Battle of Cape Kaliakra

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Battle of Cape Kaliakra
Part of the Russo-Turkish War, 1787-1792
Date 11 August 1791
Location Cape Kaliakra off the coast of northern Bulgaria in the Black Sea
Result Marginal Russian Victory
Belligerents
 Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Russian EmpireAdmiral Fyodor Ushakov Ottoman EmpireHussein Pasha,
Said Ali
Strength
15 battleships
2 frigates,
19 small crafts
18 battleships
10 frigates,
7 small frigates,
48 small crafts,
The coastal battery
Casualties and losses
17 killed and 28 wounded, and 1 ship damaged Unknown

The Battle of Cape Kaliakra or Battle off Cape Kaliakra was the last naval battle of the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792. It took place on 11 August 1791 off the coast of northern Bulgaria in the Black Sea. Neither side lost a ship, but the Ottomans retreated to Constantinople afterwards.

The Russian fleet under Fyodor Ushakov of 15 battleships and 2 frigates (990 guns) and some small craft sailed from Sevastopol on 8 August, and at midday on 11 August encountered the Ottoman-Algerian fleet under Hussein Pasha of 18 battleships and 17 frigates (1,500–1,600 guns) and some smaller craft at anchor just south of Cape Kaliakra. Ushakov sailed, in 3 columns, from the north-east, between the Ottomans and the cape, despite the presence on the cape of several guns. Said Ali, the commander of the Algerian ships, weighed anchor and sailed east, followed by Hussein Pasha with the 18 battleships. The Russians then turned around south to a parallel east-south-east course and formed up mostly into 1 line, with Ushakov in 3rd position and one ship out of line on the off-battle side. Said Ali, leading the line, turned north to try to double the Russian van, but Ushakov sailed out of the line and attacked him, as the rest of the Russian fleet approached. This was at 4.45 p.m.. Gradually the Turks turned to the south and when darkness put an end to fighting at 8.30 p.m. they were in full retreat to Constantinople. Russian casualties were 17 killed and 28 wounded, and Sv. Aleksandr Nevskii was damaged.

Ships involved[edit]

Russia (Ushakov)[edit]

Rozhdestvo Christovo 84 (The Birth of Christ) (flag)
Ioann Predtecha 74 (John the Precursor)
Maria Magdalina 66 (Mary Magdalene)
Preobrazhenie Gospodne 66 (Transfiguration of the Lord)
Sv. Pavel 66 (St Paul)
Sv. Vladimir 66 (St Vladimir)
Leontii Mutchenik 62 (Martyr Leonty)
Sv. Aleksandr Nevskii 50 (St Alexander Nevsky)
Sv. Andrei Pervozvannyi 50 (St Andrew the First-called)
Sv. Nikolai 50 (St Nicholas[disambiguation needed])
Feodor Stratilat 46 (Theodore Stratelates)
Ioann Bogoslov 46 (John the Theologian)
Navarchia Voznesenie Gospodne 46 (Navarchy Ascension of the Lord)
Sv. Petr Apostol 46 (St Peter the Apostle)
Tsar Konstantin 46 (Tsar Constantine)
Fanagoria 40 (Phanagoria)
Makropolea Sv. Mark Evangelist 36
Rozhdestvo Christovo (The Birth of Christ) (bomb)
Sv. Ieronim (St Jerome) (bomb)
? (fireship)
? (repeater ship)
Panagia Apotumengana (Panagia of Taman) (privateer) 14
16 privateers

Ottoman Turkey/Algeria/Tripoli (Hussein Pasha)[edit]

30.000 Sıpahi 12.000 Yeniçeri


Consequence[edit]

Battle has approached the end of Russian-Turkish war which has ended with signing of the Jassy peace treaty.

Tactics used by Ushakov, was a serious innovation in the theory of sea fight. After that similar maneuver used admiral Nelson in Battle at Aboukir in 1798 and Trafalgar battle in 1805.

For a victory at Kaliakrii Sacred Alexander Nevsky's award has been welcomed F.F. Ushakov.

References[edit]