Battle of Frenchtown

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Battle of Frenchtown
Part of the War of 1812
River Raisin National Battlefield Park
The River Raisin National Battlefield Park in July 2010
Date January 18–23, 1813
Location Frenchtown, Michigan Territory
41°54′49″N 83°22′42″W / 41.91361°N 83.37833°W / 41.91361; -83.37833 (Battle of Frenchtown)Coordinates: 41°54′49″N 83°22′42″W / 41.91361°N 83.37833°W / 41.91361; -83.37833 (Battle of Frenchtown)
Result British / Native American victory
Belligerents
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom
Native Americans
United States United States
Commanders and leaders
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Henry Procter
Wyandot Nation.png Roundhead
Wyandot Nation.png Walk-in-the-Water
United States James Winchester (POW)
United States George Madison (POW)
Strength
800 Native Americans
597 regulars
Approximately 1,000
Casualties and losses
British
24-25 killed
161-162 wounded
none-2 captured
Native American
3-15 killed in battle and none-1 captured on the 18th, unknown losses on the 23rd
410 killed
94+ wounded
547 captured (30-100 of whom were killed in ensuing massacre)

The Battle of Frenchtown, also known as the Battle of the River Raisin or the River Raisin Massacre, was a series of conflicts that took place from January 18–23, 1813 during the War of 1812. It was fought between the United States and a British and Native American alliance near the River Raisin in Frenchtown, Michigan Territory (present-day Monroe, Michigan).

On January 18, 1813 the Americans forced the retreat of the British and their Native American allies from Frenchtown, which they had earlier occupied, in a relatively minor skirmish. The encounter was part of a larger United States plan to advance north and retake Fort Detroit following the loss of the fort in the Siege of Detroit the previous summer. Despite the initial US success, the British and Native Americans rallied and launched a surprise counterattack four days later on January 22. Ill prepared, the Americans lost 397 soldiers in this second battle, while hundreds were taken prisoner; dozens of those were killed the next day in a massacre of prisoners by the Native Americans. More prisoners were killed during a forced march to Fort Malden if they could not keep up. This was the deadliest conflict recorded on Michigan soil, and the casualties included the highest number of Americans killed in a single battle during the War of 1812.[1][2][3]

Parts of the original battlefield were designated first as a state historic park and added to the National Register of Historic Places. In 2009 it was authorized by Congress as the River Raisin National Battlefield Park, one of four such parks in the nation.[4][5]

Naming[edit]

The Battle of Frenchtown is so named because it took place within Frenchtown township in the Michigan Territory. Much of the land on which it took place is now incorporated within the city of Monroe. Some sources apply the name only to the conflict on January 22, 1813, and refer to the conflict on January 18 as the First Battle of the River Raisin, or as a prelude to the larger encounter on January 22.[6] The plural term Battles of Frenchtown is also used to refer to the overall conflict from January 18 through 22. While the battle began on January 18, the heaviest of fighting took place on January 22 and may have continued for several days.[7]

It is often known as the Battle of the River Raisin, because of its proximity to the river of that name. The engagement may be divided into the First Battle of the River Raisin (January 18) and the Second Battle of the River Raisin (January 22).[7] The name "River Raisin Massacre" is used for events of January 23, one day after the surrender, when pro-British Indians murdered dozens of wounded United States prisoners; these volunteers from Kentucky were too badly injured to be marched overland as prisoners.[8]

Background[edit]

Location of Frenchtown and Fort Detroit

On August 17, 1812, Brigadier General William Hull, commanding the American Army of the Northwest, surrendered his troops and Fort Detroit to the British following the Siege of Detroit. The British success convinced many Native Americans to side with them.[9] General Hull was later tried by a military court and sentenced to death for what was termed "disgraceful conduct" at Detroit. But, President James Madison commuted the sentence to dismissal from the army in recognition of Hull’s honorable service during the American Revolution.[3]

At the time, Fort Detroit was an important outpost and potential base for a US invasion of British Upper Canada. Its loss to the British instead gave those forces a base to increase their numbers in the Michigan Territory. After the British seized Detroit, the militia around Frenchtown also surrendered and were disarmed. Located 25 miles (40 km) south of Fort Detroit, the residents of Frenchtown feared threats from the British and Native Americans, who occupied the area. The people of Frenchtown urged the US forces to regroup to drive the invaders back to Upper Canada.[10]

