Battle of Goose Green

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Battle of Goose Green
Part of the Falklands War
Goose Green school.jpg
Darwin school-house after being hit by Argentine 35 mm fire
Date 28–29 May 1982
Location Goose Green and Darwin, Falkland Islands
Result British victory
Belligerents
Argentina Argentina United Kingdom United Kingdom
Commanders and leaders
Lt. Col. Ítalo Piaggi (POW)
Vicecomodoro Wilson Pedrozo
Lt. Col. Herbert Jones 
Maj. Chris Keeble
Strength
790 army
202 airforce
10 navy personnel
690[1]
Casualties and losses
47 killed
145 wounded[2][3][4]
961 captured
17 killed
64 wounded[5]

The Battle of Goose Green (28–29 May 1982) was an engagement between British and Argentine forces during the Falklands War. Goose Green and its neighbouring settlement Darwin on East Falkland lie on Choiseul Sound on the east side of the island's central isthmus. They are about 13 miles (21 km) south of the site where the major British amphibious landings took place in San Carlos Water (Operation Sutton) on the night of 21/22 May 1982.

Prelude[edit]

The bulk of the Argentine forces were in positions around Port Stanley about 50 miles (80 km) to the east of San Carlos. The Argentine positions at Goose Green and Darwin were well defended by a force of combined units totalling 1,083 men equipped with artillery, mortars, 35 mm cannon and machine guns.[6] British intelligence indicated that the Argentine force was judged to only present limited offensive capabilities and did not pose a major threat to the landing area at San Carlos. Consequently, Goose Green seemed to have no strategic military value for the British in their campaign to recapture the islands and initial plans for land operations had called for Goose Green to be isolated and bypassed.

After the British landings at San Carlos on 21 May and while the bridgehead was being consolidated, no offensive ground operations were feasible; but Argentine air attacks caused significant loss of and damage to British ships in the area around the landing grounds. These attacks, together with the landed forces still being deployed in the San Carlos area, led to a feeling among senior commanders and politicians in the UK that the momentum of the campaign was being lost.[7] As a result, British Joint Headquarters in the UK came under increasing pressure from the British government for an early ground offensive of political and propaganda value[8] and on 25 May, Brigadier Julian Thompson, ground forces commander, commanding 3 Commando Brigade, was ordered to mount an attack on Argentine positions around Goose Green and Darwin.[7]

Argentinian defences[edit]

The defending Argentine forces, known as Task Force Mercedes, consisted of two companies of Lieutenant-Colonel Italo Piaggi's 12th Infantry Regiment (RI 12) - his third company was still deployed on Mount Kent.[9] The Task Force also contained a company of the Ranger-type 25th Infantry Regiment (RI 25).[10][a][b][c] Air defence was provided by a battery of six 20 mm Rheinmetall manned by Air Force personnel and two radar-guided Oerlikon 35 mm anti-aircraft guns from the 601st Anti-Aircraft Battalion that would be employed in a ground support role in the last stages of the fighting. There was also one battery of three OTO Melara Mod 56 105 mm pack howitzers from the 4th Airborne Artillery Regiment. Pucarás based at Stanley, armed with rockets and napalm, provided close air support.[11][12]

Piaggi's orders required him to (a.) provide a reserve battle group (Task Force Mercedes) in support of other forces deployed to the west of Stanley, (b.) to occupy and defend the Darwin isthmus and (c.) to defend Military Air Base Condor located at Goose Green. He assumed an all-round defence posture with Company A providing the key to his defence, they being deployed along a gorse hedge running across the Darwin isthmus from Darwin Hill to Boca House.[9] Piaggi further deployed an advance screen forward of Company A, consisting of platoons from Company C, IR 12. Company C of 25th "Special" Infantry Regiment was initially deployed to Coronation Ridge but the majority of the company were later withdrawn to behind Company A to provide mobile defence and to be used as a reserve to plug any gaps in the line.[13] Elements were also deployed to Darwin settlement, Goose Green settlement and Boca House and the air force security cadets together with the anti-aircraft elements were charged with protecting the airfield.

