Battle of Friedlingen

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Battle of Friedlingen
Part of the War of the Spanish Succession
Plan der Schlacht bei Friedlingen.JPG
Map of the Battle of Friedlingen; French = yellow; Imperial Army = red; North is on the right side
Date 14 October 1702
Location near Freiburg, present-day Germany
47°35′N 7°36′E / 47.583°N 7.600°E / 47.583; 7.600
Result French victory
Belligerents
 Kingdom of France[1]  Holy Roman Empire (Imperial Army)
Commanders and leaders
Claude Louis Hector de Villars Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden
Strength
17,000 men,[2] 33 cannons 14,000 men[2]
Casualties and losses
1703 killed, 2601 wounded[citation needed] 3000 killed, 742 wounded[citation needed]

The Battle of Friedlingen was fought in 1702 between France and the Holy Roman Empire. The Imperial forces were led by Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden, while the French were led by Claude Louis Hector de Villars. The French were victorious.

Prelude[edit]

The French were seeking to expand their influence on the eastern bank of the river Rhine. In the autumn of 1702, Villars received orders from Louis XIV to attack Swabia. The French forces needed to join their Bavarian allies and defeat the Imperial troops that stood between them.

Battle[edit]

The French crossed the Rhine at Weil am Rhein, just north of Basle on 14 October 1702. Villars attacked the Imperial army at Friedlingen.[3] The future field marshal Louis William entrenched his army and managed to hold the French for some time. He then retreated in good order to the North.

Aftermath[edit]

It was a Pyrrhic victory for Villars. French losses were high: 1,703 dead and 2,601 wounded, whereas the Imperial forces lost 3,000 dead and 742 wounded. Villars was also prevented from joining the Bavarians.[4]

The villages on the eastern bank of the Rhine suffered much damage, especially Weil am Rhein.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ George Ripley, Charles Anderson Dana, The American Cyclopaedia, New York, 1874, p. 250, "...the standard of France was white, sprinkled with golden fleur de lis...". *[1] The original Banner of France was strewn with fleurs-de-lis. *[2]:on the reverse of this plate it says: "Le pavillon royal était véritablement le drapeau national au dix-huitième siecle...Vue du chateau d'arrière d'un vaisseau de guerre de haut rang portant le pavillon royal (blanc, avec les armes de France)."[3] from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica: "The oriflamme and the Chape de St Martin were succeeded at the end of the 16th century, when Henry III., the last of the house of Valois, came to the throne, by the white standard powdered with fleurs-de-lis. This in turn gave place to the famous tricolour."
  2. ^ a b Lynn (1999), p. 276.
  3. ^ nowadays a suburb of Weil am Rhein
  4. ^ The Spanish Succession 1702

References[edit]

External links[edit]