After Hull's dismissal, Brigadier General James Winchester was given command of the Army of the Northwest. Rather than pushing north to attempt to retake Detroit, Winchester had a lesser agenda. His unpopularity resulted in the command of the army being given to Major General William Henry Harrison. Winchester was made second-in-command. Harrison's first plan of action on taking command was to move the army north to recover Detroit. To accomplish this, he divided the army and personally led one column, the second column marching under command of Winchester.[1] Meanwhile, Brigadier General Henry Procter, commanding the British Army around Detroit, had assembled all the British troops in the area, as well as around 500 allied Native Americans under the Shawnee leader Tecumseh. While Tecumseh was present at the Frenchtown conflict, he did not participate in the fighting.[1][10]

First Battle of the River Raisin[edit]

First Battle of the River Raisin
Part of the War of 1812
Date January 18, 1813
Location Frenchtown, Michigan Territory
41°54′49″N 83°22′42″W / 41.91361°N 83.37833°W / 41.91361; -83.37833 (First Battle of the River Raisin)
Result Strategic American victory
Belligerents
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom
Potawatomi natives
United States United States
Commanders and leaders
Ebenezer Reynolds United States William Lewis
Strength
200 Potawatomies
63 Canadian Militia[11] 1 gun
600 Kentucky militiamen
100 Frenchmen[11]
Casualties and losses
1 Militiaman and 3 warriors killed[12]

or

1 Militiaman wounded, 15 warriors killed and two Militiamen and a warrior captured.[13]
13 killed 54 wounded[11]

James Winchester, the second-in-command of the Army of the Northwest, led a column consisting of approximately 1,000 inexperienced regulars and volunteers, most of whom came from Kentucky. Major General William Henry Harrison had ordered him to remain within supporting distance of Harrison's column near the Maumee River (in present-day Perrysburg, Ohio) about 30 miles (48 km) south of Frenchtown. Instead, Winchester ignored his orders and sent a small relief detachment north to Frenchtown along the River Raisin.

Lieutenant Colonel William Lewis led these men across the frozen Maumee River and along the shore of Lake Erie to the River Raisin.[1][3] His force consisted of 667 Kentuckians and about 100 local French-speaking militiamen. On January 18, 1813, Lewis charged across the frozen River Raisin to attack the British and Indian camp, which contained 63 soldiers of the Essex Militia, accompanied by a 3-pounder cannon, and about 200 Potawatomi. A brisk battle took place before the Americans forced the British and their allies to retreat. The Canadians charged the American lines several times, supported by the gunfire of the Indians. Fighting continued sporadically for several hours,[6] with the Canadians and natives fighting log to log, after which Lewis reclaimed Frenchtown.[14][15] Reynolds' brother commented later that the Essex Militia “fought most bravely, retired slowly from log to log.”[16] The skirmish has been noted as one of a few examples when Canadian militia stood fast during the war without the backing of British regulars.

Kentucky Rifleman William Atherton's memoirs testify to the skill of the Essex men and natives were at bush fighting, stating “the fight now became very close, and extremely hot ... I received a wound in my right shoulder.”[16] The moment before Atherton was hit, he witnessed two of his fellow riflemen move too far forward. One was killed and the other wounded. Atherton described the tactics used by Reynolds and his men: “Their method was to retreat rapidly until they were out of sight (which was soon the case in the brushy woods) and while we were advancing they were preparing to give us another fire; so we were generally under the necessity of firing upon them as they were retreating.”[16] Another Kentucky private had similar recollections: “As we advanced they were firing themselves behind logs, trees, etc. to the best advantage.”[16] After a long, bloody and exhaustive withdrawal over two miles of woodland, the Canadians and natives slipped away, leaving Frenchtown to the Kentuckians. This skirmish would later be known as the First Battle of the River Raisin.