Unknown to the Argentine outpost, a four-man Special Air Service (SAS) patrol, led by Corporal Trevor Brookes, had infiltrated the 12th Regiment's A Company area, attempting to pinpoint the Argentinian positions. For over a fortnight, Brookes successfully avoided Argentine helicopter and foot patrols.[14] As part of the diversionary raids to cover the British landings in the San Carlos area on 21 May, which involved naval shelling and air attacks, 'D' Squadron of the SAS put in a major raid to simulate a battalion-sized attack on the Argentine troops dug in on Darwin Ridge.[15]

British assault force[edit]

The British force consisted of three rifle companies, one patrol company, one support company, and the HQ company of Lieutenant-Colonel Herbert 'H' Jones' 2nd Battalion the Parachute Regiment (2 Para) which had the following support: three 105 mm artillery pieces with 960 shells from 29 Commando Regiment, Royal Artillery; one MILAN anti-tank missile platoon; Scout helicopters, and at dusk, air support was provided by three Royal Air Force Harriers later in the battle. HMS Arrow shelled the Argentine forward positions. Lieutenant-Colonel Jones commanded the battalion.

On 4 May, three Royal Navy Sea Harriers operating from HMS Hermes attacked the airfield and installations at Goose Green. During the operation, a Sea Harrier was shot down by Argentine 35mm anti-aircraft fire, killing its pilot, Lt-Commander Nick Taylor. His body, still in the ejector seat, was recovered by residents of Goose Green, and buried with full military honours under Argentine supervision.[16][17]

Throughout 27 May, Royal Air Force Harriers were active over Goose Green. One of them, responding to a call for help from 2 Para, was lost to 35mm fire while attacking Darwin Ridge.[18][19][20]

Battle[edit]

The Battle of Goose Green, 28–29 May 1982
Detailed map of Goose Green isthmus

Just after 2.30 am on 28 May, 2 Para launched its attack on the Argentines to capture Goose Green 'before breakfast'. RI 12's A Company under First Lieutenant Jorge Manresa defended the Darwin Parks sector with two rifle platoons, and a mortar platoon. For 90 minutes the forward Argentine platoons were pounded with naval artillery from HMS Arrow. In the ensuing night battle about twelve Argentines were killed.[10] The platoon under Sub-Lieutenant Malacalza fought a delaying action against the British paratroopers, blooding themselves on Burntside Hill before taking up combat positions again on Darwin Ridge.[10]

Major Philip Neame's D Company was temporarily halted by the Coronation Ridge position. Two of his men, 24-year-old Lance-Corporal Gary Bingley and 19-year-old Private Barry Grayling darted out from under cover to charge the enemy machine gun nest that was holding up the advance. Both were hit 10 metres (11 yd) from the machine gun, but shot two of the crew before collapsing. Bingley "got hit in the head and I got hit in the hip," Grayling recalled in an interview published in 2007. "Unfortunately, he didn't make it."[21] Bingley was posthumously awarded the Military Medal and Grayling was decorated with the Queen's Gallantry Medal. With the enemy machine gun out of action, the Paras were able to clear the Argentine platoon position, but at the cost of three dead.[10]

Then 2 Para moved on to the south via Darwin Parks. The Argentines made a determined stand along Darwin Ridge. As A and B Companies moved south from Coronation Ridge they were raked by fire from a couple of concealed Argentine FN MAG machine guns. An Argentine senior NCO, Company Sergeant-Major Juan Carlos Cohelo, is credited with rallying the RI 12's A Company remnants falling back from Darwin Parks. He was seriously wounded later in the day and for his bravery was awarded the Medal of Valour in Combat. Another two RI 12 NCOs, reported to be sergeants that had fallen back from the earlier fighting, at great risk to themselves unjammed a machinegun that allowed RI 25 Private Oscar Ledesma to resume fire at a critical point in the morning battle and it was Ledesma who killed Colonel Jones, according to recent Argentine reports.[22]

