.
- Tolton, Gordon E. Prairie Warships: River Navigation in the Northwest Rebellion. Vancouver: Heritage House, 2007.
- Travis, Ralph. "Prairie General." Military History, vol. 12, No. 6, Issue 125, 1984: 241-249.
- Wiebe, Rudy and Bob Beal (Editors). War in the West: Voices of the 1885 Rebellion. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1985.