During their retreat from Frenchtown, the Potawatomi raided the small settlement of Sandy Creek about 2 miles (3.2 km) north of the River Raisin, which had been settled in 1780. They burned all 16 houses to the ground, and killed at least two of the residents. Sandy Creek was never rebuilt.[17]

Second Battle of the River Raisin[edit]

Second Battle of the River Raisin
Part of the War of 1812
Date January 22, 1813
Location Frenchtown, Michigan Territory
41°54′49″N 83°22′42″W / 41.91361°N 83.37833°W / 41.91361; -83.37833 (Second Battle of the River Raisin)
Result British / Native American victory
Belligerents
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom
Native Americans
United States United States
Commanders and leaders
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Henry Procter
Wyandot Nation.png Roundhead
Wyandot Nation.png Walk-in-the-Water
United States George Madison
United States James Winchester
Strength
800 Native Americans
597 militiamen
Approximately 1,000
Casualties and losses
British
24 killed
161 wounded
Native American
Unknown
397 killed
40+[11] wounded
547 captured (30-100 of whom were killed in ensuing massacre)

Following the recapture of Frenchtown, US Brigadier General James Winchester and the rest of his troops met with Colonel Lewis two days later on January 20, 1813. Winchester had acted without orders, but General William Henry Harrison was pleased with Lewis’s success. However, Harrison was concerned that the British forces might combine and overpower Winchester’s small force. He ordered additional men, including three companies of the 17th U.S. Infantry and one company of the 19th U.S. Infantry,[18] to move to Frenchtown. He sent a messenger to Winchester to order him to hold the ground and prepare for further combat.

Winchester's soldiers were largely untrained and inexperienced, and the First Battle of the River Raisin was the first combat most had seen.[1] Events showed that Winchester's planning was poor. He had not ensured that ammunition and other necessary supplies were brought forward from the Maumee River. The palisade around the town had not been strengthened, and the regulars of the 17th and 19th U.S. Infantry were camped outside its walls.[19] Several days after the first clash, local residents reported to Winchester that a large British force was heading toward Frenchtown. Winchester ignored their warning, insisting it would be "some days" before the British "would be ready to do anything." His troops were camped throughout Frenchtown. Without ensuring that sentries and pickets had been placed,[19] Winchester retired for the night to his headquarters at the Navarre House south of the town.[1][15][20]

General Harrison told Winchester to hold his ground following the first battle. Harrison and his troops did not arrive in time to participate in the second battle.

On hearing that the Americans had recaptured Frenchtown, British Brigadier General Henry Procter, commander of the British forces around Detroit, marched with his troops from Fort Malden and crossed the Detroit River from Upper Canada, invading Michigan in strength.[21] His army consisted of 597 regulars from the 41st Regiment of Foot and Royal Newfoundland Fencibles, joined by about 800 Indians. Shawnee leader Tecumseh was in the area, but he was not present at the Battle of Frenchtown. He left command of the Native Americans to Wyandot chiefs Roundhead and Walk-in-the-Water. The Indians included Shawnee, Potawatomi, Ottawa, Chippewa, Delaware, Miami, Winnebago, Creek, Sauk, and Fox tribes.[22] Procter's artillery consisted of six light 3-pounder cannons drawn on sledges, manned by men from the Canadian Provincial Marine. Procter halted about 5 miles (8.0 km) north of the River Raisin to prepare for battle on January 21.[1]

Proctor surprised the American forces before sunrise on January 22. A Canadian volunteer, John Richardson, who marched with the 41st Regiment of Foot, later wrote, "On the 22nd, before daybreak, came within sight of the enemy... such was their security and negligence that... our line was actually half formed within musket shot of their defenses before they were even aware of our presence."[23]