The first British assault was broken up by fire from Sub-Lieutenant Ernesto Peluffo's RI 12 platoon. Corporal David Abols would later claim an Argentine sniper was mainly responsible for holding up A Company and with shooting several Paras in the morning fighting.[d] Nevertheless, the Paras called on the Argentines to surrender. The death of Lieutenant-Colonel Jones was attributed to a sniper identified as Corporal Olmos, who was interviewed by the British newspaper "Daily Express" in 1996.[23]Corporal Osvaldo Faustino Olmos, of RI 25 had refused to leave his foxhole and his section fired at Jones and the five paratrooperss that accompanied him as he moved forward.[e]

At this juncture of the battle, 2nd Para's advance had become stuck. A Company was in the gorse line at the bottom of Darwin Hill, and against the entrenched Argentines who were looking down the hill at them. As daylight was now all over the battlefield, Jones led an unsuccessful charge up a small gully resulting in the death of the adjutant, Captain Wood, A Company's second-in-command Captain Dent, and Corporal Hardman.[24]

Shortly thereafter Jones was seen to run West along the base of Darwin Ridge to a small re-entrant, followed by his bodyguard. He checked his Sterling SMG then ran up the hill toward an Argentine trench. He was seen to be hit once, then fell, then got up and was hit again from the side. He fell metres short of the trench, had been hit in the back and the groin, and died within minutes.[24][f]

Jones was later to receive the Victoria Cross for his efforts. As Jones lay dying, his men radioed for urgent casualty evacuation. However, the British Scout Helicopter sent to evacuate Jones was shot down by an Argentine FMA IA 58 Pucara ground attack aircraft. The pilot, Lt. Richard Nunn RM was killed and posthumously received the DFC, and the aircrewman, Sgt. Belcher RM badly wounded in both legs.[24] Corporal José Luis Ríos, of the 12th Regiment's Reconnaissance Platoon who in the opinion of historian Hugh Bicheno had killed Lieutenant-Colonel Jones,[25] was later fatally wounded manning a machine-gun in his trench by Corporal Abols firing a 66 mm rocket.[g]

Darwin Hill[edit]

Remnants of Argentinian defensive positions along gorse hedge on Darwin Hill

By then it was 10.30 am and Major Dair Farrar-Hockley's A Company made a third attempt, but this petered out. Eventually the British company, hampered by the morning fog as they advanced up the slope of Darwin Ridge, were driven back to the gulley by the fire of 1st Platoon of RI 25's C Company, under the command of 2nd Lieutenant Roberto Estévez.

During this action Lieutenant Estévez directed Argentine 105 mm artillery and 120 mm mortar fire that posthumously earned him the Argentine Nation to the Heroic Valour in Combat Cross (CHVC). 2 Para's mortar crews fired 1,000 rounds to keep the enemy at bay, and helped stop the Argentines getting a proper aim at the Paras.[h]

It was almost noon before the British advance resumed. Inspired by their commanding officer's sacrifice, A Company soon cleared the eastern end of the Argentine position and opened the way forward. There had been two battles going on in the Darwin hillocks – one around Darwin Hill looking down on Darwin Bay, and an equally fierce one in front of Boca Hill, also known as Boca House Ruins. Sub-Lieutenant Guillermo Ricardo Aliaga's 3rd Platoon of RI 8's C Company held Boca Hill. The position of Boca Hill was taken after heavy fighting by Major John Crosland's B Company with support from the MILAN anti-tank platoon. Sub-Lieutenants Aliaga and Peluffo were gravely wounded in the fighting. Crosland was the most experienced British officer, and as the events of the day unfolded, it was later said that Crosland's cool and calm leadership of his soldiers on the battlefield turned the Boca House section of the front line.

About the time of the victory at the Boca Hill position, A Company overcame the Argentine defenders on Darwin Hill, finally taking the position that had resisted for nearly six hours[i] and had resulted in many Argentine and British casualties. Majors Farrar-Hockley and Crosland each won the Military Cross for their efforts. Corporal David Abols received a Distinguished Conduct Medal for his daring charges which turned the Darwin Hill battle.

