Battle of Cable Street
|Battle of Cable Street|
|British Union of Fascists||Metropolitan Police Service||Anti-fascists, communists, anarchists, Jews, Independent Labour Party|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Oswald Mosley||Philip Game||Phil Piratin|
The Battle of Cable Street took place on Sunday 4 October 1936 in Cable Street in the East End of London. It was a clash between the Metropolitan Police, overseeing a march by the British Union of Fascists, led by Oswald Mosley, and anti-fascists, including local Jewish, socialist, anarchist, Irish and communist groups. The majority of both marchers and counter-protesters travelled into the area for this purpose. Mosley planned to send thousands of marchers dressed in uniforms styled on those of Blackshirts through the East End, which then had a large Jewish population.
The Board of Deputies of British Jews denounced the march as anti-semitic and urged Jewish people to stay away. The Communist Party of Great Britain, under the leadership of Phil Piratin, led the opposition forces. Piratin's role was widely recognized by local people. The following year, he became the first Communist to be elected to Stepney Borough Council. In 1945, he was elected as a Communist MP for Mile End.
Despite the strong likelihood of violence, the government hesitated to ban the march and a large escort of police was provided in an attempt to prevent anti-fascist protesters from disrupting the march.
The anti-fascist groups built roadblocks in an attempt to prevent the march from taking place. The barricades were constructed near the junction with Christian Street, towards the west end of this long street. An estimated 100,000 anti-fascist demonstrators turned out, and were met by 6,000 police, who attempted to clear the road to permit the march of 2-3,000 fascists to proceed. The demonstrators fought back with sticks, rocks, chair legs and other improvised weapons. Rubbish, rotten vegetables and the contents of chamber pots were thrown at the police by women in houses along the street. After a series of running battles, Mosley agreed to abandon the march to prevent bloodshed. The BUF marchers were dispersed towards Hyde Park instead while the anti-fascists rioted with police. About 150 demonstrators were arrested, although some escaped with the help of other demonstrators. Several members of the police were kidnapped by demonstrators. Around 175 people were injured including police, women and children.
Many of the arrested demonstrators reported harsh treatment at the hands of the police. Most were charged with the minor offence of obstructing police and fined £5, but several of the ringleaders were found guilty of affray and sentenced to 3 months of hard labour.
The Battle of Cable Street was a major factor leading to the passage of the Public Order Act 1936, which required police consent for political marches and forbade the wearing of political uniforms in public. This is widely considered to be a significant factor in the BUF's political decline prior to the Second World War.
In the 1980s, a large mural depicting the battle was painted on the side of St George's Town Hall. This building was originally the vestry hall for the area and later the town hall of Stepney Borough Council. It stands in Cable Street, about 150 yards (140 m) west of Shadwell underground station. A red plaque in Dock Street commemorates the incident.
Steven Berkoff's East (1975) includes a depiction of the event; an eponymous play commemorating the events was written by Simon Blumenfeld and first performed in 1987; and in 2006 a short film was produced featuring a remembrance from a grandfather to his grandson. The 2010 revival of BBC drama Upstairs, Downstairs included several scenes of the Battle of Cable Street, although the drama wrongly suggested that Protesters and BUF actually clashed, verbally if not physically.
In popular culture
- We remember Mosley
- And how Cable Street folk fought him
- When we see the fash
- We let the boots do the talking
The British folk punk group The Men They Couldn't Hang wrote and recorded a song about the event called "The Ghosts of Cable Street," available on their second album How Green Is The Valley from 1985 on MCA Records and subsequently on their 2004 live CD Smugglers and Bounty Hunters released in 2005 on Secret Records.
Terry Pratchett's Discworld novel Night Watch references elements of the Battle of Cable Street.
- Christie Pits riot – a similar incident which took place in Toronto on August 16, 1933.
- 6 February 1934 crisis – a similar event which took place in Paris.
- Jones, Nigel, Mosley, Haus, 2004, p. 114
- Kushner, Anthony and Valman, Nadia (2000)Remembering Cable Street: fascism and anti-fascism in British society. Vallentine Mitchell, p. 182. ISBN 0-85303-361-7
- Communist Party: Cable Street Anniversary
- Cable Street 75 Mobilising Committee
- News footage from the day News reel from youtube.com
- Video for the Ghosts of Cable Street by 'They Men They Couldn't Hang' set to images of the battle
- Historical article by David Rosenberg linked to the 'battle's 75th anniversary
- The Battle of Cable Street as told by the Communist Party of Britain.
- "Fascists and Police Routed at Cable Street" a personal account of the battle by a participant.
- Cable Street and the Battle of Cable Street.