Battle of Dimbos
After the battle of Bapheus in 1302, Turkish gazis from all parts of Anatolia began raiding Byzantine territories. Byzantine emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos tried to form alliance with the Ilkhanid Mongols against the Ottoman threat. Failing to secure frontiers by the alliance he decided to attack the Ottomans with his own army.
The battle is known only through later traditions which include semi-legendary elements, and hence probably reflects more folk tradition than actual historical events. According to Theodore Spandounes, "Dimbos" (in Greek) or "Dinboz" (deriving from din bozmak, "change of faith") was the first Byzantine town to fall to the Ottomans. The 15th-century chronicler Aşıkpaşazade drew on accounts of another battle near Koyunhisar (Bapheus) from other chronicles and moved them to the vicinity Dimbos to form his account of the "Battle of Dinboz".
The Anatolian army of the Byzantine Empire was composed of the forces of local garrisons like Adranos (modern Orhaneli), Bidnos, Kestel (modern village Erdoğan) and Kete (modern village of Ürünlü). In the spring of 1303, the Byzantine army advanced to Yenişehir an important Ottoman city, north east of Bursa. Osman I defeated them near the pass of Dimbos on the way to Yenişehir. During the battle both sides suffered heavy casualties. On the Ottoman side, Osman's nephew Aydoğdu and on Byzantine side the governors of Kestel and Dimbos were among the losses.
- Donald Nicol, Theodore Spandounes: On the origin of the Ottoman emperors. Cambridge University Press 1997, p. 10
- Colin Imber, "The Legend of Osman Gazi" in Elizabeth A. Zachariadou (ed.), The Ottoman Emirate (1300-1389). Halcyon Days in Crete, A Symposium Held in Rethymnon. 1994, ISBN 960-7309-58-8, p. 72
- Halil İnalcık, "The Struggle Between Osman Gazi and The Byzantines For Nicaea", Isıl Akbaygil, Halil İnalcık, Oktay Aslanapa (ed.), İznik: Throughout History, Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, ISBN 975-458-431-1, 2003, pp. 61-62, 70. in İnalcık's personal website.
- Halil İnalcık: Kuruluş Dönemi Osmanlı Sultanları, Türk Diyanet Vakfı, İstanbul, 2010, ISBN 978-605-55-8606-5, pp.36-38
- Studies in Ottoman history in honour of Professor V. L. Ménage Isis Press 1994, p. 205