Attack on the airfield[edit]

35mm Oerlikon, similar to the two guns deployed by Argentinean forces at the airfield

After the victory on Darwin Ridge, C and D Companies began to make their way to the small airfield as well as Darwin School, which was east of the airfield, while B Company made their way south of Goose Green Settlement. A Company remained on Darwin Hill. C Company took heavy losses when they became the target of intense anti-aircraft 35 mm direct fire suffering 20 per cent casualties.[26] Private Mark Hollman-Smith, a signaller in the company headquarters, was killed by anti-aircraft fire while trying to recover a heavy machine gun from wounded Private Steve Russell.[27]

Lieutenant James Barry's No. 12 Platoon, D company, saw some fierce action at the airfield. They were ambushed,[10] by another platoon of the 25th Regiment but one of his men shot dead two of the attackers, and then reported the events to Major Neame.[j] The platoon sergeant charged the attacking enemy with his machine gun, killing four of them. Private Graham Carter won the Military Medal by rallying No. 12 Platoon and leading it forward at bayonet point to take the airfield.[10]

The RI 25 platoon defending the airfield fled into the Darwin-Goose Green track and was able to escape. Sergeant Sergio Ismael Garcia, of RI 25, single-handedly covered the withdrawal of his platoon during the British counterattack. He was posthumously awarded the Argentine Nation to the Valour in Combat Medal. Four Paras of D Company and approximately a dozen Argentines were killed in these engagements. Among the British dead were 29-year-old Lieutenant Barry and two NCOs (Lance-Corporal Smith and Corporal Sullivan), who were killed after Barry's attempt to convince Sub Lieutenant Juan José Gómez Centurión to surrender, had been rebuffed.[10][k][28][29] C Company had not lost a single man in the Darwin School fighting, but Private Steve Dixon, from D Company, died when a splinter from a 35 mm anti-aircraft shell struck him in the chest.[30] The Argentine anti-aircraft guns reduced the building to rubble.

At around this time, three Harriers made an attack on the Argentine 35mm gun positions, the army radar-guided guns unable to respond effectively because a piece of mortar shrapnel had earlier on struck the generator to the guns and fire control radar. This greatly lifted the morale among the British paras and helped convince Piaggi of the futility of continued resistance. Although it wasn't known at the time, the Harriers came close to being shot down in their bomb run by Lieutenant-Commander Nigel Ward and Flight Lieutenant Ian Mortimer of 801 Squadron.[l]

Surrender[edit]

As day became night, two Argentine Air Force warrant officers who were POWs were sent to the Argentine commanders at Goose Green by the acting CO of 2nd Para, Major Chris Keeble, with the terms of surrender.[m] That night 'Juliet' Company, 42 Commando (composed mainly of members of Naval Party 8901) was flown to Darwin to reinforce 2 Para. At the same time, Argentinian plans were made for 'Bravo' Company of the 6th Regiment to be taken by helicopter to Goose Green in a spoiler move but Piaggi, believing that the British could destroy the settlement with mortar and artillery fire, conceded defeat.[n]

The following day Lieutenant-Colonel Piaggi surrendered all Argentine forces, approximately 1,000 men, including 202 men of the Air Force. He was later discharged from the army in disgrace. Major Keeble was awarded the Distinguished Service Order. The fourteen-hour battle had cost the British 17 killed and 64 wounded according to Surgeon Commander Rick Jolly, who was in charge of treating the wounded:

All the 64 wounded in the fight for Goose Green had survived and were now in the hospital ship Uganda. It was all down to their basic fitness, plus the wonderful work done by the Regimental Medical Officer of 2 Para, Captain Steve Hughes, and his battlefield medic teams.[5]

47 Argentines were killed and 145 wounded, with the 12th Regiment losing 32 killed and about 70 wounded.[31] Some 20 Argentine Air Force personnel were wounded. After the battle, vast quantities of Argentine weapons and unused ammunition, were collected and distributed among ships of the Royal Navy moored at San Carlos Water.

Memorial to 2 Para Group west of Darwin settlement, Falklands
Memorial to casualties from 59 Independent Commando Squadron, Royal Engineers, one of whom was killed in the Battle of Goose Green - NW of Darwin settlement.

