Battle of Grudziądz (1659)

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Battle of Grudziądz
Part of the Second Northern War and The Deluge
Date August 29–30, 1659
Location Grudziądz, Poland
Result Polish victory
Belligerents
Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden Herb Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodow.svg Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Commanders and leaders
Johann Puchert Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski
Krzysztof Grodzicki
Strength
500 soldiers
500 armed townspeople
30 cannons and 2-3 mortars[1]
12,600 men
30-40 cannons[1]
Casualties and losses
200 killed
300-400 captured[1]
50[1]-200[2]
Equestrian portrait of Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski

The 1659 Battle of Grudziądz took place in the Polish town of Grudziądz (German: Graudenz) during the Swedish Deluge (Polish: Potop szwedzki),[3] around 29–30 August 1659.[4] Polish forces were commanded either by hetman Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski or general Krzysztof Grodzicki (sources vary). The battle ended with the Polish victory, after a week-long siege; however much of the city was destroyed in a fire.

Background[edit]

Swedes had taken Grudziądz on December 13, 1655,[5] after their failed attempt at conquering Denmark followed by the subsequent march along the Baltic coast.[6] The Swedish troops of King Charles X,[2] went on to build additional fortifications in the town, which were later inspected by the king himself, on his tour of the south coast of the Baltic sea.[7] Polish hetman Stefan Czarniecki – Field Hetman of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom – arrived in Pomorze at the beginning of 1657 with an armed force of about 6,000 cavalrymen ready for the defence of the region, which was part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled by the Polish King John II Casimir (1648–1668). The battle was fought by the entrenched Swedish units in the town and the surrounding Polish army.[6]

Battle[edit]

Along with Stefan Czarniecki arrived the Polish Prince Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski – Field Crown Hetman since 1658, who approached Grudziądz fortress in mid-August.[6] (While some sources name Lubomirski the commander,[2][6][8] others name general Krzysztof Grodzicki).[9][10][11][12] Poles gave the Swedes an opportunity to surrender, but expecting to be relieved, they refused.[13] After a week-long siege the Poles defeated the Swedes on 29–30 August 1659.[6] Much of the city was destroyed in a fire.[7]

The campaign was won also thanks to the devotion of local government (Starostwo) and Marie Louise Gonzaga who raised the sum of 1,415 Polish zloty to pay for the maintenance of the army.[6]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Marcin Gawęda, Od Beresteczka do Cudnowa. Działalność wojskowa Jerzego Sebastiana Lubomirskiego w latach 1651–1660, Infort Editions, Zabrze - Tarnowskie Góry 2014, p 270-276, ISBN 978-83-64023-29-3
  2. ^ a b c Emil Kierski (1842). Starozytności polskie: Ku wygodzie czytelnika porządkiem abecadłowym zebrane. Nakładem księgarni J.K. Zupańskiego. p. 343. Retrieved 27 June 2012. 
  3. ^ Frost, Robert I (2004). After the Deluge. Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655–1660. Cambridge Studies in Early Modern History. Cambridge University Press; p. 3. ISBN 0-521-54402-5.
  4. ^ Tomasz Gąsowski; Jerzy Ronikier; Zdzisław Zblewski (1999). Bitwy polskie: leksykon. Wydawn. Znak. p. 151. ISBN 978-83-7006-787-8. Retrieved 27 June 2012. 
  5. ^ "Szwedzi zdobywają miasto". Urząd Miasta Grudziądza (the Official Portal of the City). Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Zamek w Świeciu podczas potopu szwedzkiego". Dzieje zamku wodnego. Ośrodek kulturalny w Świeciu. Retrieved June 27, 2012. 
  7. ^ a b "Grudziądz – historia". Svdgg.republika.pl. Retrieved 2012-06-27. 
  8. ^ Władysław Konopczyński (1986). Dzieje Polski nowożytnej. Instytut Wydawniczy Pax. p. 29. ISBN 978-83-211-0730-1. Retrieved 28 June 2012. 
  9. ^ Jan Wimmer (1973). Wojna polsko-szwedzka, 1655–1660. Wydawn. Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej. p. 108. Retrieved 28 June 2012. 
  10. ^ Jędrzej Moraczewski (1842). Starożytności polskie: Ku wygodzie czytelnika porządkiem abecadłowym zebrane. Nakł. Księg. J.K. Żupańskiego. p. 42. Retrieved 28 June 2012. 
  11. ^ Janina Chodera; Feliks Kiryk (2005). Słownik biograficzny historii Polski: A-K. Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. p. 488. ISBN 978-83-04-04856-0. Retrieved 28 June 2012. 
  12. ^ Paweł Jasienica (1986). Rzeczpospolita obojga narodów: Calamitatis regnum. Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy. p. 187. Retrieved 28 June 2012. 
  13. ^ Karol Milewski (1848). Pamiątki historyczne krajowe. Nakład i druk S. Orgelbranda. p. 143. Retrieved 28 June 2012.