The American regulars stood their ground for only twenty minutes. These four companies of regular infantry, consisting mostly of green recruits, were caught in the open. They faced heavy musket volleys to their front while under direct roundshot and canister fire from the six 3-pounders and flanked by the Essex militia and natives. They broke and fled. General Winchester was awakened by the roar of artillery fire and rushed to the battlefield, sending 240 men from the 1st Kentucky Rifle Regiment along with Col. John Allen to reinforce the regulars. It was to no avail. Under fire from three sides, the American troops fell into a headlong retreat toward Ohio. They attempted to rally three separate times but were eventually surrounded on a narrow road. Nearly 220 of the 400 Americans had been killed, many of them shot, tomahawked, and scalped during their withdrawal. One-hundred and forty seven, including Winchester, were captured by natives and Canadian militia. Chief Roundhead stripped Winchester of his uniform before turning him over to the British, which led to the legend that he was captured in his nightshirt. The Americans were scattered and no longer in any position to fight. The 17th's colonel, John Allen, was shot dead and scalped. Dozens tried to surrender and laid down their weapons, only to be shot or tomahawked by the Indians. Members of other units also tried to flee, but most were chased down and killed. A few removed their shoes and ran through the snow in their stockings to leave footprints that looked like moccasins, thus evading being followed and captured. The British occupied a large barn, which was set on fire by William Orlando Butler, forcing them from their shelter.[1]

The 1st and 5th Kentucky Rifle Regiments and the 1st Volunteers continued to hold in the town. At the cost of 5 killed and 40 wounded, they had exacted a heavy toll on the British artillery. They killed or wounded all but one member of the gun crews manning the three cannon in the center of the British line, 13 of the 16-man howitzer crew, as well as many infantry. But they were finally running out of ammunition after having repulsed three assaults. Winchester was urged by Procter to order his remaining men to surrender, lest they would all be killed and Frenchtown burned down. Procter demanded an unconditional surrender and refused Winchester's counter-proposals since Winchester was already his prisoner.[21] Major George Madison, a United States officer still on the battlefield, persuaded Procter to accept a surrender on the condition that all would be protected as prisoners of war.[24][25]

When they saw the British waving a white flag, the Kentucky riflemen thought it meant a call for a truce. A British officer gave them an order from General Winchester to surrender. They refused and said they would fight to the death rather than trust the Indians, but after about three more hours of fighting, Major Madison issued a formal declaration of surrender.[1][26]

The British tried several times to persuade the Indians to destroy Frenchtown, but the Potawatomi refused to allow this; they had given the land to the settlers in the first place and did not wish to inflict more harm on them.[27]

River Raisin Massacre[edit]

Tecumseh commanded the native forces that fought in the battle, although he was not in Frenchtown at the time of the battle or massacre.

Immediately following the American surrender, some of the Kentuckians argued with their officers that "they would rather die on the field" than surrender, fearing that they would be killed by their captors. But, the fighting ceased immediately following their surrender. At least 300 Americans were initially estimated as killed, and over 500 were taken prisoner. Procter, unsure of what do with so many prisoners, wanted to make a hasty retreat in case that General Harrison sent more troops to the area after learning of Winchester's defeat . The British marched uninjured prisoners north and across the frozen Detroit River to Fort Malden, but the wounded prisoners unable to walk were left behind at Frenchtown. Procter had to wait another day for sleds to arrive to transport the wounded American prisoners, but he feared that more American soldiers were on the way from the south.[15]

On the morning of January 23, the Native Americans began robbing and pillaging the injured Americans. Any American able to walk was marched away toward Fort Malden, while many of the more severely injured were left behind, where the Native Americans killed them. The Indians set fire to the buildings that housed the wounded. Men who could escape the burning buildings were murdered as they tried to flee, and those unable to escape died in the fires.[28] While the prisoners were marched north toward Detroit, the Native Americans killed any who foundered and were unable to keep up. An account from a survivor read, "The road was for miles strewed with the mangled bodies." Estimates of the numbers of wounded who were killed by Native Americans range from 30 to as high as 100.[1][3][8]

The slaughter of the American wounded, which became known as the River Raisin Massacre, so horrified contemporary Americans that it overshadowed news of the battle; word of the massacre rapidly spread throughout the country.[29] The massacre was particularly devastating for the state of Kentucky, which supplied many of the soldiers who died during the Battle of Frenchtown or the subsequent massacre. The rallying cry, "Remember the River Raisin," prompted many Kentuckians to enlist immediately for service in the war.[15]

Aftermath[edit]

An obelisk, located on the battlefield grounds, commemorates the victims of the Battle of Frenchtown. 41°54′49.2″N 83°22′49.4″W / 41.913667°N 83.380389°W / 41.913667; -83.380389 (Battle of Frenchtown obelisk)