Order of battle[edit]

All order of battle data from Fitz-Gibbon (2002), unless otherwise stated[32]

Argentine Forces (Task Force Mercedes) Lieutenant Colonel I. Piaggi British Forces (2 Para Group) Lieutenant Colonel H. Jones
The following forces were present at the start of fighting at circa 06:45 on 28 May 1982
Infantry
HQ Company (-) Infantry Regiment 12 (Lt. Col. Piaggi) HQ Company (-) 2 Para (Lt. Col H. Jones)
Company A, Infantry Regiment 12 (1st Lt. Manresa) A Company, 2 Para (Maj. D. Farar-Hockley)
Company C, Infantry Regiment 12 (1st Lt. Fernández) B Company, 2 Para (Maj. J. Crossland)
Company C, Infantry Regiment 25 (1st Lt. Esteban) D Company, 2 Para (Maj. P. Neame)
3 Pl, Company C, Infantry Regiment 8[33] C (Patrol) Company, 2 Para [two platoons] ()
Recce Platoon (-) Infantry Regiment 12 NGFO 4, 148 Commando FO Bty[33]
202 air force personnel from Security Coy, Military Aviation School; Pucara Sqn, Malvinas; 1st Naval Attack Sqn [MB-399] and also including 20m AA crews[33]
Engineers
One section, Engr Coy 9 Recce Troop, 59 Ind Cmdo Sqn, RE
Artillery and support fire
3x 105mm pack howitzer: Troop from A Bty, 4th Airborne Art Regt[33] 3x 105mm light guns from 8 Commando Bty[33]
1x 120mm Mortar 2x 81mm Mortars
NGS from 1x Type 21 frigate (HMS Arrow: dark hours only)
Anti-tank
1x 105mm recoilless rifle 3x Milan ATGM detachments from 43 Bty, 32 Guided Weapons Regt[33]
Air defence
2x 35mm radar controlled AA: 3 Sec, B Bty, GADA 601[33] 6x Blowpipe detachments: Air Defence Tp, RM
6x 20mm AA
Close air support
3x Pucará operated from Stanley airfield[34] 3x Harrier GR3s from HMS Hermes[35]
Reinforcements received during 28 May 1982
106 personnel: Company B, Infantry Regiment 12
Reinforcements received after fighting ceased
J Company, Royal Marines
3x 105mm light guns
Mortar locating radar
2x 120mm Mortars 6x 81mm Mortars
Reserves available as of 29 May
None 1x Type 21 frigate for NGS
Harrier close air support

BBC incident[edit]

During the planning of the assault of both Darwin and Goose Green, the Battalion Headquarters were listening in to the BBC World Service. The newsreader announced that the 2nd Battalion of the Parachute Regiment were poised and ready to assault Darwin and Goose Green, causing great confusion with the commanding officers of the battalion. Lieutenant Colonel Jones became furious with the level of incompetence and told BBC representative Robert Fox he was going to sue the BBC, Whitehall and the War Cabinet.[36]

Argentine military trials of 2009[edit]

In the years after the battle, Argentine army officers and NCOs were accused of handing out brutal field punishment to their troops at Goose Green (and other locations during the war).[37] In 2009, Argentine authorities in Comodoro Rivadavia ratified a decision made by authorities in Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego charging 70 officers and NCOs with inhumane treatment of conscript soldiers during the war.[38] There were claims, however, that false testimonies were used as evidence in accusing the Argentine officers and NCOs of abandonment and officials appointed to the enquiry had to step down from their posts due to these allegations.[39] Other veterans are sceptical about the veracity of the accusations with Colonel Martiniano Duarte, an ex-601 Commando Company officer in the Falklands, saying that it has become fashionable for ex-conscripts to now accuse their superiors of abandonment.[40]

See also[edit]

Notes, references and sources[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Lieutenant-Colonel Mohamed Alí Seineldín, considered by many Argentines to be the "father" of the Argentine commandos, had chafed at his role as commanding officer of an ordinary infantry unit, put all his conscripts through a compressed version of the commando course in March 1982, dressing them in the green berets of the Army Commandos and changing the title of RI 25 unofficially to 25th "Special" Infantry Regiment
  2. ^ "When warned that his regiment was earmarked for deployment to the Falklands, Seineldin renamed it the 25th 'Special' Infantry Regiment although Argentine journalists later christened it the Seineldin Commando Regiment. In Stanley, he enlarged it to five companies of about 100 men each by adding D and E Companies. Most of the officers and NCOs were commandos and paratroopers and with a highly trained and motivated training team, he brought the best from his conscripts in a short but tough commando course." Van Der Bijl, 9 Battles To Stanley, p. 13
  3. ^ The 12th Regiment chaplain, Padre Santiago Mora, later wrote: "The conscripts of 25th Infantry wanted to fight and cover themselves in glory. . . . [They] fought because they were told to do so. This did not make them any less brave. On the whole, they remained admirably calm." Nine Battles to Stanley, Nicholas Van der Bijl, p.13, Leo Cooper, 30/09/1999
  4. ^ "This sniper fire was responsible for the deaths of at least seven paratroopers, according to Abols - 'all head shots. That is the main reason A Company were stuck'. He says the sniper was firing from about 500 metres behind the Darwin Hill position." (Not Mentioned in Despatches: The History and Mythology of the Battle of Goose Green (James Clarke & Co., 2006.) p. 79.)
  5. ^ "Without telling anyone or looking back, he ran up the gully that Corporal Adams had attacked when A Company was first fired upon, past the seriously wounded Private Tuffen. Sergeant Barry Norman, his close escort, was the first to move, followed by Lance Corporal Beresford, who was part of his escort and had been Jones's driver, Major Rice and two signallers. Jones advanced up a small re-entrant toward a trench, which Corporal Osvaldo Olmos, from Estevez's platoon, later clamed (sic) was held by his group." Van Der Bijl, Victory in the Falklands, pp. 108-109
  6. ^ According to Dan Snow and Peter Snow, "The Argentine corporal in that trench, Osvaldo Olmos, remembers seeing Jones charge past him alone, leaving his followers in the gully below. Olmos said he was astonished at Jones's reckless bravery: his shots, fired from behind, may have been the ones that brought Jones down." (20th Century Battlefields (Random House, 2012.) p. 282.)
  7. ^ According to Corporal John Geddes, "Sergeant Norman couldn't do anything under such devastating fire, and lay there in cover unable to help his wounded colonel for over quarter of an hour. But then came a turning point - thanks to an heroic Tom named Corporal Dave "Pig" Abols. Pig had chipped away to the top of the ridge until he could see the machine gun that had killed H. It was still knocking out bursts at anything that moved. Lying there with less cover than a stripper, Pig bided his time and then, in an inspiring act of courage, he jumped to his feet and stood in the lead storm as if he was bullet-proof. Lifting a 66 rocket to his shoulder, he lined it up on the bunker, breathed out and squeezed down the rubber trigger. Whoomph! The blistering white ball of an explosion enveloped the command bunker for the trenches along the ridge, breaking the linchpin in the overlapping arcs of Argy fire and shattering their resolve. The effect was electric. Soon white flags started appearing all along the Argy line. But it was too late for H." Was Colonel 'H' a mad fool? Part 2
  8. ^ "Nevertheless, the section's two mortar crews had fired over 1,000 bombs in the two hours of the A Company action, the mortars themselves sinking further and further into the soft peat until eventually only their muzzles were visible." Harclerode, p. 329.