While it is not known how many soldiers died during the First Battle of the River Raisin on January 18, 1813, official counts list 397 Americans killed and 27 wounded during the January 22 conflict. Also, figures for those who were killed during the subsequent River Raisin Massacre are unknown, but estimates are as high as 100 killed. Two weeks after the battle, Brigadier General James Winchester reported that 547 of his men were taken as prisoners and only 33 escaped the battlefield. Many of those who were held as prisoners were detained at Fort Malden by the British until the end of the war over two years later. Winchester was imprisoned for more than a year before being released and reassigned to military service.[8]

James Winchester largely bore the responsibility for the devastating loss at Frenchtown. His ill-prepared defensive planning following the successful First Battle of the River Raisin led to the defeat of his army and the high number of deaths suffered by his column. Had Winchester retreated to the Maumee River to rejoin with General Harrison's column, the two could have strengthened their numbers and marched back to Frenchtown with the necessary troops and preparedness to fight the British and Native Americans.[3] Instead, Winchester remained in Frenchtown with his small force despite advanced knowledge of a British and Native American counterattack. He was unaware that Harrison's troops were on their way and would arrive shortly.[26] During the Second Battle of the River Raisin, Winchester was captured early in the battle and surrendered his army at the urging of British Brigadier General Henry Procter. While Winchester's army suffered heavy losses at the start of the surprise attack, the Kentuckians regrouped and fought off three waves of British lines to protect their camp. They were very low on ammunition when the order of surrender came from Winchester.[26] Had the Americans prolonged the battle long enough for Harrison's column to arrive at Frenchtown, the outcome of the battle could have changed.[7]

The British reported casualties of 24 killed and 161 wounded; Native American casualties are not known to have been documented. Immediately following the battle, Procter, fearing that General Harrison would send more Americans to Frenchtown, made a hasty retreat slightly north to Brownstown. Harrison was forced to call off his plans for a winter campaign to retake Detroit, and it was held by the British until a United States victory at the Battle of Lake Erie on September 10, 1813 allowed the recapture of Detroit. Frenchtown was held as a stronghold by the British until Colonel Richard Mentor Johnson from Kentucky led his cavalry to liberate the town on September 27, 1813. The retreating British were pushed back into Upper Canada, where they were defeated at the Battle of the Thames on October 5.[7]

Three currently active battalions of the Regular Army (1-3 Inf, 2-3 Inf and 4-3 Inf) perpetuate the lineage of the old 17th and 19th Infantry Regiments, both of which had elements in action during fighting at Frenchtown.

Names of some of the American officers who died at Frenchtown
(Kentucky War Memorial Frankfort, KY)

Legacy and honors[edit]

Nine counties in Kentucky were later named for officers who fought in the Battle of Frenchtown.[30][31] Of the following list, Bland Ballard was the only Kentucky soldier to survive battle.

Several streets in Monroe, Michigan near the battle site have been named to memorialize those who fought in the Battle of Frenchtown, including Kentucky Avenue and Winchester Street. In addition, the state of Michigan erected a monument in downtown Monroe in 1904. The monument is located on the west side of South Monroe Street (M-125) at the corner of 7th Street. Also, on this site were interred the unidentified remains of some of the victims of the battle or massacre.[1]

The core area where the battle took place was listed as a Michigan Historic Site on February 18, 1956. The location of the site is bounded by North Dixie Highway, the River Raisin, Detroit Avenue, and Mason Run Creek.[32][33]