  9. ^ "After nearly six hours, the battle for Darwin Hill was over, but not without grievous loss: the commanding officer, the Adjutant, A Company Second-in-Command and nine non-comissioned officers and soldiers were killed and several wounded." No Picnic: 3 Commando Brigade in the South Atlantic, 1982, Julian Thompson, pp. 79-80, Casemate Publishers, 1992
  10. ^ According to historian Mark Adkin, both Lance-Corporal Nigel Smith and Corporal Paul Sullivan were killed fighting: "Lance Corporal Smith aimed his 66mm rocket, but as he did so he was shot at the moment of firing. The rocket exploded in a flash of flame on his back; he died instantly. In the general confusion Corporal Sullivan was also hit and killed." Mark Adkin, p. 326, Goose Green: A Battle Is Fought to Be Won, Leo Cooper 1992
  11. ^ "The newspapers inevitably made much of this scrap, however both sides agreed that this was a tragic misunderstanding. The Argentines later claimed that when Second Lieutenant Centurion was offered terms by Barry, he replied, 'Son of a bitch! You have got two minutes to return to your lines before I open fire. Get out!' " Van Der Bijl, Victory in the Falklands, p. 113
  12. ^ I had convinced myself that the three were enemy aircraft. But I also knew that Morts, more than anybody, should be able to recognize a GR 3 even from this height and range. I called the control ship, HMS Minerva. 'Do you have any friendlies in the area at low level?' If there were any, Minerva would know about it. 'Negative. No friendlies in the Sound.' Just at that moment of distraction, I lost sight of the three swept-wing shapes below. They disappeared into the multi-coloured background of the water. 'I've lost the fucking things, Morts. do you hold them?' 'Negative. But I'm sure they were GR 3s.' I was mad as a hatter, and wasn't thinking straight. I was tired, and 'missing' the enemy jets seemed to drain me of all energy. If I hadn't been so tired I might have considered the line 'better safe than sorry', but I was in no mood for that when I landed on board. The debrief was short and to the point: 'GR 3s, my arse!'Sea Harrier Over the Falklands, Nigel Ward, p. 227, Pen and Sword, 1993
  13. ^ The terms of surrender read:
    MILITARY OPTIONS
    We have sent a PW to you under a white flag of truce to convey the following military options:
    1. That you unconditionally surrender your force to us by leaving the township, forming up in a military manner, removing your helmets and laying down your weapons. You will give prior notice of this intention by returning the PW under a white flag with him briefed as to the formalities by no later than 0830 hrs local time.
    2. You refuse in the first case to surrender and take the inevitable consequences. You will give prior notice of this intention by returning the PW without his flag (although his neutrality will be respected) no later than 0830 hrs local time.
    3. In the event and in accordance with the terms and conditions of the Geneva Convention and Laws of War you will be held responsible for the fate of any civilians in Darwin and Goose Green and we in accordance with these terms do give notice of our intention to bombard Darwin and Goose Green.
    C KEEBLE
    Commander of British Forces
  14. ^ "The battle had turned into a sniping contest. They could sit well out of range of our soldiers' fire and, if they wanted to, raze the settlement. I knew that there was no longer any chance of reinforcements from 6th Regiment's B Company and so I suggested to Wing Commander Wilson Pedrozo that he talk to the British. He agreed reluctantly." Van Der Bijl, Victory in the Falklands, p. 114
References
  1. ^ Adkin, Mark (1992). Goose Green - A battle is Fought to be Won. Pen & Sword Books Ltd. p. 272. ISBN 0-85052-207-2. 
  2. ^ El precio de la sangre derramada ha sido alto, 47 muertos y 145 heridos del lado argentino. La Guerra de las Malvinas, Carlos Augusto Landaburu, p. 170, Círculo Militar, 1989
  3. ^ Las bajas argentinas fueron de 47 muertos y 145 heridos. Historia Marítima Argentina, Tomo 10, Cuántica Editora, 1993
  4. ^ Suplemento de Historia Argentina (Spanish)
  5. ^ a b Memories of the Falklands. Iain Dale. p. 73. Politico's, 2002