The site was recognized nationally when it was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 10, 1982.[34] The River Raisin National Battlefield Park was signed into law on March 30, 2009 with the passing of the Omnibus Public Land Management Act. Once the park receives the funding necessary for completion, it will be included on the National Park Service as one of four National Battlefield Parks in the United States.[5][35][36]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Floral City Images (2010). "Battle of Frenchtown, also known as the Battle of the River Raisin". Retrieved July 18, 2010. 
  2. ^ Eaton, John (2000). Returns of Killed and Wounded in Battles or Engagements with Indians and British and Mexican Troops, 1790–1848, Compiled by Lt. Col J. H. Eaton. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. p. 7. 
  3. ^ a b c d e William Dunbar and George May (1995). Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 130–131. ISBN 0-8028-7055-4. 
  4. ^ Janiskee, B. (2009). "The New River Raisin National Battlefield Park Highlights One of the Bloodiest Conflicts of a Seldom Mentioned War". Retrieved July 16, 2010. 
  5. ^ a b Monroe Evening News staff (March 31, 2009). "Battlefield bill signing celebrated". Monroe Evening News (Monroe, Michigan). Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  6. ^ a b Historical Marker Database (2010). "First Battle of the River Raisin historic marker". Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c d City of Monroe (2009). "Battles of the River Raisin". Retrieved July 21, 2010. 
  8. ^ a b c City of Monroe (2010). "River Raisin Battlefield". Retrieved July 21, 2010. 
  9. ^ Elting, John (1995). Amateurs to Arms. New York: Da Capo Press. pp. 36–37. ISBN 0-306-80653-3. 
  10. ^ a b Floral City Images (2010). "Setting the Stage". Retrieved July 18, 2010. 
  11. ^ a b c d "The Battles of the River Raisin". 
  12. ^ "A full and correct account of the military occurrences of the late war between Great Britain and the United States of America". 
  13. ^ Alexander C. Casselman, ed., Richardson's War of 1812, Vol. 1 (Toronto: Historical Publishing Co.) Template:P. 132 facsimile edition by Coles Publishing Co., Toronto, Template:P. 164; Sandy Antal, A Wampum Denied, Proctor's War of 1812 (Ottawa: Carleton University Press) Template:P. 164
  14. ^ Naveaux, Ralph. "Biography of Lt. Cornel William Lewis". Retrieved July 18, 2010. 
  15. ^ a b c d Hutchinson, Craig and Kimberly (2004). Monroe: The Early Years. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. pp. 19–30. ISBN 0-306-80653-3. 
  16. ^ a b c d http://warof1812.ca/frenchtown1.htm.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. ^ Historical Marker Database (2010). "Sandy Creek". Retrieved July 18, 2010. 
  18. ^ Chatrand, René (1992). Uniforms and Equipment of the United States Forces in the War of 1812. Youngstown, New York: Old Fort Niagara Association. p. 142. ISBN 0-941967-13-1. 
  19. ^ a b Elting, p.61
  20. ^ Monroe Co. Library System (2009). "Sawyer House". Retrieved November 18, 2009. 
  21. ^ a b Antal, Sandy (1997). A Wampum Denied: Procter's War of 1812. Carleton University Press. p. 174. ISBN 0-87013-443-4. 
  22. ^ River Raisin National Battlefield Park historic marker Roundhead
  23. ^ River Raisin National Battlefield Park historic marker Battles of the River Raisin
  24. ^ Coles, Harry L. (1966). The War of 1812. University of Chicago Press. p. 116. ISBN 0-226-11350-7. Retrieved January 24, 2009. 
  25. ^ Young, Bennett Henderson (1903). Battle of the Thames: in which Kentuckians defeated the British, French, and Indians, October 5, 1813, with a list of the officers and privates who won the victory. J.P. Morton. p. 23. Retrieved January 25, 2009. 
  26. ^ a b c Monroe Co. Historical Commission historic marker The American Surrender
  27. ^ River Raisin National Battlefield Park historic marker After the Battle
  28. ^ Monroe Art League (2010). "The River Raisin Massacre". Retrieved July 19, 2010. 
  29. ^ ThinkQuest Team (1998). "Battle of Frenchtown". Retrieved July 19, 2010. 
  30. ^ Kleber, John (1992). The Kentucky Encyclopedia. Lexington, Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-1772-0. 
  31. ^ River Raisin National Battlefield Park historic marker Skirmish Line
  32. ^ State of Michigan (2009). "River Raisin Battlefield Site". Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  33. ^ Google Maps (2010). "The River Raisin Battlefield Site". Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  34. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09. 
  35. ^ Congressional Research Service (March 30, 2009). "Summary of H. R. 146 as of becoming Public Law No. 111-11". Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  36. ^ John Dingell (Jan 15, 2009). "Senate Vote Moves River Raisin Battlefield National Park Closer to Reality". Archived from the original on August 8, 2010. Retrieved July 16, 2010. 

External links[edit]