  6. ^ Fitz-Gibbon (2002) pp. 5
  7. ^ a b Thompson, Julian (2008). No Picnic: 3 Commando Brigade in the Falklands. Pen and Sword Military. p. 200. ISBN 978-1844158799. 
  8. ^ The Battle for the Falklands by Max Hastings, Simon Jenkins, pp. 264–265 (W W Norton, 1983)
  9. ^ a b Van der Bijl (1999) pp. 116
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Blood and Mud at Goose Green. David Aldea & Don Darnell., EBSCO Host Connection.
  11. ^ Battle order at Goose Green
  12. ^ Andrada, pp. 86–90
  13. ^ Van der Bijl (1999) pp. 126
  14. ^ Middlebrook, p. 253
  15. ^ Rodríguez Mottino, Héctor (1984). La Artillería Argentina en Malvinas. Ed. Clío, pp. 193–194. ISBN 950-9377-02-3. (Spanish)
  16. ^ http://www.britains-smallwars.com/Falklands/brit-aircraftlosses.htm
  17. ^ http://www.palacebarracksmemorialgarden.co.uk/archive/R.A.F.%20Royal%20Navy.htm
  18. ^ Pook, Jerry (2007). RAF Harrier Ground Attack-Falklands. Pen & Sword Books ltd., p. 109. ISBN 978-1-84415-551-4 (English)
  19. ^ Jackson, Robert (1985). The RAF in action: from Flanders to the Falklands. Blandford Press, p. 156. ISBN 0713714190
  20. ^ Van der Bijl, Nicholas (1999). Nine battles to Stanley. Leo Cooper, p. 127. ISBN 0850526191
  21. ^ At home on new battle front. An ex-British soldier is putting Pasco High on the state soccer map. By Izzy Gould. Tampa Bay Times. Published 9 February 2007
  22. ^ El soldado que mató al jefe inglés - Oscar ledesma
  23. ^ La muerte de un coronel británico en Malvinas. Clarín. 18 June 1996
  24. ^ a b c Sama82.org
  25. ^ Lost in the fog of war. Robert Fox takes issue with Hugh Bicheno's history of the Falklands conflict, Razor's Edge. By Robert Fox. The Guardian Published Saturday 1 April 2006
  26. ^ Fitzgibbon, pp. 147–148.
  27. ^ Reynolds, David (2002). Task force: the illustrated history of the Falklands War. Sutton, p. 150. ISBN 0-7509-2845-X
  28. ^ The fight for the "Malvinas": The Argentine forces in the Falklands War. Martin Middlebrook. p. 189. Penguin, 1990
  29. ^ The History of the South Atlantic conflict: The War for the Malvinas. Rubén Oscar Moro. p. 264. Praeger, 1989
  30. ^ "Goose Green: The Argentinian Story" by David Aldea. British Small Wars website
  31. ^ Argentine Forces in the Falklands. Nick Bijl. p. 18. Osprey Publishing, 19/06/2012
  32. ^ Fitz-Gibbon, Spencer (2002). Not Mentioned in Despatches: the History and Mythology of the Battle of Goose Green (2nd ed.). Cambridge: The Lutterworth Press. p. 8. ISBN 9780718830168. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g van der Bijl p241
  34. ^ Middlebrook, Martin (2009). Argentine Fight for the Falklands. Barnsley: Pen and Sword Military. p. 186. ISBN 9781844158881. 
  35. ^ "Goose Green - The first major land victory". Royal Air Force. RAF. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  36. ^ The Falklands War, Paul Eddy, Magnus Linklater, p. 238, André Deutsch, 1982
  37. ^ Argentina's Falklands War Veterans. 'Cannon Fodder in a War We Couldn't Win'. By Jens Glüsing, Spiegel.de, 4 March 2007
  38. ^ Confirman el juzgamiento por torturas en Malvinas (Spanish), Clarín, Buenos Aires, 27 June 2009
  39. ^ Centro de Ex Soldados Combatientes en Malvinas de Corrientes (Spanish)
  40. ^ Categorized | Feature, Human Rights The Enemy Within: Investigating Torture In The Malvinas. By Marc Rogers.
Sources
  • Andrada, Benigno (1983). Guerra aérea en las Malvinas. Ed. Emecé. ISBN 950-04-0191-6. (Spanish)
  • Harclerode, Peter (1 May 1993). Para!: Fifty Years of the Parachute Regiment (Reprint edition ed.). Arms and Armour. ISBN 1-85409-097-6. 
  • Fitz-Gibbon, Spencer (1995). Not Mentioned in Dispatches: The History and Mythology of the Battle of Goose Green. Lutterworth Press. ISBN 0-7188-2933-6. 
  • Kenney Oak, David J. 2 Para's Battle for Darwin Hill and Goose Green. Square Press April 2006. ISBN 0-9660717-1-9.
  • Falklands War Binderbook – Author Information Pending
  • Martin Middlebrook (1989). The Fight For The Malvinas: The Argentine Forces In The Falklands War. Viking. ISBN 0-14-010767-3. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 51°49′43.8″S 58°58′9″W / 51.828833°S 58.96917°W / -51.828833; -58.96917